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  • 1.
    Asplund, Maria E.
    et al.
    Department of Marine Ecology, University of Gothenburg.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Atnur, Vijay
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, College of Fisheries, Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Bidar, Karnataka, India.
    Raghunath, Pendru
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, College of Fisheries, Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Bidar, Karnataka, India.
    Saravanan, Vasudevan
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, College of Fisheries, Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Bidar, Karnataka, India.
    Härnstrom, Karolina
    Department of Marine Ecology, University of Gothenburg.
    Collin, Betty
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Karunasagar, Indrani
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, College of Fisheries, Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Bidar, Karnataka, India.
    Godhe, Anna
    Department of Marine Ecology, University of Gothenburg.
    Water column dynamics of Vibrio in relation to phytoplankton community composition and environmental conditions in a tropical coastal area2011In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 13, no 10, p. 2738-2751Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vibrio abundance generally displays seasonal patterns. In temperate coastal areas, temperature and salinity influence Vibrio growth, whereas in tropical areas this pattern is not obvious. The present study assessed the dynamics of Vibrio in the Arabian Sea, 1-2 km off Mangalore on the south-west coast of India, during temporally separated periods. The two sampling periods were signified by oligotrophic conditions, and stable temperatures and salinity. Vibrio abundance was estimated by culture-independent techniques in relation to phytoplankton community composition and environmental variables. The results showed that the Vibrio density during December 2007 was 10- to 100-fold higher compared with the February-March 2008 period. High Vibrio abundance in December coincided with a diatom-dominated phytoplankton assemblage. A partial least squares (PLS) regression model indicated that diatom biomass was the primary predictor variable. Low nutrient levels suggested high water column turnover rate, which bacteria compensated for by using organic molecules leaking from phytoplankton. The abundance of potential Vibrio predators was low during both sampling periods; therefore it is suggested that resource supply from primary producers is more important than top-down control by predators.

  • 2.
    Axelsson, Carolina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Nilsson, B
    Lund University.
    Optimization of several parameters in order to reduce time in antibiotic susceptibility testing in a clinical laboratory2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background - When sepsis or bacteraemia is suspected, patient blood samples are cultivated in blood culture bottles and then further incubated for identification of the organism and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. These methods are slow, identifying causative pathogens in a couple of hours, and antibiotic susceptibility results within 18-36 hours.

    Here we present optimization of several parameters in order to evaluate if the MBT ASTRA™ method can be a rapid tool, used for routine antibiotics susceptibility testing, in a clinical laboratory.

    Methods – MALDI-TOF MS measurements were performed with a Microflex LT/SH bench-top mass spectrometer (Bruker) with standard settings. The resulting spectra were uploaded in the MBT-ASTRA™ software, which normalizes the peaks and determines the AUC and RG values for each setup.

    Results - The bacterial preparation steps generated a new protocol, which reduced time with 30-60 minutes.

    The antibiotics susceptibility test was optimized for 90 minutes incubation time. 200 µl McFarland 0.5 bacterial suspension in broth were incubated in broth at 37°C, with and without 32 µg/ml Cefotaxime, 16 µg/ml Meropenem and 4 µg/ml Ciprofloxacin.

    The suspensions were transferred to 0.45 µm pore size filter membraned 96 well plate. They were centrifuged; washed; fixated and eluted; put on a MALDI-target, and covered by matrix solution. All could be automated with robot, which reduced time with 60 minutes.

    Conclusion – Rapid susceptibility testing becomes more requested with the increase of resistance bacteria causing infections. Our study can be a valuable tool for clinical laboratories striving for reduction in time handling of antibiotic susceptibility testing.

  • 3.
    Collin, Betty
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    The importance of marine sediments as a reservoir for human pathogenic Vibrio cholerae in cold water conditionsArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Collin, Betty
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Occurrence and potential pathogenesis of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus on the South Coast of Sweden2011In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 306-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the summer of 2006, several wound infections - of which three were fatal caused by Vibrio cholerae were reported from patients who had been exposed to water from the Baltic Sea. Before these reports, we initiated a sampling project investigating the occurrence of potential human pathogenic V. cholerae, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in The Sound between Sweden and Denmark. The Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) was used as an indicator to follow the occurrence of vibrios over time. Molecular analyses showed high frequencies of the most potent human pathogenic Vibrio spp.; 53% of mussel samples were positive for V. cholerae (although none were positive for the cholera toxin gene), 63% for V. vulnificus and 79% for V. parahaemolyticus (of which 47% were tdh(+) and/or trh(+)). Viable vibrios were also isolated from the mussel meat and screened for virulence by PCR. The mortality of eukaryotic cells when exposed to bacteria was tested in vivo, with results showing that the Vibrio strains, independent of species and origin, were harmful to the cells. Despite severe infections and several deaths, no report on potential human pathogenic vibrios in this area had been published before this study.

  • 5.
    Collin, Betty
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Ehn Börjesson, Stina-Mina
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Mussagy, Aidate
    Department of Biological Sciences, Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Characteristics of potentially pathogenic vibrios from subtropical Mozambique compared with isolates from tropical India and boreal Sweden2013In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 255-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reported outbreaks of Vibrio parahaemolyticus have increased worldwide, particularly in regions of high seafood consumption. In Mozambique, seafood constitutes an important food resource and diarrheal diseases are common among its inhabitants. Edible clams were collected in Maputo Bay during both the dry and rainy seasons, with the results showing the number of viable counts of vibrios in clams to peak during the latter. Vibrio parahaemolyticus was the predominant species identified among the isolated strains. Although only one of 109 total strains carried the tdh virulence gene, 69% of isolates showed evidence of hemolytic capacity when subjected to a functional test. Similar virulence patterns and biochemical properties were found in strains isolated from Indian and Swedish marine waters. Antibiotic resistance was, however, more pronounced in strains isolated from these latter two environments.

  • 6.
    Collin, Betty
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    he Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Kristineberg, Fiskebäckskil.
    Faecal contaminants in edible bivalves from Maputo Bay, Mozambique: seasonal distribution, pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance2008In: Open Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1874-2882, Vol. 2, p. 86-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Maputo, Mozambique marine bivalves considerably contribute to the diet of the population. This study aimed to investigate seasonal distribution of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in clams from Maputo Bay, and examine their pathogenesis and antibiotic-resistant patterns. Standard multiple tube method revealed that the concentration of coliforms in all samples exceeded the limit for direct consumption, according to EU standards. Thirty-eight percent of the samples contained >60,000 MPN per 100 gram flesh. The occurrence of E. coli did not differ significantly due to season, while Salmonella was present in 100% of the samples during the rainy period and only in 30% during the dry. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction showed that 45% of E. coli isolates were positive for the virulent indicator gene fimA. The Salmonella isolates were identified as S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Among other isolated coliformic Enterobacteriaceae, Shigella sp. (specie), which in low doses can cause severe gastrointestinal infections, was identified. Antimicrobial susceptibility, recorded by the disk diffusion method, showed resistance to the most commonly used antibiotics. This high levels of faecal contaminants in the clams points out the need for risk assessment and sanitary improvements.

  • 7.
    Collin, Betty
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Lindmark, Barbro
    Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå University.
    Pal, Amit
    National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata, India.
    Wai, Sun N.
    Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå University.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    The origin of Vibrio cholerae influences uptake and persistence in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis2012In: Journal of Shellfish Research, ISSN 0730-8000, E-ISSN 1943-6319, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 87-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vibrio cholerae may cause diarrheal diseases and wound infections, both of which have the potential to be fatal. Transmission to humans is often linked to consumption of contaminated shellfish/drinking water or dermal exposure to water (e.g. when swimming). In this study, we investigated whether different isolates of Vibrio cholerae differ in terms of accumulation, persistence, and viability when encountering blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). Mussel uptake and elimination of three different V. cholerae strains were compared: one fatal clinical non-O1/O139 isolate, one highly potent El Tor biotype, and one marine strain isolated from blue mussels. The results showed that the uptake of the marine strain was significantly higher than the clinical strain, but the elimination process of the marine strain was also more efficient. The El Tor strain was not at all ingested by the mussels. In addition, the survival of bacteria when incubated together with M. edulis hemocytes was tested in vitro. The viability of clinical strains was unaffected by the presence of hemocytes, and the marine strains were even more resistant and able to multiply. We conclude that the highly virulent El Tor biotype was not taken up by the mussels and could thereby escape the mussels' elimination process. The potentially fatal non-O1/O139 V. cholerae strain may accumulate in low numbers, but could be very persistent in mussels.

  • 8.
    Edfors, Ellinor
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II.
    Freij, Maria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Ljung-Djärf, Agneta
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Pedagogik.
    Umans, Timurs
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Ekonomi. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för forskning om verksamhetsförlagd utbildning och professionslärande.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Pedagogisk karriärstege vid Högskolan Kristianstad – några reflektioner från beredningsgruppens arbete2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Ehn Börjesson, Stina-Mina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Kühn, Inger
    Department of Microbiology, Tumour and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institute.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences, Kalmar University.
    Olsen, Björn
    Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Enterococcus spp in wastewater and in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) exposed to wastewater wetland2013In: International Journal of Environmental Protection, ISSN 2226-6437, Vol. 3, no 10, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, twelve Mallards living in an artificial wastewater wetland were exposed to treated wastewater containing 1 x 103- 4 x 103 enterococci 100 ml-1 for a period of 55 days. Faecal samples were collected before, during and after exposure and analysed for Enterococcus spp. The isolates were phenotyped using the PhenePlateTM system. 270 Enterococcus spp. of Mallard origin were analysed, together with 116 Enterococcus spp. isolates from treated wastewater and from incoming raw wastewater. In general, the Mallard and wastewater enterococci isolates belonged to different phenotypes, although several sharing identical phenotypic profiles were found. One E. faecalis phenotype was found in Mallards before, during and after exposure to treated wastewater, as well as in raw and treated wastewater. Our results indicate that there is a common source of enterococci for Mallards and humans. We propose an increased focus on emissions of human bacteria and on systems that mediate their transfer to wild animals.

  • 10. Godhe, A.
    et al.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Musselgifternas förekomst regleras av oceanografiska förhållanden2002In: Havsmiljön: aktuell rapport om miljötillståndet i Kattegat, Skagerrak och Öresund. Juni 2002, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitets marina forskningscentrum , 2002Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Godhe, Anna
    et al.
    Marine Botany, Department of Marine Ecology, Göteborg University.
    Anderson, Donald M.
    Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole.
    PCR amplification of microalgal DNA for sequencing and species identification: studies on fixatives and algal growth stages2002In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 375-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cultured strains and individually isolated dinoflagellate cells from field samples were preserved in different fixatives to find a method of cell preservation that could provide DNA template in PCR reactions and preserve cell morphology for microscopic studies. Lugol’s solution and various ethanol concentrations all showed shortcomings, whereas an initial formalin preservation step followed by storage in 100% methanol fulfilled both demands. Cells could be stored up to 1 year and still provide functional DNA template for positive PCR reactions. The amplified fragment was approximately 700 bp of the D1/D2 region of the LSU rDNA, which is to our knowledge significantly longer than the low-molecular-weight DNA typically reported from formalin preserved samples. By cloning and sequencing the PCR product and subsequently aligning the sequences with previously sequenced fragments of the same or similar species, we confirmed that no base pair alteration had taken place during the time that the cells were fixed and frozen. In another experiment it was demonstrated that the growth phase of cultured Alexandrium minutum did not have any influence on the result of PCR reactions. This was true for extracted DNA from cultures and for direct PCR with a small number of disrupted cells. Phenol/chlorophorm/isoamylalcohol extraction proved to be an unpredictable method for DNA extraction, whereas direct PCR on isolated cells was more reliable. Extracted DNA purified with a commercial DNA cleaning kit always rendered a positive PCR. The environmental condition for cells to be used as DNA template in PCR is discussed.

  • 12.
    Godhe, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Marine Ecology, Marine Botany, Göteborg University.
    McQuoid, Melissa R.
    Department of Marine Ecology, Marine Botany, Göteborg University.
    Karunasagar, Indrana
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, College of Fisheries, University of Agricultural Sciences, Mangalore.
    Karunasagar, Iddya
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, College of Fisheries, University of Agricultural Sciences, Mangalore.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Comparison of three common molecular tools for distinguishing among geographically separated clones of the diatom Skeletonema marinoi Sarno et Zingone (bacillariophyceae)2006In: Journal of Phycology, ISSN 0022-3646, E-ISSN 1529-8817, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 280-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Skeletonema marinoi Sarno et Zingone is a planktonic marine diatom with a widespread geographic distribution. Different populations of this species may show distinct genetic signatures. We have evaluated the utility of three common molecular methods for distinguishing clones of S. marinoi from different geographic regions. Clonal cultures were isolated from the Canadian west coast, south west Portugal, and the east and west coasts of Sweden. All strains originated from resting stages in sediment. More than 90% of the individually isolated chains grew to densities suitable for DNA extraction. Genetic signatures of clones from each sample location were assessed by sequencing variable domains (D1-D3) of the nuclear large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and internal transcriber spacer (ITS) (ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2) regions, and also by analysis of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA patterns. Analysis of molecular variance showed that strains from the four geographic areas were significantly separated by all three methods but that differences among European samples were best resolved by ITS 2 sequences.

  • 13.
    Godhe, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, College of Fisheries, University of Agricultural Sciences, Mangalore, India.
    Otta, S. K.
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, College of Fisheries, University of Agricultural Sciences, Mangalore, India.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Clinical Bacteriology, Göteborg University.
    Karunasagar, Indrani
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, College of Fisheries, University of Agricultural Sciences, Mangalore, India.
    Karunasagar, Iddya
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, College of Fisheries, University of Agricultural Sciences, Mangalore, India.
    Polymerase chain reaction in detection of Gymnodinium mikimotoi and Alexandrium minutum in field samples from Southwest India2001In: Marine Biotechnology, ISSN 1436-2228, E-ISSN 1436-2236, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 152-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were constructed for the detection of two toxic dinoflagellate species, Gymnodinium mikimotoi and Alexandrium minutum. The primers amplified a product of expected size from cultured cells of G. mikimotoi and A. minutum. The species-specific primers targeting G. mikimotoi did not yield any product with a wide range of other cultured algae used as negative controls. Primers designed for A. minutum were species-group-specific since it PCR yielded a product from the closely related species A. ostenfeldii and A. andersonii, but not from other species of this genus tested. The confirmation of PCR products was performed by digestion of the products with restriction enzymes. Sensitivity analyses of the primers on DNA template from cultured cells was positive by PCR at a DNA template concentration of 1.5 x 10(-4) ng/microl (0.3 cells/L) for A. minutum, and at a DNA concentration of 2.5 x 10(-2) ng/microl (697 cells/L) for G. mikimotoi. The PCR method for detection of G. mikimotoi and A. minutum was applied on field samples collected with a plankton net. Gymnodinium mikimotoi could be detected in 11 field samples by microscopy, and all these field samples were positive by PCR. The cell counts of G. mikimotoi in simultaneously collected water samples ranged from 306 to 2077/L. Alexandrium minutum could be detected by microscopy in 3 different field samples. The cell counts in water samples collected at the same time as the net samples ranged from 115 to 1115 cells/L. Alexandrium minutum was detected by PCR in these field samples, with the exception of the sample displaying the lowest cell count (115 cells/L). Plankton samples that were negative by microscopy for any of the two target species were also negative by PCR. All the PCR products from field samples were confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion. The application of PCR-based detection of harmful algal bloom species for aquaculture and monitoring purposes in natural field samples is discussed.

  • 14.
    Godhe, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, College of Fisheries, University of Agricultural Sciences, Mangalore.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Karunasagar, Indrani
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, College of Fisheries, University of Agricultural Sciences, Mangalore.
    Karunasagar, Iddya
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, College of Fisheries, University of Agricultural Sciences, Mangalore.
    PCR detection of dinoflagellate cysts in field sediment samples from tropic and temperate environments2002In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 361-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Species-specific primers were constructed for Scrippsiella trochoidea, Protoceratium reticulatum and Lingulodinium polyedrum, which all are common cosmopolitan cyst forming dinoflagellates. The designed primers amplified a product of expected size from cultured planktonic cells of the three species, and did not yield any product with a wide range of other algal species used as negative controls. The PCR method for detection and identification of dinoflagellate cysts from the three species was applied on field samples. Undisturbed surface sediment was collected along the southwest coast of India and the west coast of Sweden. DNA extract from sediment including DNA from dinoflagellate cysts could be obtained after repeated grinding with mortar and pestle under liquid nitrogen followed by microwave boiling. All sediment samples that contained any of the target species as confirmed by microscopy, were also positive for PCR. Field samples negative for any of the target species by microscopy, were also negative by PCR. Restriction enzyme digestion and/or DNA sequencing confirmed the specificity of all the PCR products from field samples. The yield of DNA from sediment extraction was low, and therefore nested PCR was necessary for accurate species-specific detection of the three species in most of the field samples.

  • 15.
    Godhe, Anna
    et al.
    Marine Botany, Department of Marine Ecology, Göteborg University.
    Svensson, Susanne
    Department of Zoophysiology, Göteborg University.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Clinical Bacteriology, Göteborg University.
    Oceanographic settings explain fluctuations in Dinophysis spp. and concentrations of diarrhetic shellfish toxin in the plankton community within a mussel farm area on the Swedish west coast2002In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 240, p. 71-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of hydrographic, biological and meteorological variables on the abundance of Dinophysis spp. and the concentration of diarrhetic shellfish toxin (DST) in the plankton population were investigated in a mussel (Mytilus edulis) farm area on the Swedish west coast. This location provided an opportunity to simultaneously compare Dinophysis spp. cell numbers, concentration of DST in natural phytoplankton assemblages and toxicity of mussel tissues. Sampling was performed every other day from October 10 to November 5, 2000, and on each occasion, 5 randomly selected sites were sampled. During this period, 3 distinct water masses passed through the vicinity of the mussel farm. The second water mass, characterized by low salinity and nitrogen concentration, was probably advected into the area from surface waters in the nearby Skagerrak. This low salinity water also contained a high abundance of Dinophysis spp., and high concentrations of DST were recorded in the phytoplankton population. Multivariate analysis (projection to latent structures by means of partial least squares, PLS) determined that the principal variables influencing the concentration of DST in the plankton assemblage were the causative species (D. acuminata, D. acuta and D. norvegica) and salinity. The abundance of the 3 Dinophysis spp. was inversely correlated to salinity. A rapid increase in the toxicity of mussels in response to the high levels of DST was observed. The concentration of DST had doubled within 2 d of the appearance of Dinophysis spp. After 8 d, the water mass containing Dinophysis spp. was replaced and cell numbers again returned to low levels. The concentration of DST in the phytoplankton samples remained high for another 2 d after the number of Dinophysis spp. had declined and the toxicity of mussels continued to be high for the remainder of the study. Causes of the rapid intoxication versus slow detoxification of mussels are discussed. These results suggest that present monitoring programs are insufficient to provide early warning of toxic blooms to aquaculturists on the Swedish west coast.

  • 16. Haamer, Joel
    et al.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Hernroth, B.
    Norén, F.
    Edebo, I.
    Strategisk musselodling för att skapa kretslopp och balans i ekosystemet: kunskapsöversikt och förslag till åtgärder1999Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Hernroth, Bodil E.
    et al.
    Kristineberg Marine Research Station, Fiskebäckskil.
    Conden-Hansson, Ann-Christine
    Department of Virology, Umeå University.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Department of Clinical Bacteriology, Göteborg University.
    Girones, Rosina
    Department of Microbiology, University of Barcelona.
    Allard, Annika K.
    Department of Virology, Umeå University.
    Environmental factors influencing human viral pathogens and their potential indicator organisms in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis: the first Scandinavian report2002In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 68, no 9, p. 4523-4533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was carried out in order to investigate human enteric virus contaminants in mussels from three sites on the west coast of Sweden, representing a gradient of anthropogenic influence. Mussels were sampled monthly during the period from February 2000 to July 2001 and analyzed for adeno-, entero-, Norwalk-like, and hepatitis A viruses as well as the potential viral indicator organisms somatic coliphages, F-specific RNA bacteriophages, bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides fragilis, and Escherichia coli. The influence of environmental factors such as water temperature, salinity, and land runoff on the occurrence of these microbes was also included in this study. Enteric viruses were found in 50 to 60% of the mussel samples, and there were no pronounced differences between the samples from the three sites. E. coli counts exceeded the limit for category A for shellfish sanitary safety in 40% of the samples from the sites situated in fjords. However, at the site in the outer archipelago, this limit was exceeded only once, in March 2001, when extremely high levels of atypical indole-negative strains of E. coli were registered at all three sites. The environmental factors influenced the occurrence of viruses and phages differently, and therefore, it was hard to find a coexistence between them. This study shows that, for risk assessment, separate modeling should be done for every specific area, with special emphasis on environmental factors such as temperature and land runoff. The present standard for human fecal contamination, E. coli, seems to be an acceptable indicator of only local sanitary contamination; it is not a reliable indicator of viral contaminants in mussels. To protect consumers and get verification of "clean" mussels, it seems necessary to analyze for viruses as well. The use of a molecular index of the human contamination of Swedish shellfish underscores the need for reference laboratories with high-technology facilities.

  • 18.
    Holm, Ingvar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Samverkansinlärning: en modell för att öka genomströmningen i svåra kurser2017In: Högskolepedagogisk debatt, ISSN 2000-9216, no 1, p. 56-70Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Härnström, Karolina
    et al.
    Department of Marine Ecology, Marine Botany, Göteborg University.
    Godhe, Anna
    Department of Marine Ecology, Marine Botany, Göteborg University.
    Saravanan, V.
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, College of Fisheries, Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Mangalore.
    Karunasagar, I.
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, College of Fisheries, Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Mangalore.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Tropical phytoplankton community development in mesocosms inoculated with different life stages2007In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 346, p. 75-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many diatom species have the ability to form benthic resting stages, but the importance of these stages as a supply for planktonic blooms is uncertain. A mesocosm study was carried out in December 2005 to January 2006 in Mangalore, India. Mesocosms were inoculated with various combinations of benthic and/or planktonic cells, sampled from the coastal SE Arabian Sea, and the development of the planktonic community was followed. Diatoms dominated the phytoplankton community in all mesocosms, irrespective of inoculum. The most significant differences among inoculum types were altered species composition, and the timings of the maximum cell abundances, which lagged behind in the sediment mesocosms. Populations of Thalassiosira were initiated by both plankton and benthic propagules. Taxa known from temperate coastal areas to seed bloom by benthic propagules, such as Chaetoceros and Skeletonema, were predominantly seeded by planktonic cells in this experiment; this implies differential seeding strategy within the same species at different latitudes. The species assemblage encountered in the plankton and sediment was similar, which indicates that the benthic resting stages seed an autochthonous phytoplankton flora in the area. High species diversity in all inoculated mesocosms was maintained throughout the experimental period, although the actual number of species was fewer at the end. The hydrographic conditions and timing of formation, survival, and germination of diatom resting stages in SE Arabian Sea are discussed.

  • 20.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Thelaus, Magnus
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Dahlblom, Peter
    Hur kvalitetssäkrar vi framtida examensarbeten inom naturvetenskap och biomedicin?2013In: Högskolepedagogisk debatt, ISSN 2000-9216, no 1, p. 16-26Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Karlson, Bengt
    et al.
    SMHI.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Algal toxins (DSP/PSP Mussel Infection Events)2002In: Swedish national report on eutrophication status in the Kattegatt and the Skagerrak: OSPAR assessment 2002 / [ed] Bertil Håkansson, Norrköping: SMHI , 2002, p. 50-52Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) along the Swedish west coast have contained DSP-toxins above the limit for consumption during part of the year every year since the monitoring programme started in 1988. Some areas that previously have been believed to be toxin free have experienced toxic events the last few years. PSP-toxins occur only rarely and usually below the limit for ban of consumption. However, e.g. in 2002, concentrations were higher than the limit for a short period in one fjord.

  • 22.
    Karlson, Bengt
    et al.
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Oceanographic Services, Västra Frölunda.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Loo, Lars-Ove
    Department of Marine Ecology, Göteborg University.
    Temporal and spatial distribution of diarrhetic shellfish toxins in blue mussels, Mytilus edulis (L.), on the Swedish west coast, NE Atlantic, 1988-20052007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main goal of this report is to compile and present available data on algal toxins in blue mussels from the west coast of Sweden. The hazards associated with the consumption of mussels are mostly dependent on the occurrence and composition of toxic algae in the areas where shellfish are grown. Diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DST), i.e. okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) have occurred regularly in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) at the Swedish west coast (i.e. Skagerrak) during the past years. A maximum residue limit of 160 μg.kg-1 mussel meat has been set by National Food Administration. The toxic incidences in the region has been linked to the occurrence of Dinophysis acuminata and D. acuta. In general there is seasonal variation of DST in mussels with low concentrations from March to August (<160 μg.kg-1 mussel meat) and high from October to December (>160 μg.kg-1 mussel meat). Peaks above the maximum residue limit have in some years also occurred in late June to late July. Rapid intoxication vs. slow detoxification of mussels is a common phenomenon, especially in autumn-winter. Temporal and regional differences are large. There is also a considerable variation in toxin levels between years. In 1994 almost 5000 μg DST.kg-1 mussel meat was detected. In 1997 mussel farmers experienced very low levels, i.e. only three samples above the restriction limit of DST. In autumn 1989 to spring 1990 and in early autumn 2000 to early 2001, high levels (about 200 to 2000 μg DTX.kg-1 mussel meat) were recorded during 26 weeks. The Koljö Fjord region had low levels of toxins until 1998, despite regular recordings of potentially DST producing algae in the area. Today mussels grown and harvested in this area have similar toxin levels to mussels from other fjords in the Skagerrak region. Measurements of other toxins than DST are few and are not included in the report.

  • 23.
    Kaur-Kahlon, G.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Kumar, S.
    Indien.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Rai, A.
    Indien.
    Bhavya, P. S.
    Indien.
    Edler, L.
    WEAQ Lab, Ängelholm.
    Singh, A.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Andersson, B.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Karunasagar, I.
    Indien.
    Ramesh, R.
    Indien.
    Godhe, A.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Response of a coastal tropical pelagic microbial community to changed salinity and temperature2016In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 77, no 1, p. 37-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on the responses of tropical microbial communities to changing hydrographic conditions are presently poorly represented. We present here the results from a mesocosm experiment conducted in southwest (SW) coastal India to investigate how changes in temperature and salinity may affect a coastal tropic microbial community. The onset of algal and bacterial blooms, the maximum production and biomass, and the interrelation between phytoplankton and bacteria were studied in replicated mesocosms. The treatments were set up featuring ambient conditions (28 °C, 35 PSU), hyposalinity (31 PSU), warming (31 °C) and a double manipulated treatment with warming and hyposalinity (31 °C, 31 PSU). The hyposaline treatment had the most considerable influence manifested as significantly lower primary production, and the most dissimilar microphytoplankton species community. The increased temperature acted as a catalyst in the double manipulated treatment and higher primary production was maintained. We investigated the dynamics of the microbial community with a structural equation model approach, and found a significant interrelation between phytoplankton biomass and bacterial abundance. Using this methodology, it became evident that temperature and salinity changes, individually and together, mediate direct and indirect effects that influence different compartments of the microbial loop. In the face of climate change, we suggest that in relatively nutrient replete tropical coastal zones, salinity and temperature changes will affect nutrient assimilation with subsequent significant effects on the quantity of microbial biomass and production.

  • 24.
    Lindahl, Odd
    et al.
    Kristineberg Marine Research Station.
    Hart, Rob
    SLU, Uppsala.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    Kristineberg Marine Research Station.
    Kollberg, Sven
    Kristineberg Marine Research Station.
    Loo, Lars-Ove
    Göteborg University, Tjärnö Marine Biological Laboratory.
    Olrog, Lars
    Naturbruksgymnasiet i Dingle.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Svensson, Jonny
    Thalassos Computations, Lindome.
    Svensson, Susanne
    Tjärnö Marine Biological Laboratory.
    Syversen, Ulf
    Østfold Sustainable Development.
    Improving marine water quality by mussel farming: a profitable solution for Swedish society2005In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 131-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eutrophication of coastal waters is a serious environmental problem with high costs for society globally. In eastern Skagerrak, reductions in eutrophication are planned through reduction of nitrogen inputs, but it is unclear how this can be achieved. One possible method is the cultivation of filter-feeding organisms, such as blue mussels, which remove nitrogen while generating seafood, fodder and agricultural fertilizer, thus recycling nutrients from sea to land. The expected effect of mussel farming on nitrogen cycling was modeled for the Gullmar Fjord on the Swedish west coast and it is shown that the net transport of nitrogen (sum of dissolved and particulate) at the fjord mouth was reduced by 20%. Existing commercial mussel farms already perform this service for free, but the benefits to society could be far greater. We suggest that rather than paying mussel farmers for their work that nutrient trading systems are introduced to improve coastal waters. In this context an alternative to nitrogen reduction in the sewage treatment plant in Lysekil community through mussel farming is presented. Accumulation of bio-toxins has been identified as the largest impediment to further expansion of commercial mussel farming in Sweden, but the problem seems to be manageable through new techniques and management strategies. On the basis of existing and potential regulations and payments, possible win-win solutions are suggested.

  • 25.
    Norén, Fredrik
    et al.
    Dept. Botany, Göteborg University.
    Moestrup, Öjvind
    Dept. Phycology, University of Copenhagen.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Dept. Clinical Bacteriology, Göteborg University,.
    Larsen, Jacob
    Dept. Botany, Göteborg University.
    Worldwide occurrence and host specificity of Parvilucifera infectans: a parasitic flagellate capable of killing toxic dinoflagellates2001In: Harmful algal blooms: proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Harmful Algal Blooms / [ed] Ed. by G.M. Hallegraeff, S.I. Blackburn, C.J. Bolch & R.J. Lewis, Paris: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO , 2001, p. 481-483Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parvilucifera infectans Norén et Moestrup, 1999 has been shown to kil1 several species of toxic dino-flagellates. Based on our present knowledge we know 26 microalgal species which are susceptible to infection. A report is provided on the known geographical distribution of Parvilucifera which seems to be worldwide from Australia in south to Norway in north.

  • 26.
    Norén, Fredrik
    et al.
    Department of Marine Botany, Göteborg University.
    Moestrup, Øjvind
    Department of Phycology, University of Copenhagen.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Department of Clinical Bacteriology, Göteborg University.
    Parvilucifera infectans norén et moestrup gen. et sp. nov. (perkinsozoa phylum nov.): a parasitic flagellate capable of killing toxic microalgae1999In: European Journal of Protistology, ISSN 0932-4739, E-ISSN 1618-0429, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 233-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis, collected on the Swedish West Coast, was found to contain round bodies previously interpreted as the result of sexual reproduction. After two weeks of darkness in the refrigerator, all Dinophysis had died, however, and round bodies were present. These proved to be sporangia of a parasitic protist, here named Parvilucifera infectans gen. et sp. nov. Its identity was examined by LM, EM, and DNA sequencing. It is related to Perkinsus, an oyster-killing protist, and Colpodella, a phagocytic protist. Perkinsus has been indicated by 18S rRNA sequencing to be related to dinoflagellates, and the opportunity was taken to examine the ultrastructure of the flagellar apparatus of Parvilucifera in detail. Parvilucifera and its allies, known as perkinsids, share features with both dinoflagellates and apicomplexans. They do not fit readily into any of these groups but appear to form a missing link between them. They are described as a taxon on level with the other alvelolate phyla, as Perkinsozoa phylum nov. Infection studies showed that Parvilucifera infectans infects several other dinoflagellates, notably Alexandrium spp. which are responsible for PSP (paralytic shellfish poisoning). A discussion of the ecological role, in terms of biocontrol of harmful algal blooms, is included.

  • 27.
    Olofsson, Malin
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Asplund, Maria E.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Karunasagar, Indrani
    Indien.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Godhe, Anna
    University of Gothenburg.
    Prorocentrum micans promote and Skeletonema tropicum disfavours persistence of the pathogenic bacteria Vibrio parahaemolyticus2013In: Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences, ISSN 0379-5136, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 729-733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common pathogen causing food poisoning with lethal results. Composition of phytoplankton communities could be a possible source affecting survival, persistence and proliferation of V. parahaemolyticus in marine environments. In this experiment an environmental strain of V. parahaemolyticus, isolated from the southwest coast of India, was exposed to one dinoflagellate, Prorocentrum micans and one diatom, Skeletonema tropicum. Results show that P. micans facilitate and S. tropicum prevents persistence of V. parahaemolyticus.

  • 28.
    Rehnstam, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, University of Umeå.
    Bäckman, Stina
    Department of Microbiology, University of Umeå.
    Smith, David C.
    Scripps Institution of Oceanography 0202, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla.
    Azam, Farooq
    Scripps Institution of Oceanography 0202, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla.
    Hagström, Åke
    Department of Microbiology, University of Umeå.
    Blooms of sequence-specific culturable bacteria in the sea1993In: FEMS Microbiology Letters, ISSN 0378-1097, E-ISSN 1574-6968, Vol. 102, no 3-4, p. 161-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using specific deoxyoligonucleotide probes we have discovered seasonally strong (up to ∼ 100%) dominance of bacteria hybridizing to a single probe, in near shore waters off Scripps pier (32°53′N; 117°15′W). The probes were designed from partially sequenced 16S rRNA (V3 domain) of isolated marine bacteria. The results indicate that this approach may be used for studies of bacterial populations in the marine environment. We have shown that a number of genotypes that at times are dominant in the natural assemblages are culturable (and not, ‘viable-but-unculturable’). Additionally, our data suggests that the discrepancy between viable counts and direct counts in sea water samples can be explained by low plating efficiency.

  • 29.
    Rehnstam, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Universitv of Umeå.
    Norqvist, Anders
    Department of Microbiology, Universitv of Umeå.
    Wolf-Watz, Hans
    Department of Microbiology, Universitv of Umeå.
    Hagström, Åke
    Department of Microbiology, Universitv of Umeå.
    Identification of Vibrio anguillarum in fish by using partial 16S rRNA sequences and a specific 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probe1989In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 55, no 8, p. 1907-1910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    16S rRNA from seven different Vibrio anguillarum strains was partially sequenced and compared. From this sequence information we could design a 25-base-long oligonucleotide and use it as a specific probe for identification of V. anguillarum. This was determined by RNA-DNA colony hybridization and slot-blot hybridization. Strong, specific hybridization to the probe was observed for all V. anguillarum strains tested. Furthermore, no cross-hybridization could be seen against five other bacterial species. The detection limit was 5 x 10(3) bacteria per ml. It was even possible to detect V. anguillarum, by slot-blot hybridization, directly in a homogenized kidney from a fish that had died of vibriosis. The partial sequence information revealed small but significant differences between strains of the same species. These sequence differences are sufficiently significant to allow serotyping on the RNA level. Comparing strains of different serotypes revealed a 10-base and an 11-base difference in V. anguillarum serotypes O8 and O9, respectively, in a 122-base partial sequence.

  • 30.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Att handleda akademiskt skrivarbete: intervjuer av handledare inom naturvetenskap och naturvetenskaplig didaktik2012In: Högskolepedagogisk debatt, ISSN 2000-9216, no 1, p. 9-21Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är viktigt att kunna skriva på ett tydligt och övertygande sätt för att lyckas som forskare, en sanning som även gäller inom icke humanistiska discipliner som naturvetenskap och naturvetenskaplig didaktik. Som handledare måste man med andra ord kunna handleda sina forskarstudenter i skrivandets konst. Trots detta förekommer det i stort sett ingen utbildning i hur man handledare forskarstudenter i skrivarbetet. I denna undersökning har jag intervjuat fyra naturvetenskapliga handledare och fyra handledare inom naturvetenskaplig didaktik. Syftet var att försöka få en bild av hur handledare hanterar de språkliga problem som deras forskarstudenter haft och se om det fanns någon skillnad i hur handledning går till inom de två disciplinerna. Generellt visar resultatet av studien att problem med skrivprocessen är mycket likartad hos de två handledargrupperna, även om de till vissa delar arbetar olika. Slutsatsen från intervjuerna är att det är tveksamt om man kan säga att en forskarstuderande har uppnått högskoleförordningens mål, eftersom många gånger handledaren står för en stor andel av texterna. Slutligen ges förslag till värderingskriterier som kan användas av enskilda handledare vid handledning av forskarstuderande i akademiskt skrivarbete.

  • 31. Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Cellen från helvetet (och andra giftalger)1998In: Forskning och framsteg, ISSN 0015-7937, no 5, p. 14-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Prorektors krönika: tankar kring breddad rekrytering och breddat deltagande2016In: Högskolepedagogisk debatt, ISSN 2000-9216, no 1, p. 6-9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Department of Microbiology, Umeå University.
    Use of 16S ribosomal RNA probes for the detection of marine bacteria1994Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Verksamhetsförlagd utbildning: VFU – nu, då och i en framtid2015In: Högskolepedagogisk debatt, ISSN 2000-9216, no 2, p. 5-7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Atnur, V.
    Department of Marine Ecology, University of Gothenburg.
    Godhe, A.
    Department of Marine Ecology, University of Gothenburg.
    Defining the niche of Vibrio parahaemolyticus during pre- and post-monsoon seasons in the coastal Arabian Sea2014In: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184X, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 57-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bacteria Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important component of coastal ecosystems worldwide, and in recent years, V. parahaemolyticus has caused several cases of food-borne gastroenteritis. However, research investigating which parameters are important in regulating V. parahaemolyticus abundance in tropical areas with relatively stable temperatures and salinity are largely lacking. The objective here was to investigate which environmental forces are driving elevated abundances of V. parahaemolyticus in a tropical oligotrophic coastal area in the Arabian Sea. We analysed a large number of environmental parameters in parallel with cell densities of V. parahaemolyticus and Vibrio spp. Abundance data was obtained using real-time PCR, during two different sampling periods, representative for two distinct seasons. Water temperature and salinity were stable during and between sampling periods, but V. parahaemolyticus abundances were on average six times higher during the first sampling period in December, compared to the second period in February–March. V. parahaemolyticus abundance was found to be positively correlated to inorganic phosphate concentration and copepod abundance. We thus hypothesise that these are important factors regulating V. parahaemolyticus abundance in coastal tropical areas during these periods.

  • 36.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Axelsson, Carolina
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    ESBL resistance patterns among environmental and clinical bacterial isolates2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    We have studied the phenotypic and genetic pattern among Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria in the aquatic environment, and have compared the result with clinical samples from the same area.

    Methods

    Water samples have been collected at three different sites in the Helge river, Kristianstad community, Sweden. The first station is located before the outlet from the municipal sewage plant, the second just after the outlet and the third close to the Baltic Sea. Cultured bacterial isolates from the water and clinical isolates were analysed for phenotypic expression of ESBL related genes using the MAST-test, and genetically by PCR analyses of a set of ESBL genes, i.e. blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM, and blaOXA  

    Results

    Both clinical and environmental ESBL isolates were dominated by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Highest abundance of environmental ESBL isolates were obtained from the station close to the sewage outlet, the lowest close to the Baltic Sea. The gene cluster blaCTX-M was the most common among all isolates (65%), followed by blaTEM (30%).  The blaOXA and blaSHV genes were more common in clinical isolates.

    Conclusion

    A majority of the ESBL bacteria were mediated by chromosomal genes, dominated by blaCTX-M. However, blaOXA .and blaSHV were more common in clinical isolates. Further genetic analyses will be performed on more isolates, and on total bacterial community DNA.

     

  • 37.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Umeå University.
    Azam, Farooq
    Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla.
    Bäckman, Stina
    Hagström, Åke1500060038987015000600389870
    Specificity of 16S rDNA determinative probes for the detection of heterotrophic bacteria in seawaterManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Collin, Betty
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Vibrio-arter i sydsvenska vatten orsakade badsårsfeber: ökande frekvens av bakterierna, visar studier på musslor2009In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 106, no 7, p. 435-438Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vibrios are autochthonous in estuarine and seawater environments, and have an important role in the decomposition of both particulate and dissolved organic matter. A considerable number of pathogenic strains have been described, including important human pathogens. Analyses of V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus genes in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from southern Sweden were conducted during summer-autumn 2006. 61% of the samples were positive for non-O1/O139 V. cholera (toxR positives), but all were negative for the choleratoxin gene ctx. 89% of the mussel samples contained V. parahaemolyticus and 61% of these were positive for the virulence genes tdh and trh. V. vulnificus were detected in 72% of the samples. Ongoing studies include analyses of Vibrio-phytoplankton interrelationships and survival of clinical Vibrio strains in the marine environment.

  • 39.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Collin, Betty
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Vibriobakterier i skånska vatten2011In: Smittskydd Skåne, no 2, p. 3-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 40. Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    Edebo, L.
    Haamer, J.
    Lindahl, O.
    Hernroth, B.
    Norén, F.
    Diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DST) in mussels along the Swedish west coast: N:041999In: ICES Conference and Meeting (CM) Documents, 1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Godhe, Anna
    University of Gothenburg.
    Dynamics of Vibrio spp. in relation to phytoplankton community composition and environmental conditions2012In: Pathogenic Vibrio spp. in Northern European Waters: International Symposium, 31 May - 1 June 2012 in Koblenz, Koblenz: German Federal Institute of Hydrology , 2012, p. 59-63Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    Clinical Bacteriology, Goteborg University.
    Godhe, Anna
    Marine Botany, Goteborg University.
    Genetic engineering of algal species2001In: Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), developed under the auspices of the UNESCO, Oxford: Eolss Publishers , 2001Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic engineering of algae is not common due to problems related to the design of vectors (i.e. plasmids or viruses) that can be successfully incorporated into the algae, accepted by the cell and expressed in a satisfying way. Most studies have therefore been made on the "green yeast" Clamydomonas reinhartii and some cyanobacterial species. However, in this review we are presenting examples of studies performed on a broad collection of algal species ranging from cyanobacteria to macroalgae like Laminaria. We have included different kinds of applications, within physiology, biochemistry, molecular biology, phylogeny, industry and environmental science. This ongoing and forthcoming research will undoubtedly increase our knowledge and usage of these important and fascinating primary-producing organisms.

  • 43.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole.
    Godhe, Anna
    Marine Botany, Göteborg University.
    Anderson, Donald M.
    Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole.
    Molecular studies of Dinophysis (Dinophyceae) species from Sweden and North America2002In: Phycologia, ISSN 0031-8884, E-ISSN 2330-2968, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 348-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diarrhoeic shellfish poisoning has increasingly become a problem throughout the world. Because the causative organisms Dinophysis spp. cannot be cultured in the laboratory, new approaches are needed to obtain ecological and physiological information. In this study, D. acuminata. D. norvegica and D. acuta were collected directly from field samples and used in polymerase chain reactions. The D1–D2 region of the large-subunit ribosomal RNA gene was amplified, cloned and sequenced. Sequence analyses showed that D. acuminata and D. norvegica were nearly identical (> 99%), and that D. acuminata showed an intraspecies variation of 0.8%. The D. acuta sequence was 98.7% similar to that of D. acuminata. The slight differences between D. norvegica and D. acuminala suggest that they may have evolved into separate species rather recently. Phylogenetic analyses show that species within the Dinophysiales order should be included in the ‘GPP complex’, a lineage associated with a diverse array of taxa within the orders Gymnodiniales, Prorocentrales and Peridiniales. The Prorocentrales and Dinophysiales would be sister groups within the GPP complex. Amplification of Swedish D. acuminata isolates always resulted in a single LSU rDNA fragment. In contrast, amplification of the North American D. acuminata always produced two distinct fragments. The longer (735 bp) fragment showed 99.3–1 00% homology among all sequenced clones of different D. acuminata field isolates. The shorter gene fragment had a 70 bp deletion, but it was otherwise highly homologous to the larger gene fragment. This fragment is possibly a pseudogene and might be an important genetic marker. A variable region that is suitable as a target for a probe to identify Dinophysis was also identified. Dinophysis specificity was confirmed for the probe, in that hybridization to cultured representatives of dinoflagellates and environmental samples containing mixed phytoplankton assemblages resulted in specific labelling of D. acuminata. D. norvegica and D. acuta, but not other dinoflagellates. No labelling of D. rotundata was observed.

  • 44.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Godhe, Anna
    Department of Marine Ecology, University of Gothenburg.
    Härnström, Karolina
    Department of Marine Ecology, University of Gothenburg.
    Raghunath, Pendru
    Saravanan, V.
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, College of Fisheries, Mangalore.
    Collin, Betty
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Karunasagar, Indrani
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, College of Fisheries, Mangalore.
    Karunasagar, Iddya
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, College of Fisheries, Mangalore.
    Association between phytoplankton and Vibrio spp. along the southwest coast of India: a mesocosm experiment2010In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 127-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the results from a mesocosm study investigating the interrelationship between microalgae and vibrios. The mesocosms were inoculated with plankton, plankton + sediment, or sediment. We followed the diatom bloom and increases in the abundance of Vibrio spp. and V parahaemolyticus in conjunction with several environmental variables in all mesocosms and at a reference site. The dominating diatom genera were also identified. Temperature, salinity, and pH were nearly invariant in the mesocosms and did not contribute to the results. The principal environmental variables that correlated to vibrio abundance were total bacterial plate counts, phosphorus and ammonia (positive relationship), and oxygen and silica (negative). Nitrate, total bacterial counts and chlorophyll a (chl a) did not correlate with vibrio growth. The highest diatom abundances were followed by increases in vibrios in all mesocosms. This was also observed in field sampling. Together, these results suggest that diatom blooms could support Vibrio spp. growth. V parahaemolyticus was initially favoured by sediment. The contribution of V parahaemolyticus to the total bacterial population was low, on average 0.5 %, but constituted a rather high proportion of the vibrio population in the mesocosm systems, i.e. on average 18 %. Some of the identified diatom genera, e.g. Chaetoceros and Skeletonema, were negatively correlated to vibrios, while Coscinodiscus was positively correlated. The results indicate that phytoplankton blooms, when recorded as high levels of chl a, should be used with caution as predictors for future vibrio epidemics, since the origin of the chl a might have a significant effect on vibrio abundance.

  • 45. Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    Hagström, Å.
    Identifikation av Vibrio anguillarum i fisk med hjälp av partiellt sekvenserat 16S rRNA samt en artspecifik 16S rRNA probe. Oral presentation at Svenska Havsforskarföreningen, Göteborg1988Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Hernroth, Bodil
    Kristineberg Marine Research Station.
    Shellfish and public health: a Swedish perspective2005In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 139-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bivalves are ancient animals that feed by filtering large volumes of water. In this way, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses from the water column are greatly concentrated in the mussels. The hazards associated with the consumption of mussels are thus dependent on the occurrence and composition of toxic algae and human microbial pathogens in the areas where shellfish are grown. Diarrheic shellfish toxins have occurred regularly in Sweden during the past 27 years. Peaks of toxins in mussels are mostly recorded from October to December, but the pattern can differ significantly due to location and year, making it hard to predict toxin levels in mussels. With an expansion of aquaculture and a subsequent increase in seafood consumption, better risk management is needed to minimize the effects on humans of algal toxins and human pathogens. New control strategies that have to be implemented are: i) proper site selection of culture installations; ii) regular and cost-efficient monitoring of algae, bacteria and viruses; iii) new indicators for fecal contamination, suitable for the specific locations where shellfish grow; iv) rapid dissemination of information to the industry and public, including risk assessment and advice on how to cope with the situation.

  • 47.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Karlson, Bengt
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Oceanographic Services, Västra Frölunda.
    Loo, Lars-Ove
    Department of Marine Ecology, Göteborg University.
    Temporal and spatial distribution of diarrheic shellfish toxins in blue mussels, Mytilusedulis, along the Swedish Skagerrak coast2006In: Molluscan shellfish safety: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Molluscan Shellfish Safety, Galway, Ireland, June 14th -18th, 2004 / [ed] Kathleen Henshilwood, Bryan Deegan, Terry McMahon, Caroline Cusack, Sinead Keaveney, Joe Silke, Micheál O’ Cinneide, David Lyons, Philipp Hess, Rinville: Marine Institute , 2006, p. 229-234Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bivalves are ancient animals that feed by filtering large volumes of water. In this way, phytoplankton in the water column are concentrated in the mussels. The hazards associated with the consumption of mussels are thus dependent on the occurrence and composition of toxic algae in the areas where shellfish are grown. Diarrheic shellfish toxins have occurred regularly in Sweden since 1987. A rapid intoxication versus slow detoxification of mussels is a common phenomenon in Swedish waters. Concentrations of DST in mussels are normally low from March to August (<160 μg/kg mussel meat) and high from October to December (>160 μg/kg mussel meat). Some years minor peaks above the limit can be observed from mid June to mid July. Peaks of toxins in mussels are mostly recorded from October to December, but the pattern can, however, differ significantly due to location and year. In 1997 mussel farmers in the Tångesund/Nösund region experienced very low levels of DST. However, the following year, 1998, high levels were recorded 27 weeks in a row. A particularly interesting area is the Kolje Fjord. This region had low levels of toxins until 1999, despite regular recordings of potentially DST producing algae. Today mussels grown and harvested in this area have similar toxin levels as mussels from other fjords in the Skagerrak region.

  • 48. Svensson, S.
    et al.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Hansson, J.
    Consistent spatial differences in content of diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DST) among three bivalve species: Mytilus edulis, Ostrea edulis and Cerastoderma edule: N:091999In: ICES Conference and Meeting (CM) Documents, 1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Svensson, Susanne
    et al.
    Department of Zoophysiology, Göteborg University.
    André, Carl
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Clinical Bacteriology, Göteborg University.
    Hansson, Jonas
    Tjärno Marine Biological Laboratory, Strömstad.
    A case of consistent spatial differences in content of diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DST) among three bivalve species: Mytilus edulis, Ostrea edulis and Cerastoderma edule2000In: Journal of Shellfish Research, ISSN 0730-8000, E-ISSN 1943-6319, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 1017-1020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Content of diarrhetic .shellfi.sh toxins (DST) was compared among mussels (Mytilus edulis), oysters (Ostrea edulis). and cockles (Cercuioderma edule) at two spatial scales: regions (100 km apart) and locations within regions (5 km apart). Samples were analysed for DST using protein phosphatase inhibiton assay in individual digestive glands. Concentrations of DST in all oysters and cockles were below the detection limit in the assay, whereas mussels from both regions and all locations contained mean levels of DST above the regulation limit for harvest and marketing. Thus interspecific differences in content of DST were found along the Swedish west coast. Some behavioral and physiological phenomena are proposed to explain the differences among species. These include differential uptake and processing of toxic algae, biotransformation of toxins, and reduced filtration at low temperatures. These findings may have some implications for harvest and cultivation of bivalves and suggest a possibility that cockles and oysters could be marketed for human consumption during periods of elevated levels of DST in mussels.

  • 50.
    Turk, Valentina
    et al.
    Marine Biological Station, Institute of Biology,Piran, Slovenia.
    Rehnstam, Ann-Sofi
    Department of Microbiology, University of Umeå.
    Lundberg, Erik
    Umeå Marine Sciences Centre, University of Umeå.
    Hagström, Åke
    Department of Microbiology, University of Umeå.
    Release of bacterial DNA by marine nanoflagellates, an intermediate step in phosphorus regeneration1992In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 58, no 11, p. 3744-3750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentrations of dissolved DNA and nanoflagellates were found to covary during a study of diel dynamics of the microbial food web in the Adriatic Sea. This observation was further investigated in a continuous seawater culture when nanoflagellates were fed bacteria grown in filtered seawater. Analysis of dissolved organic phosphorus and dissolved DNA showed a sixfold increase of dissolved DNA in the presence of the nanoflagellates (Ochromonas sp.). The amount of DNA released suggested that the majority of the consumed bacterial DNA was ejected. Phagotrophic nanoflagellates thus represent an important source of origin for dissolved DNA. The rate of breakdown of dissolved DNA and release of inorganic phosphorus in the pelagic ecosystem is suggested to be dependent on the ambient phosphate pool. In the P-limited northern Adriatic Sea, rapid degradation of the labelled DNA could be demonstrated, whereas the N-limited southern California bight water showed a much lower rate. Phosphorus originating from dissolved DNA was shown to be transferred mainly to organisms in the <3-μm-size fractions. On the basis of the C/P ratios, we suggest that a significant fraction of the phosphorus demand by the autotrophs may be sustained by the released DNA during stratified conditions. Thus, the nucleic acid-rich bacterial biomass grazed by protozoa plays an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus in the marine environment.

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