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  • 1.
    Asplund, Maria E.
    et al.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg.
    Baden, Susanne P.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg.
    Russ, Sarah
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg.
    Ellis, Robert P.
    College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter.
    Gong, Ningping
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg.
    Hernroth, Bodil E.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Ocean acidification and host–pathogen interactions: blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, encountering Vibrio tubiashii2014Ingår i: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 16, nr 4, s. 1029-1039Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ocean acidification (OA) can shift the ecological balance between interacting organisms. In this study, we have used a model system to illustrate the interaction between a calcifying host organism, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and a common bivalve bacterial pathogen, Vibrio tubiashii, with organisms being exposed to a level of acidification projected to occur by the end of the 21st century. OA exposures of the mussels were carried out in relative long-term (4 months) and short-term (4 days) experiments. We found no effect of OA on the culturability of V. tubiashii, in broth or in seawater. OA inhibited mussel shell growth and impaired crystalline shell structures but did not appear to affect mussel immune parameters (i.e haemocyte counts and phagocytotic capacity). Despite no evident impact on host immunity or growth and virulence of the pathogen, V. tubiashii was clearly more successful in infecting mussels exposed to long-term OA compared to those maintained under ambient conditions. Moreover, OA exposed V. tubiashii increased their viability when exposed to haemocytes of OA-treated mussel. Our findings suggest that even though host organisms may have the capacity to cope with periods of OA, these conditions may alter the outcome of host–pathogen interactions, favouring the success of the latter.

  • 2.
    Collin, Betty
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    The importance of marine sediments as a reservoir for human pathogenic Vibrio cholerae in cold water conditionsArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Collin, Betty
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Ehn Börjesson, Stina-Mina
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Mussagy, Aidate
    Department of Biological Sciences, Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Characteristics of potentially pathogenic vibrios from subtropical Mozambique compared with isolates from tropical India and boreal Sweden2013Ingår i: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 83, nr 2, s. 255-264Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reported outbreaks of Vibrio parahaemolyticus have increased worldwide, particularly in regions of high seafood consumption. In Mozambique, seafood constitutes an important food resource and diarrheal diseases are common among its inhabitants. Edible clams were collected in Maputo Bay during both the dry and rainy seasons, with the results showing the number of viable counts of vibrios in clams to peak during the latter. Vibrio parahaemolyticus was the predominant species identified among the isolated strains. Although only one of 109 total strains carried the tdh virulence gene, 69% of isolates showed evidence of hemolytic capacity when subjected to a functional test. Similar virulence patterns and biochemical properties were found in strains isolated from Indian and Swedish marine waters. Antibiotic resistance was, however, more pronounced in strains isolated from these latter two environments.

  • 4.
    Collin, Betty
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Lindmark, Barbro
    Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå University.
    Pal, Amit
    National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata, India.
    Wai, Sun N.
    Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå University.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    The origin of Vibrio cholerae influences uptake and persistence in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis2012Ingår i: Journal of Shellfish Research, ISSN 0730-8000, E-ISSN 1943-6319, Vol. 31, nr 1, s. 87-92Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Vibrio cholerae may cause diarrheal diseases and wound infections, both of which have the potential to be fatal. Transmission to humans is often linked to consumption of contaminated shellfish/drinking water or dermal exposure to water (e.g. when swimming). In this study, we investigated whether different isolates of Vibrio cholerae differ in terms of accumulation, persistence, and viability when encountering blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). Mussel uptake and elimination of three different V. cholerae strains were compared: one fatal clinical non-O1/O139 isolate, one highly potent El Tor biotype, and one marine strain isolated from blue mussels. The results showed that the uptake of the marine strain was significantly higher than the clinical strain, but the elimination process of the marine strain was also more efficient. The El Tor strain was not at all ingested by the mussels. In addition, the survival of bacteria when incubated together with M. edulis hemocytes was tested in vitro. The viability of clinical strains was unaffected by the presence of hemocytes, and the marine strains were even more resistant and able to multiply. We conclude that the highly virulent El Tor biotype was not taken up by the mussels and could thereby escape the mussels' elimination process. The potentially fatal non-O1/O139 V. cholerae strain may accumulate in low numbers, but could be very persistent in mussels.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Susanne P.
    et al.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences-Kristineberg, University of Gothenburg.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Baden, Susanne P.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences-Kristineberg, University of Gothenburg.
    Stress biology and immunology in Nephrops norvegicus2013Ingår i: The ecology and biology of Nephrops norvegicus, Amsterdam: Academic Press, 2013, Vol. 64, s. 149-200Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus lives at low-light depths, in muddy substrata of high organic content where water salinities are high and fluctuations in temperature are moderate. In this environment, the lobsters are naturally exposed to a number of potential stressors, many of them as a result of the surficial breakdown of organic material in the sediment. This process (early diagenesis) creates a heterogeneous environment with temporal and spatial fluctuations in a number of compounds such as oxygen, ammonia, metals, and hydrogen sulphide. In addition to this, there are anthropogenically generated stressors, such as human-induced climate change (resulting in elevated temperature and ocean acidification), pollution and fishing. The lobsters are thus exposed to several stressors, which are strongly linked to the habitat in which the animals live. Here, the capacity of Nephrops to deal with these stressors is summarised. Eutrophication-induced hypoxia and subsequent metal remobilisation from the sediment is a well-documented effect found in some wild Nephrops populations. Compared to many other crustacean species, Nephrops is well adapted to tolerate periods of hypoxia, but prolonged or severe hypoxia, beyond their tolerance level, is common in some areas. When the oxygen concentration in the environment decreases, the bioavailability of redox-sensitive metals such as manganese increases. Manganese is an essential metal, which, taken up in excess, has a toxic effect on several internal systems such as chemosensitivity, nerve transmission and immune defence. Since sediment contains high concentrations of metals in comparison to sea water, lobsters may accumulate both essential and non-essential metals. Different metals have different target tissues, though the hepatopancreas, in general, accumulates high concentrations of most metals. The future scenario of increasing anthropogenic influences on Nephrops habitats may have adverse effects on the fitness of the animals.

  • 6.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Baden, S.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Tassidis, Helena
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Hörnaeus, K.
    Uppsala University.
    Guillemant, J.
    Uppsala University.
    Bergström Lind, S.
    Uppsala University.
    Bergquist, J.
    Uppsala University.
    Impact of ocean acidification on antimicrobial activity in gills of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)2016Ingår i: Fish and Shellfish Immunology, ISSN 1050-4648, E-ISSN 1095-9947, Vol. 55, s. 452-459Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we aimed to investigate potential effects of ocean acidification on antimicrobial peptide (AMP) activity in the gills of Mytilus edulis, as gills are directly facing seawater and the changing pH (predicted to be reduced from ∼8.1 to ∼7.7 by 2100). The AMP activity of gill and haemocyte extracts was compared at pH 6.0, 7.7 and 8.1, with a radial diffusion assay against Escherichia coli. The activity of the gill extracts was not affected by pH, while it was significantly reduced with increasing pH in the haemocyte extracts. Gill extracts were also tested against different species of Vibrio (V. parahaemolyticus, V. tubiashii, V. splendidus, V. alginolyticus) at pH 7.7 and 8.1. The metabolic activity of the bacteria decreased by ∼65–90%, depending on species of bacteria, but was, as in the radial diffusion assay, not affected by pH. The results indicated that AMPs from gills are efficient in a broad pH-range. However, when mussels were pre-exposed for pH 7.7 for four month the gill extracts presented significantly lower inhibit of bacterial growth. A full in-depth proteome investigation of gill extracts, using LC-Orbitrap MS/MS technique, showed that among previously described AMPs from haemocytes of Mytilus, myticin A was found up-regulated in response to lipopolysaccharide, 3 h post injection. Sporadic occurrence of other immune related peptides/proteins also pointed to a rapid response (0.5–3 h p.i.). Altogether, our results indicate that the gills of blue mussels constitute an important first line defence adapted to act at the pH of seawater. The antimicrobial activity of the gills is however modulated when mussels are under the pressure of ocean acidification, which may give future advantages for invading pathogens.

  • 7.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). KVA.
    Baden, S
    Gothenburg University.
    Tassidis, Helena
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Hörnaeus, K
    Uppsala University.
    Guillemant, J
    Uppsala University.
    Bergström Lind, S
    Uppsala University.
    Bergquist, J
    Uppsala University.
    Impact of oceanacidification on antimicrobial activity in gills of the blue mussel (Mytilusedulis)2016Ingår i: Fish and Shellfish Immunology, ISSN 1050-4648, E-ISSN 1095-9947, Vol. 55, s. 452-459Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Baden, Susanne
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Sjukare skaldjur i framtidens hav2018Ingår i: HavsUtsik, Vol. 01Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Klimatförändringarna försämrar immunförsvaret hos kräftor, musslor och sjöstjärnor, och gör att de lättare får infektioner. De smittsamma bakterierna och virusen ser däremot inte ut att fara illa i den förändrade miljön. En dålig kombination för ekosystemet, och för oss konsumenter av marina skaldjur.

  • 9.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Baden, Susanne
    Department of Marine Ecology, University of Gothenburg.
    Thorndyke, Mike
    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Dupont, Sam
    Department of Marine Ecology, University of Gothenburg10.1016/j.aquatox.2011.03.001 .
    Immune suppression of the echinoderm Asterias rubens (L.) following long-term ocean acidification2011Ingår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 103, nr 3-4, s. 222-224Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We compared effects of exposure to predict near-future (2100) ocean acidification (OA; pH 7.7) and normal seawater (Control; pH 8.1) on immune and stress responses in the adult sea star Asterias rubens. Analyses were made after one week and after six months of continuous exposure. Following one week exposure to acidified water, the pH of coelomic fluid was significantly reduced. Levels of the chaperon Hsp70 were elevated while key cellular players in immunity, coelomocytes. were reduced by approximately 50%. Following long-term exposure (six months) levels of Hsp70 returned to control values, whereas immunity was further impaired, evidenced by the reduced phagocytic capacity of coelomocytes and inhibited activation of p38 MAP-kinase. Such impacts of reduced seawater pH may have serious consequences for resistance to pathogens in a future acidified ocean.

  • 10.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Krång, Anna-Sara
    University of Gothenburg.
    Baden, Susanne
    University of Gothenburg.
    Bacteriostatic suppression in Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) exposed to manganese or hypoxia under pressure of ocean acidification2015Ingår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 159, s. 217-224Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Future ocean acidification (OA) and warming following climate change elicit pervasive stressors to the inhabitants of the sea. Previous experimental exposure to OA for 16 weeks at pH levels predicted for 2100, has shown to result in serious immune suppression of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus. The lobsters are currently affected by stressors such as periodical hypoxia inducing high levels of bioavailable manganese (Mn). Here, we aimed to investigate possible effects of interactions between OA and these stressors on total hemocyte counts (THC) and on recovery of inoculated bacteria in the lobsters, measured as a proxy for bacteriostatic response. The effects were judged by following numbers of culturable Vibrio parahaemolyticus in hepatopancreas, 4 and 24 h post inoculation in lobsters kept in replicate tanks with six different treatments; either ambient (pCO2∼ 500 μatm/pH∼8.1 units) or CO2 manipulated seawater (OA; pCO2 1550 μatm/pH∼7.6 units) for 8 weeks. During the last two weeks additional stress of either hypoxia (∼23% oxygen saturation) or Mn (∼9 mgL−1) was added except in control treatments. Our results showed clear effect on bacteriostatic response in Norway lobsters exposed to these stressors. In lobster kept in ambient seawater without additional stressors the number of culturable bacteria in hepatopancreas was reduced by ∼ 34%. In combined treatment of ambient seawater and hypoxia the reduction was ∼23%, while in the Mn-exposed animals, there was no reduction at all. This was also the case in all OA-treatments where mean numbers of culturable V. parahaemolyticus tended to increase. In lobsters from ambient seawater with or without hypoxia, the total hemocyte count (THC) was not significantly different as was also the case in OA without additional stressors. However, in OA-treatments combined with either hypoxia or Mn, THC was reduced by ∼ 35%.While the reduction of culturable V. parahaemolyticus in lobsters was clearly affected by these stressors, we found no notable effects on growth, survival or hemolytic properties of the bacteria itself. Thus, we conclude that this predicted stress scenario is beneficial for the pathogen in its interaction with the host. As OA proceeds, it may force the health of the ecologically and economically important N. norvegicus to a tipping point if exposed to more short-term stressors such as the periodical events of hypoxia and Mn. This could impact lobster condition and biomass and may as well increase the risk for bacterial transmission to consumers.

  • 11.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Nilsson Sköld, Helen
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Kristineberg, University of Gothenburg.
    Wiklander, Kerstin
    Mathematical Sciences, University of Gothenburg.
    Jutfelt, Fredrik
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg.
    Baden, Susanne
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Kristineberg, University of Gothenburg.
    Simulated climate change causes immune suppression and protein damage in the crustacean Nephrops norvegicus2012Ingår i: Fish and Shellfish Immunology, ISSN 1050-4648, E-ISSN 1095-9947, Vol. 33, nr 5, s. 1095-1101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is causing global warming, which affects oceans by elevating water temperature and reducing pH. Crustaceans have been considered tolerant to ocean acidification because of their retained capacity to calcify during subnormal pH. However, we report here that significant immune suppression of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, occurs after a 4-month exposure to ocean acidification (OA) at a level predicted for the year 2100 (hypercapnic seawater with a pH lowered by 0.4 units). Experiments carried out at different temperatures (5, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 °C) demonstrated that the temperature within this range alone did not affect lobster immune responses. In the OA-treatment, hemocyte numbers were reduced by almost 50% and the phagocytic capacity of the remaining hemocytes was inhibited by 60%. The reduction in hemocyte numbers was not due to increased apoptosis in hematopoetic tissue. Cellular responses to stress were investigated through evaluating advanced glycation end products (AGE) and lipid oxidation in lobster hepatopancreata, and OA-treatment was shown to significantly increase AGEs', indicating stress-induced protein alterations. Furthermore, the extracellular pH of lobster hemolymph was reduced by approximately 0.2 units in the OA-treatment group, indicating either limited pH compensation or buffering capacity. The negative effects of OA-treatment on the nephropidae immune response and tissue homeostasis were more pronounced at higher temperatures (12–18 °C versus 5 °C), which may potentially affect disease severity and spread. Our results signify that ocean acidification may have adverse effects on the physiology of lobsters, which previously had been overlooked in studies of basic parameters such as lobster growth or calcification.

  • 12.
    Holm, Kristina
    et al.
    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Kristineberg.
    Voronkina, Irina
    Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Cytology, St. Petersburg.
    Sharlaimova, Natalia
    Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Cytology, St. Petersburg.
    Thorndyke, Michael
    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Kristineberg.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Functional properties of proteins from the coelomic fluid of the wounded sea star Asterias rubens (L)2010Ingår i: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, ISSN 0022-2011, E-ISSN 1096-0805, Vol. 105, nr 2, s. 197-199Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Impact on viability and adhesion of three protein fractions, separated by size, from the coelomic fluid of wounded Asterias rubens', was tested on autologous coelomocytes. In addition antimicrobial property of the protein fractions was tested on the Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus. All fractions promoted viability and the larger proteins facilitated adhesion of the coelomocytes. The strongest antimicrobial effect was caused by the fraction with the smallest proteins.

  • 13.
    Hörnaeus, K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Guillemant, J.
    Uppsala University.
    Mi, J.
    Uppsala University.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Bergquist, J.
    Uppsala University.
    Bergström Lind, Sara
    Uppsala University.
    Mass spectrometry data from a quantitative analysis of protein expression in gills of immuno-challenged blue mussels (Mytilus edulis)2016Ingår i: Data in Brief, E-ISSN 2352-3409, Vol. 8, s. 470-473Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we provide the dataset associated with our research article on the potential effects of ocean acidification on antimicrobial peptide (AMP) activity in the gills of Mytilus edulis, "Impact of ocean acidification on antimicrobial activity in gills of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)" [1]. Blue mussels were stimulated with lipopolysaccharides and samples were collected at different time points post injection. Protein extracts were prepared from the gills, digested using trypsin and a full in-depth proteome investigation was performed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Protein identification and quantification was performed using the MaxQuant 1.5.1.2 software, "MaxQuant enables high peptide identification rates, individualized p.p.b.-range mass accuracies and proteome-wide protein quantification" [2].

  • 14.
    Nilsson Sköld, Helen
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Baden, Susanne P
    University of Gothenburg.
    Looström, Jakob
    University of Gothenburg.
    Eriksson, Susanne P
    University of Gothenburg.
    Hernroth, Bodil E
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Motoric impairment following manganese exposure in asteroid echinoderms2015Ingår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 167, s. 31-37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the oceans, naturally occurring manganese (Mn) is released from the sediments during events of hypoxia. While neuro- and immuno-toxic effects of bioavailable manganese are well documented for crustaceans, studies of similar effects of manganese on other marine invertebrates are comparatively few. Here, we developed a new functional test "the repeated turning assay" to investigate if manganese exposure at ∼12mgL(-1) affected motoric behaviour of two asteroid echinoderms, the Common sea star, Asterias rubens, and the Black brittle star, Ophiocomina nigra. By measuring of the turning-over capacity, from dorsal to ventral position, after one and two weeks of manganese exposure, we showed that for both species Mn exposure significantly delayed the ability to turn. After a recovery period of two weeks, the capacity of turning-over was not restored to that of unexposed animals neither for A. rubens nor for O. nigra. Further investigation of sea stars showed that Mn accumulated ∼5 fold in the tube feet, organs involved in their turning-over activity, and the high concentration remained after the recovery period. In the tube feet we also recorded an increased activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), here used as a proxy for neuromuscular disturbances. The results indicated that Mn induces neuromuscular disturbance in echinoderms which is important news, given that previous studies have concluded that adult echinoderms are relatively tolerant to Mn.

  • 15.
    Oweson, Carolina
    et al.
    Department of Marine Ecology, University of Gothenburg.
    Li, Chenghua
    Department of Comparative Physiology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University.
    Söderhäll, Irene
    Department of Comparative Physiology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Effects of manganese and hypoxia on coelomocyte renewal in the echinoderm, Asterias rubens (L.)2010Ingår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 100, nr 1, s. 84-90Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Manganese (Mn) is a naturally abundant metal and particularly so in soft-bottom oceanic sediments where it generally occurs bound in a four-valent colloidal state as MnO2. When hypoxic conditions occur in bottom waters, the metal reduces to the bioavailable ion Mn2+ and can reach concentrations known to have immunotoxic effects in the crustacean Nephrops norvegicus, reducing numbers of circulating haemocytes as a consequence. However, we have previously shown that Mn seems to have a contrasting effect on the echinoderm Asterias rubens in which it triggers the proliferation of haematopoietic cells and increases coelomocyte numbers. Since elevated Mn levels mostly co-occur with hypoxia in nature, here we investigated whether hypoxia has a negative effect on haematopoiesis. Proliferation and differentiation of coelomocytes and cells in the coelomic epithelium of A. rubens were compared after 3 days of exposure to realistic levels of Mn, hypoxia or a combination of these two parameters. We can confirm that Mn elevated numbers of coelomocytes and increased proliferation of epithelial cells, but hypoxia did not affect these levels. However, hypoxia did affect differentiation of these cells as judged by investigating the expression of a Runt domain transcription factor, which was also cloned and sequenced. Through comparative quantification using a real time PCR technique, we found that exposure to hypoxia had a clearly stimulating effect on mRNA expression of Runt gene in both coelomocytes and epithelial cells. These results indicate that during hypoxic conditions the composition of coelomocyte sub-populations changed.

  • 16.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Hernroth, Bodil
    Kristineberg Marine Research Station.
    Shellfish and public health: a Swedish perspective2005Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 34, nr 2, s. 139-144Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bivalves are ancient animals that feed by filtering large volumes of water. In this way, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses from the water column are greatly concentrated in the mussels. The hazards associated with the consumption of mussels are thus dependent on the occurrence and composition of toxic algae and human microbial pathogens in the areas where shellfish are grown. Diarrheic shellfish toxins have occurred regularly in Sweden during the past 27 years. Peaks of toxins in mussels are mostly recorded from October to December, but the pattern can differ significantly due to location and year, making it hard to predict toxin levels in mussels. With an expansion of aquaculture and a subsequent increase in seafood consumption, better risk management is needed to minimize the effects on humans of algal toxins and human pathogens. New control strategies that have to be implemented are: i) proper site selection of culture installations; ii) regular and cost-efficient monitoring of algae, bacteria and viruses; iii) new indicators for fecal contamination, suitable for the specific locations where shellfish grow; iv) rapid dissemination of information to the industry and public, including risk assessment and advice on how to cope with the situation.

  • 17.
    Thorell, Kaisa
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Collin, Betty
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Hernroth, Bodil
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Sjöling, Åsa
    Karolinska institutet.
    Complete genome sequences of two marine Vibrio cholerae strains isolated from the south coast of Sweden2016Ingår i: Genome Announcements, ISSN 2169-8287, E-ISSN 2169-8287, Vol. 4, nr 5, artikel-id e01118-16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 are commonly associated with diarrhea, while non-O1-O139 strains may cause wound infections. Here, we present the genome sequences of two V. cholerae strains isolated from blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) collected in coastal waters of southern Sweden.

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