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  • 1.
    Alho, Jussi S.
    et al.
    Ecological Genetics Research Unit, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki.
    Herczeg, Gábor
    Ecological Genetics Research Unit, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki.
    Söderman, Fredrik
    Population and Conservation Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University.
    Laurilla, Anssi
    Population and Conservation Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Merilä, Juha
    Ecological Genetics Research Unit, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki.
    Increasing melanism along a latitudinal gradient in a widespread amphibian: local adaptation, ontogenic or environmental plasticity?2010In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 10, p. 317-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundThe thermal benefits of melanism in ectothermic animals are widely recognized, but relatively little is known about population differentiation in the degree of melanism along thermal gradients, and the relative contributions of genetic vs. environmental components into the level of melanism expressed. We investigated variation in the degree of melanism in the common frog (Rana temporaria; an active heliotherm thermoregulator) by comparing the degree of melanism (i) among twelve populations spanning over 1500 km long latitudinal gradient across the Scandinavian Peninsula and (ii) between two populations from latitudinal extremes subjected to larval temperature treatments in a common garden experiment.

    ResultsWe found that the degree of melanism increased steeply in the wild as a function of latitude. Comparison of the degree of population differentiation in melanism (PST) and neutral marker loci (FST) revealed that the PST > FST, indicating that the differences cannot be explained by random genetic drift alone. However, the latitudinal trend observed in the wild was not present in the common garden data, suggesting that the cline in nature is not attributable to direct genetic differences.

    ConclusionsAs straightforward local adaptation can be ruled out, the observed trend is likely to result from environment-driven phenotypic plasticity or ontogenetic plasticity coupled with population differences in age structure. In general, our results provide an example how phenotypic plasticity or even plain ontogeny can drive latitudinal clines and result in patterns perfectly matching the genetic differences expected under adaptive hypotheses. 

  • 2.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Faculty of Forest Sciences, School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg.
    Andersson, Kjell
    Faculty of Forest Sciences, School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg.
    Annerstedt, Matilda
    Department of Work Science, Business Economics & Environmental Psychology, Faculty of Landscape Planning, Horticulture and Agricultural Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp.
    Axelsson, Robert
    Faculty of Forest Sciences, School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg.
    Elbakidze, Marine
    Faculty of Forest Sciences, School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg.
    Garrido Rodriquez, Pablo
    Faculty of Forest Sciences, School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg.
    Grahn, Patrik
    Department of Work Science, Business Economics & Environmental Psychology, Faculty of Landscape Planning, Horticulture and Agricultural Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Pedersen, Simen
    Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Faculty of Applied Ecology and Agricultural Sciences, Hedmark University College, Evenstad.
    Schlyter, Peter
    Environmental and Resource, Dynamics Group, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University.
    Skärbäck, Erik
    Department of Work Science, Business Economics & Environmental Psychology, Faculty of Landscape Planning, Horticulture and Agricultural Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp.
    Smith, Mike
    Forest Research, Northern Research Station, Centre for Human and Ecological Sciences, Roslin.
    Stjernquist, Ingrid
    Environmental and Resource, Dynamics Group, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University.
    Solving problems in social-ecological systems: definition, practice and barriers of transdisciplinary research2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 254-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Translating policies about sustainable development as a social process and sustainability outcomes into the real world of social-ecological systems involves several challenges. Hence, research policies advocate improved innovative problem-solving capacity. One approach is transdisciplinary research that integrates research disciplines, as well as researchers and practitioners. Drawing upon 14 experiences of problem-solving, we used group modeling to map perceived barriers and bridges for researchers' and practitioners' joint knowledge production and learning towards transdisciplinary research. The analysis indicated that the transdisciplinary research process is influenced by (1) the amount of traditional disciplinary formal and informal control, (2) adaptation of project applications to fill the transdisciplinary research agenda, (3) stakeholder participation, and (4) functional team building/development based on self-reflection and experienced leadership. Focusing on implementation of green infrastructure policy as a common denominator for the delivery of ecosystem services and human well-being, we discuss how to diagnose social-ecological systems, and use knowledge production and collaborative learning as treatments.

  • 3.
    Beery, Thomas H.
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Outdoor recreation and place attachment: exploring the potential of outdoor recreation within a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve2017In: Journal of Outdoor Recreation, ISSN 2213-0780, E-ISSN 2213-0799, Vol. 17, p. 54-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates outdoor recreation participation within a multifunctional landscape, a UNESCO Man and Biosphere Reserve. The reserve, the Kristianstad Vattenrike located in southern Sweden, has made a deliberate effort to make the experience of biodiversity possible for residents and visitors. Recreation is a keypart of the biodiversity conservation effort in the area, represented by the infrastructure of the Kristianstad Vattenrike's 21 visitor sites. Given the biosphere reserve context, this study investigates the question of whether there is a relationship between outdoor recreation participation and place attachment. Survey data was collected using concurrent application of multiple sampling strategies including both probability and purposive sampling of local adult residents of the biosphere area. Quantitative analysis showed a significant positive relationship between the level of outdoor recreation participation and place attachment. Qualitative data supported this relationship with more details about place attachment within the studied area. The study confirms a relationship between place attachment and outdoor recreation and provides insight into how the biosphere reserve context supports this relationship. The results of this study show that significant biodiversity management in close conjunction with outdoor recreational opportunity can be achieved and provides opportunities for human engagement and experience of biodiversity.

    Management Implications: This research can help managers design recreational settings that support biodiversity conservation goals. Our research found that:

    • A leading motivation for outdoor recreation participation is nature experience and this motivation can be used by managers to highlight a biodiversity conservation interpretive message in the design of outdoor recreation infrastructure.

    • Providing proximate access to nature based outdoor recreation, to support deliberate and direct experience of biodiversity, is an important component of engaging the public in biodiversity conservation.

    • Recreation proximity alone will not create public engagement in biodiversity conservation. However,proximity as a part of a deliberate institutional design including biodiversity conservation, sustainable development, and logistic support for research and monitoring may be critical for public engagement.

  • 4.
    Beery, Thomas
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Jönsson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Upplevelsen av biologisk mångfald2015In: Vattenriket i Fokus, ISSN 1653-9338, Vol. 2015, no 4, p. 39-43Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    It is important to do something outside, not only inside this building...if you are outside the nature is talking to you. (Arabic/English speaking visitor)

    Concern for a diminished nature experience has been referred to as an extinction of experience (Pyle, 1993). The concern is based on the fear that diminished experience of nature leads to reduced environmental awareness and knowledge, and ultimately, to a reduction in pro-environmental behavior. Attention to both the value and potential loss of nature experience is at the foundation of the research presented here.

     

    Two related studies are briefly presented that explore the experience of nature, and specifically, the experience of biodiversity in the Kristianstad Vattenrike biosphere reserve. The first is a study of the relationship between place attachment and participation in nature based outdoor recreation. Random and targeted field based surveys with residents of the Kristianstad municipality were used to gather information. Results indicated a positive and significant relationship between measures of place attachment and nature-based outdoor recreation. The second study, an investigation of the Swedish EPA mandated goal that Swedish Nature Centers (Naturum) will inspire or motivate a direct experience of nature was conducted using thought listing methods. The results of these interviews indicated that the nature center in the Kristianstad Vattenrike is serving this noted function. An outcome that links both studies are the results that highlight the importance of proximate access (in regard to residence and transportation) of recreation and outdoor opportunity to facilitate direct experiences of nature.

  • 5.
    Beery, Thomas
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Betydelsen av att uppleva biologisk mångfald2015In: Biodiverse, ISSN 1401-5064, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 16-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Beery, Thomas
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Inspiring the outdoor experience: does the path through a nature center lead out the door?2015In: Journal of Interpretation Research, ISSN 1092-5872, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 67-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the visitor experience at a Swedish nature center within aUNESCO biosphere reserve. The question of whether this interpretive facility succeedsin motivating the visitor to get outdoors for a direct experience of nature is explored. Useof the environmental connectedness perspective and concerns about diminished natureexperience support the importance of this study. A number of qualitative methodologiesare used to investigate the research questions, including thought listing, phenomenology,and field observation. Results indicate that this particular nature center generallysucceeded in the goal of inspiring visitors for a direct nature experience. The success inmotivating visitors appears to be a result of a number of key variables, including placebasedexhibitry, access, and personal visitor factors. Given the setting for this study, weconclude that interpretive nature centers have the potential to play an important role inthe re-imagination of urban environments.

  • 7.
    Beery, Thomas
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Topophilia and human affiliation with nature2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of this study is to explore the co-evolutionary foundation for place-based human affiliation with nonhuman nature, and its potential to support sustainable development at the local level. In particular, we analyse the Topophilia Hypothesis, an expansion of the Biophilia Hypothesis which includes also non-living elements in the environment.

    Methods: The study represents a multidisciplinary conceptual analysis of how biological selection and cultural learning may have interacted during human evolution to promote adaptive mechanisms for human affiliation with nonhuman nature via specific place attachment. 

    Results and Conclusions: The Biophilia Hypothesis has been one of the most important theories of human connectedness with nature, suggesting a genetically based inclination for human affiliation with the biological world. The Topophilia Hypothesis has extended the ideas of Biophilia to incorporate a broader conception of nonhuman nature and a co-evolutionary theory of genetic response and cultural learning. It also puts more emphasis on affiliation processes with the local environment. We propose that nurturing potential topophilic tendencies may be a useful method to promote sustainable development at the local level, and ultimately at the global level. Tendencies of local affiliation may also have implications for multifunctional landscape management, an important area within sustainability research, and we provide some examples of successful landscape management with a strong component of local engagement. Since human affiliation with nonhuman nature is considered an important dimension of environmental concern and support for pro-environmental attitudes, the Topophilia Hypothesis may provide a fruitful ground for a discourse within which scholars from many scientific fields, including human evolution and humanistic geography, can participate.

     

  • 8.
    Beery, Thomas
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    From environmental connectedness to sustainable futures: topophilia and human affiliation with nature2015In: European Human Behaviour and Evolution Association Annual Conference, University of Helsinki, March 29-April 1, 2015, 2015, p. 57-58Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to explore the co-evolutionary foundation for place-based human affiliation with nonhuman nature, and its potential to support sustainable development at the local level. In particular, we analyse the Topophilia Hypothesis, an expansion of the Biophilia Hypothesis which includes also non-living elements in the environment. Methods: The study represents a multidisciplinary conceptual analysis of how biological selection and cultural learning may have interacted during human evolution to promote adaptive mechanisms for human affiliation with nonhuman nature via specific place attachment. Results and Conclusions: The Biophilia Hypothesis has been one of the most important theories of human connectedness with nature, suggesting a genetically based inclination for human affiliation with the biological world. The Topophilia Hypothesis has extended the ideas of Biophilia to incorporate a broader conception of nonhuman nature and a co-evolutionary theory of genetic response and cultural learning. It also puts more emphasis on affiliation processes with the local environment. We propose that nurturing potential topophilic tendencies may be a useful method to promote sustainable development at the local level, and ultimately at the global level. Tendencies of local affiliation may also have implications for multifunctional landscape management, an important area within sustainability research, and we provide some examples of successful landscape management with a strong component of local engagement. Since human affiliation with nonhuman nature is considered an important dimension of environmental concern and support for pro-environmental attitudes, the Topophilia Hypothesis may provide a fruitful ground for a discourse within which scholars from many scientific fields, including human evolution and humanistic geography, can participate.

  • 9.
    Beery, Thomas
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    From environmental connectedness to sustainable futures: topophilia and human affiliation with nature2015In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 7, no 7, p. 8837-8854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human affiliation with nonhuman nature is an important dimension of environmental concern and support for pro-environmental attitudes. A significant theory of human connectedness with nature, the Biophilia Hypothesis, suggests that there exists a genetically based inclination for human affiliation with the biological world. Both support and challenge to the Biophilia Hypothesis are abundant in the literature of environmental psychology. One response that both challenges and builds upon the Biophilia Hypothesis is the Topophilia Hypothesis. The Topophilia Hypothesis has extended the ideas of biophilia to incorporate a broader conception of nonhuman nature and a co-evolutionary theory of genetic response and cultural learning. While the Topophilia Hypothesis is a new idea, it is built upon long-standing scholarship from humanistic geography and theories in human evolution. The Topophilia Hypothesis expands previous theory and provides a multidisciplinary consideration of how biological selection and cultural learning may have interacted during human evolution to promote adaptive mechanisms for human affiliation with nonhuman nature via specific place attachment. Support for this possible co-evolutionary foundation for place-based human affiliation with nonhuman nature is explored from multiple vantage points. We raise the question of whether this affiliation may have implications for multifunctional landscape management. Ultimately, we propose that nurturing potential topophilic tendencies may be a useful method to promote sustainable efforts at the local level with implications for the global.

  • 10.
    Beery, Thomas
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Raymond, Christopher M
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Kyttä, Marketta
    Finland.
    Olafsson, Anton Stahl
    Danmark.
    Plieninger, Tobias
    Danmark.
    Sandberg, Mattias
    Gothenburg University.
    Stenseke, Marie
    Gothenburg University.
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholm Resilience Center.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Fostering incidental experiences of nature through green infrastructure planning2017In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 717-730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concern for a diminished human experience of nature and subsequent decreased human well-being is addressed via a consideration of green infrastructure's potential to facilitate unplanned or incidental nature experience. Incidental nature experience is conceptualized and illustrated in order to consider this seldom addressed aspect of human interaction with nature in green infrastructure planning. Special attention has been paid to the ability of incidental nature experience to redirect attention from a primary activity toward an unplanned focus (in this case, nature phenomena). The value of such experience for human well-being is considered. The role of green infrastructure to provide the opportunity for incidental nature experience may serve as a nudge or guide toward meaningful interaction. These ideas are explored using examples of green infrastructure design in two Nordic municipalities: Kristianstad, Sweden, and Copenhagen, Denmark. The outcome of the case study analysis coupled with the review of literature is a set of sample recommendations for how green infrastructure can be designed to support a range of incidental nature experiences with the potential to support human well-being.

  • 11.
    Beery, Thomas
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    Stålhammar, Sanna
    Lund University.
    Jönsson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Wamsler, Christine
    Lund University.
    Bramryd, Torleif
    Lund University.
    Brink, Ebba
    Lund University.
    Ekelund, Nils
    Malmö University.
    Johansson, Michael
    Lund University.
    Palo, Thomas
    SLU.
    Schubert, Per
    Malmö University.
    Perceptions of the ecosystem services concept: opportunities and challenges in the Swedish municipal context2016In: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, E-ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 17, p. 123-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A current focus of ecosystem services (ES) implementation is on the municipal level of government where international and national legislation and policies have to be translated into practice. Given this focus, an understanding of perceptions within municipalities of the ES concept is crucial to support the implementation process. Against this background, this paper examines the perceptions of Swedish municipal stakeholders for the ES concept. A 2013 Swedish federal mandate that states that the values of ecosystem services should be considered in relevant decision-making processes, provides a timely context. Current perceptions, preconditions and awareness are explored via interviews and analyses. The results show that the views on the ecosystem services concept and its usefulness are generally very positive. Conceptual knowledge use is perceived as important as is the recognition of monetary valuation of ES. However, clarification of the distinction between implicit and explicit use of the concept by stakeholders is needed. Finally, results indicate that a deeper understanding of monetary valuation of ecosystem services by municipal staff members is connected with a more critical view on monetary valuation. It is concluded that detailed and clear definitions and guidelines are needed in order to support the process of implementing ES in municipalities.

  • 12.
    Beltran-Pardo, Eliana
    et al.
    Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Instituto de Genética Humana, Bogotá.
    Jönsson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University.
    Haghdoost, Siamak
    Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University.
    Bermúdez-Cruz, Rosa María
    4Departamento de Genéticas y Biología Molecular, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional - CINVESTAV, Mexico City.
    Bernal Villegas, Jaime E.
    Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Instituto de Genética Humana, Bogotá.
    Sequence analysis of the DNA-repair gene rad51 in the tardigrades Milnesium cf. tardigradum, Hypsibius dujardini and Macrobiotus cf. harmsworthi2013In: Journal of limnology, ISSN 1129-5767, E-ISSN 1723-8633, Vol. 72, no s1, p. 80-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tardigrades are known for being resistant to extreme conditions, including tolerance to ionising and UV radiation in both the hydratedand the dehydrated state. It is known that these factors may cause damage to DNA. It has recently been shown that single and double DNAstrand breaks occur when tardigrades are maintained for a long time in the anhydrobiotic state. This may suggest that perhaps tardigrades rely on efficient DNA repair mechanisms. Among all proteins that comprise the DNA repair system, recombinases such as RecA or Rad51 have a very important function: DNA exchange activity. This enzyme is used in the homologous recombination and allows repair of thedamaged strand using homologous non-damaged strands as a template. In this study, Rad51 induction was evaluated by western blot in Milnesium cf. tardigradum, after exposure to gamma radiation. The Rad51 protein was highly induced by radiation, when compared to the control. The rad51 genes were searched in three tardigrades: Milnesium cf. tardigradum, Hypsibius dujardini and Macrobiotus cf. harmsworthi. The gene sequences were obtained by preparing and sequencing transcriptome libraries for H. dujardini and M. cf. harmsworthi and designing rad51 degenerate primers specific for M. cf. tardigradum. Comparison of Rad51 putative proteins from tardigrades with other organisms showed that they are highly similar to the corresponding sequence from the nematode Trichinella spiralis. A structure-based sequence alignment from tardigrades and other organisms revealed that putative Rad51 predicted proteins from tardigrades contain the expected motifs for these important recombinases. In a cladogram tree based on this alignment, tardigrades tend to cluster together suggesting that they have selective differences in these genes that make them diverge between species. Predicted Rad51 structures from tardigrades were also compared with crystalline structure of Rad51 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These results reveal that S. cerevisiae Rad51 structure is very similar to that of the three analysed tardigrades. On the other hand the predicted structure of Rad51 from M. cf. harmsworthi and H. dujardini are closer related to each other, than each of them to that of M. cf. tardigradum.

  • 13.
    Beltrán-Pardo, Eliana
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Mats
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University.
    Haghdoost, Siamak
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University.
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University.
    Tolerance to gamma radiation in the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini from embryo to adult correlate inversely with cellular proliferation2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 7, p. e0133658-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tardigrades are highly tolerant to desiccation and ionizing radiation but the mechanisms of this tolerance are not well understood. In this paper, we report studies on dose responses of adults and eggs of the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini exposed to gamma radiation. In adults the LD50/48h for survival was estimated at ~ 4200 Gy, and doses higher than 100 Gy reduced both fertility and hatchability of laid eggs drastically. We also evaluated the effect of radiation (doses 50 Gy, 200 Gy, 500 Gy) on eggs in the early and late embryonic stage of development, and observed a reduced hatchability in the early stage, while no effect was found in the late stage of development. Survival of juveniles from irradiated eggs was highly affected by a 500 Gy dose, both in the early and the late stage. Juveniles hatched from eggs irradiated at 50 Gy and 200 Gy developed into adults and produced offspring, but their fertility was reduced compared to the controls. Finally we measured the effect of low temperature during irradiation at 4000 Gy and 4500 Gy on survival in adult tardigrades, and observed a slight delay in the expressed mortality when tardigrades were irradiated on ice. Since H.dujardini is a freshwater tardigrade with lower tolerance to desiccation compared to limno-terrestrial tardigrades, the high radiation tolerance in adults, similar to limno-terrestrial tardigrades, is unexpected and seems to challenge the idea that desiccation and radiation tolerance rely on the same molecular mechanisms. We suggest that the higher radiation tolerance in adults and late stage embryos of H.dujardini (and in other studied tardigrades) compared to early stage embryos may partly be due to limited mitotic activity, since tardigrades have a low degree of somatic cell division (eutely), and dividing cells are known tobe more sensitive to radiation.

  • 14.
    Beltrán-Pardo, Eliana
    et al.
    Instituto de Genética Humana, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University.
    Haghdoost, Siamak
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Mats
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University.
    Bermúdez-Cruz, Rosa M.
    Departamento de Genética y Biología Molecular, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados, CINVESTAV, México D.F..
    Bernal Villegas, Jaime E.
    Instituto de Genética Humana, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá.
    Effects of ionizing radiation on embryos of the tardigrade Milnesium cf. tardigradum at different stages of development2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 9, p. e72098-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tardigrades represent one of the most desiccation and radiation tolerant animals on Earth, and several studies havedocumented their tolerance in the adult stage. Studies on tolerance during embryological stages are rare, but differentialeffects of desiccation and freezing on different developmental stages have been reported, as well as dose-dependent effectof gamma irradiation on tardigrade embryos. Here, we report a study evaluating the tolerance of eggs from theeutardigrade Milnesium cf. tardigradum to three doses of gamma radiation (50, 200 and 500 Gy) at the early, middle, andlate stage of development. We found that embryos of the middle and late developmental stages were tolerant to all doses,while eggs in the early developmental stage were tolerant only to a dose of 50 Gy, and showed a declining survival withhigher dose. We also observed a delay in development of irradiated eggs, suggesting that periods of DNA repair might havetaken place after irradiation induced damage. The delay was independent of dose for eggs irradiated in the middle and latestage, possibly indicating a fixed developmental schedule for repair after induced damage. These results show that thetolerance to radiation in tardigrade eggs changes in the course of their development. The mechanisms behind this patternare unknown, but may relate to changes in mitotic activities over the embryogenesis and/or to activation of responsemechanisms to damaged DNA in the course of development.

  • 15.
    Bertolani, Roberto
    et al.
    Italien.
    Guidetti, Roberto
    Italien.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Lund University.
    Altiero, Tiziana
    Italien.
    Boschini, Deborah
    Rebecchi, Lorena
    Italien.
    Experiences with dormancy in tardigrades2004In: Journal of limnology, ISSN 1129-5767, E-ISSN 1723-8633, Vol. 63, no Suppl. 1, p. 16-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tardigrades often colonise extreme habitats, in which they survive using both types of dormancy: quiescence and diapause. Together with nematodes and bdelloid rotifers, tardigrades are known to enter quiescence (with several forms of cryptobiosis: anhydrobiosis, cryobiosis, anoxybiosis, osmobiosis) at any stage of their life cycle, from egg to adult. Entering anhydrobiosis, tardigrades contract their body into a so-called tun, loosing most of their free and bound water (>95%), synthesizing cell protectants (e.g., trehalose, glycerol, heat shock proteins) and strongly reducing or suspending their metabolism. Our research on cryptobiosis focused on some ecological and evolutionary aspects. We evaluated: i) the long-term anhydrobiotic survival by comparing quantitative data on recovery from naturally induced desiccation in several species of tardigrades; ii) differences in survival patterns between species and populations by experimentally inducing anhydrobiosis and cryobiosis; iii) phenotypic factors affecting anhydrobiotic survival. As regards diapause, we considered encystment and eggs. Encystment involves at least the synthesis of new cuticular structures. Morphological changes during cyst formation are more complex than those involved in tun formation. We analyzed more in detail encystment processes, comparing a semiterrestrial with a limnic species. Several inter-specific differences have been identified, other than the production of two types of cysts in the semiterrestrial species. Our analysis of life history traits of a laboratory reared strain of a soil tardigrade revealed a particular hatching phenology that involved the production of both subitaneous and resting eggs. The latter need a cue to hatch (dehydration followed by re-hydration). In addition, the evolutionary meaning of dormancy in tardigrades is discussed

  • 16.
    Brink, Ebba
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Wamsler, Christine
    Lund University.
    Adolfsson, Maria
    Trelleborg Municipal.
    Axelsson, Monica
    Kristianstad Municipal.
    Beery, Thomas H.
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för matematik- och naturvetenskapernas didaktik.
    Bjorn, Helena
    Lomma Municipal.
    Bramryd, Torleif
    Lund University.
    Ekelund, Nils
    Malmö University.
    Jephson, Therese
    SALA.
    Narvelo, Widar
    Helsingborg Municipal.
    Ness, Barry
    lund University.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Palo, Thomas
    SLU Umeå.
    Sjeldrup, Magnus
    Bjuv Municipal.
    Stalhammar, Sanna
    Lund University.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    Lomma Municipal.
    On the road to 'research municipalities': analysing transdisciplinarity in municipal ecosystem services and adaptation planning2018In: Sustainability Science, ISSN 1862-4065, E-ISSN 1862-4057, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 765-784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transdisciplinary research and collaboration is widely acknowledged as a critical success factor for solution-oriented approaches that can tackle complex sustainability challenges, such as biodiversity loss, pollution, and climate-related hazards. In this context, city governments' engagement in transdisciplinarity is generally seen as a key condition for societal transformation towards sustainability. However, empirical evidence is rare. This paper presents a self-assessment of a joint research project on ecosystem services and climate adaptation planning (ECOSIMP) undertaken by four universities and seven Swedish municipalities. We apply a set of design principles and guiding questions for transdisciplinary sustainability projects and, on this basis, identify key aspects for supporting university-municipality collaboration. We show that: (1) selecting the number and type of project stakeholders requires more explicit consideration of the purpose of societal actors' participation; (2) concrete, interim benefits for participating practitioners and organisations need to be continuously discussed; (3) promoting the 'inter', i.e., interdisciplinary and inter-city learning, can support transdisciplinarity and, ultimately, urban sustainability and long-term change. In this context, we found that design principles for transdisciplinarity have the potential to (4) mitigate project shortcomings, even when transdisciplinarity is not an explicit aim, and (5) address differences and allow new voices to be heard. We propose additional guiding questions to address shortcomings and inspire reflexivity in transdisciplinary projects.

  • 17.
    Brink, Ebba
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Wamsler, Christine
    Lund University .
    Adolfsson, Maria
    Trelleborg Municipality.
    Axelsson, Monica
    Kristianstad Municipality.
    Beery, Thomas H.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Björn, Helena
    Lomma Municipality.
    Bramryd, Torleif
    Lund University.
    Ekelund, Nils
    Malmö University.
    Jephson, Therese
    Scania Association .
    Narvelo, Widar
    Helsingborg municipality.
    Ness, Barry
    Lund University .
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Palo, Thomas
    SLU Umeå.
    Sjeldrup, Magnus
    Bjuv Municipality.
    Stålhammar, Sanna
    Lund University .
    Thiere, Geraldine
    Lomma Municipality.
    On the road to ‘research municipalities’: analysing transdisciplinarity in municipal ecosystem services and adaptation planning2017In: Sustainability Science, ISSN 1862-4065, E-ISSN 1862-4057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transdisciplinary research and collaboration is widely acknowledged as a critical success factor for solution-oriented approaches that can tackle complex sustainability challenges, such as biodiversity loss, pollution, and climate-related hazards. In this context, city governments’ engagement in transdisciplinarity is generally seen as a key condition for societal transformation towards sustainability. However, empirical evidence is rare. This paper presentsa self-assessment of a joint research project on ecosystem services and climate adaptation planning (ECOSIMP) undertaken by four universities and seven Swedish municipalities. We apply a set of design principles and guiding questions for transdisciplinary sustainability projects and, on this basis, identify key aspects for supporting university–municipality collaboration. We show that: (1) selecting the number and type of project stakeholders requires more explicit consideration of the purpose of societal actors’ participation; (2) concrete, interim benefits for participating practitioners and organisations need to be continuously discussed; (3) promoting the ‘inter’, i.e., interdisciplinary and inter-city learning, can support transdisciplinarity and, ultimately, urban sustainability and long-term change. In this context, we found that design principles for transdisciplinarity have the potential to (4) mitigate project shortcomings, even when transdisciplinarity is not an explicit aim, and (5) address differences and allow new voices to be heard. We propose additional guiding questions to address shortcomings and inspire reflexivity in transdisciplinary projects.

  • 18.
    Brodin, Anders
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Lund University.
    Holmgren, Noél
    University of Skövde.
    Optimal energy allocation and behaviour in female raptorial birds during the nestling period2003In: Ecoscience, ISSN 1195-6860, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 140-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many raptors and owls the male is the main provider of food in the early phase of the nestling period while the female incubates the eggs and broods the young. In the nestling period the female often helps the male to feed the young, but the factors affecting whether and when she leaves the brood to hunt have not been investigated in detail. We present a dynamic state variable model that analyses female behaviour and fat storage dynamics over the nestling period. The results show that in the first half of the nestling period the female faces a conflict between the need to brood the young and the need to hunt to provision them with food. This conflict arises because the energy needs of the young peak early in the nestling period, at a time when they still cannot thermoregulate and therefore need brooding from the female. The most critical period is the second nestling week, when both female and nestling fat reserves will decrease to low levels. Large female fat reserves in the early nestling period provide a solution to this conflict and are essential for successful breeding. Stochasticity in male provisioning is thus not needed to explain why females should be fat when the eggs hatch. Under normal circumstances, the female broods during the first two weeks and leaves the young only if hunting is absolutely necessary. After the second week the energy requirements are relaxed, and whether the female assists the male in hunting or not depends on factors such as male hunting success, environmental stochasticity, and energy requirements of the young. Our model provides a framework for empirical investigations on female behaviour during breeding in raptors, owls, and other birds with marked division of labour.

  • 19.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Lund University.
    Differences between the iterated prisoner's dilemma and the chicken game under noisy conditions2002Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The prisoner's dilemma has evolved into a standard game for analyzing the success of cooperative strategies in repeated games. With the aim of investigating the behavior of strategies in some alternative games we analyzed the outcome of iterated games for both the prisoner's dilemma and the chicken game. In the chicken game, mutual defection is punished more strongly than in the prisoner's dilemma, and yields the lowest fitness. We also ran our analyses under different levels of noise. The results reveal a striking difference in the outcome between the games. Iterated chicken game needed more generations to find a winning strategy. It also favored nice, forgiving strategies able to forgive a defection from an opponent. In particular the well-known strategy tit-for-tat has a poor successrate under noisy conditions. The chicken game conditions may be relatively common in other sciences, and therefore we suggest that this game should receive more interest as a cooperative game from researchers within computer science.

  • 20.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    The success of cooperative strategies in the iterated prisoner's dilemma and the chicken game2007In: Scalable Computing: Practice and Experience: Scientific International Journal for Parallel and Distributed Computing, ISSN 1895-1767, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 87-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prisoner's dilemma has evolved into a standard game for analyzing the success of cooperative strategies in repeated games. With the aim of investigating the behavior of strategies in some alternative games we analyzed the outcome of iterated games for both the prisoner's dilemma and the chicken game. In the chicken game, mutual defection is punished more strongly than in the prisoner's dilemma, and yields the lowest fitness. We also ran our analyses under different levels of noise. The results reveal a striking difference in the outcome between the games. Iterated chicken game needed more generations to find a winning strategy. It also favored nice, forgiving strategies able to forgive a defection from an opponent. In particular the well-known strategy tit-for-tat has a poor successrate under noisy conditions. The chicken game conditions may be relatively common in other sciences, and therefore we suggest that this game should receive more interest as a cooperative game from researchers within computer science.

  • 21.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    et al.
    School of Engineering, Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Clark, Keith
    Department of Computing, Imperial College, London.
    Describing cryptobiosis as a time based protection system using Petri nets2008In: Biosignals 2008: proceedings of the first international conference on bio-inspired systems and signal processing, vol 1, Setubal: Insticc-Inst Syst Technologies Information Control & Communication , 2008, p. 281-285Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cryptobiosis represents the state of a living organism when it shows no visible signs of metabolic life, but maintains a capacity to return to an active, metabolic state. This peculiar state, although known from a wide variety of organisms, has received little attention from a theoretically biological perspective. A description based on a Petri net setting and a time based security model is proposed. In order to protect against a prolonged exposure time, the pathways for chemical reactions involved must fulfil their actions during a limited detection and response time to fulfil the protected state of entering/leaving cryptobiosis.

  • 22.
    Czernekova, Michaela
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Charles University, Prague.
    Janelt, Kamil
    Polen.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Chajec, Łukasz
    Polen.
    Student, Sebastian
    Polen.
    Poprawa, Izabela
    Polen.
    Ultrastructure and 3D reconstruction of the tun in Richtersius coronifer (Richters, 1903)2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anhydrobiosis is one of the types of cryptobiosis that is caused by lack of water (desiccation). Formation of a tun seems to be the most important morphological adaptation for entering anhydrobiotic state. During this process the tardigrade body undergo anterior-posterior contraction that causes relocation of some organs such as the pharyngeal bulb. The tun wall of Richtersius coronifer (Eutardigrada,  Macrobiotidae) was composed of multilayered cuticle and epidermis. The epidermis consisted of the single squamous epithelium whose cells were shrunken whereas  the cuticle was composed of epi-, intra- and procuticle, flocculent coat and trilaminate layer. The storage cells of desiccated specimens filled up free inner space and surrounded the internal organs (ovary, digestive system) that were contracted. All cells of the body underwent shrinking and their metabolism was arrested. The cytoplasm of all cells was electron dense but the basic morphology of cells and organelles did not differ between active and anhydrobiotic animals. The structure and the ultrastructure of the desiccated Richtersius coronifer have been described with light and confocal microscopy as well as transmission and scanning electron microscopy. 3D reconstruction of tun based on the series of semi-thin sections was prepared with IMARIS 8.2 software (Bitplane).

  • 23.
    Czernekova, Michaela
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Charles University, Prague.
    Janelt, Kamil
    Poland.
    Student, Sebastian
    Poland.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Poprawa, Izabela
    Poland.
    A comparative ultrastructure study of storage cells in the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer in the hydrated state and after desiccation and heating stress2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tardigrades represent an invertebrate phylum with no circulatory or respiratory system.Their body cavity is filled with free storage cells of the coelomocyte-type, which are responsible for important physiological functions. We report a study comparing the ultrastructure of storage cells in anhydrobiotic and hydrated specimens of the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer. We also analysed the effect of temperature stress on storage cell structure. Firstly, we verified two types of ultrastructurally different storage cells, which differ in cellular organelle complexity, amount and content of reserve material and connection to oogenetic stage. Type I cells were found to differ ultrastructurally depending on the oogenetic stage of the animal. The main function of these cells is energy storage. Storage cells of Type I were also observed in the single male that was found among the analysed specimens. The second cell type, Type II, found only in females, represents young undifferentiated cells, possibly stem cells. The two types of cells also differ with respect to the presence of nucleolar vacuoles,which are related to oogenetic stages and to changes in nucleolic activity during oogenesis. Secondly, this study revealed that storage cells are not ultrastructurally affected by six months of desiccation or by heating following this desiccation period. However, heating of the desiccated animals (tuns) tended to reduce animal survival, indicating that longterm desiccation makes these animals more vulnerable to heat stress. We confirmed the degradative pathways during the rehydration process after desiccation and heat stress. Our study is the first to document two ultrastructurally different types of storage cells in tardigrades and reveals new perspectives for further studies of tardigrade storage cells.

  • 24.
    Czernekova, Michaela
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Tjeckien.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Experimentally induced repeated anhydrobiosis in the Eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 11, article id e0164062Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tardigrades represent one of the main animal groups with anhydrobiotic capacity at any stage of their life cycle. The ability of tardigrades to survive repeated cycles of anhydrobiosis has rarely been studied but is of interest to understand the factors constraining anhydrobiotic survival. The main objective of this study was to investigate the patterns of survival of the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer under repeated cycles of desiccation, and the potential effect of repeated desiccation on size, shape and number of storage cells. We also analyzed potential change in body size, gut content and frequency of mitotic storage cells. Specimens were kept under non-cultured conditions and desiccated under controlled relative humidity. After each desiccation cycle 10 specimens were selected for analysis of morphometric characteristics and mitosis. The study demonstrates that tardigrades may survive up to 6 repeated desiccations, with declining survival rates with increased numberof desiccations. We found a significantly higher proportion of animals that were unable to contract properly into a tun stage during the desiccation process at the 5th and 6th desiccations. Also total number of storage cells declined at the 5th and 6th desiccations, while no effect on storage cell size was observed. The frequency of mitotic storage cells tended to decline with higher number of desiccation cycles. Our study shows that the number of consecutive cycles of anhydrobiosis that R. coronifer may undergo is limited, with increased inability for tun formation and energetic constraints as possible causal factors.

  • 25.
    Czernekova, Michaela
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Charles University, Prague.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Mitosis in storage cells of the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer2016In: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4082, E-ISSN 1096-3642, Vol. 178, no 4, p. 888-896Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although tardigrades are sometimes reported as eutelic animals, mitosis has been reported in several somatic tissues of adult eutardigrades. The occurrence of cell division in storage cells is particularly interesting in light of the important role that these cells play in the physiology of tardigrades. We present data on the occurrence of mitosis in storage cells of the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer (Richters, 1903), and analyse mitotic cells in relation to different body characteristics, including egg development stage, moulting, gut content, body length, number and size of oocytes, and shape and size of the storage cells. Mitosis was present in ~20% of all animals, and was more frequent in juveniles than in adults. The proportion of cells with mitosis (‘mitotic index’) was low: 0.76% in juveniles and 1.47% in adults. In juveniles, none of the measured phenotypic characters had significant predictive power for mitosis, whereas in adult animals in moult or in late egg developmental or post-laying stage were more likely to have mitotic storage cells. The association with the later part of the moulting process was particularly strong. The low mitotic index and the strong association with moulting suggests that mitosis in storage cells may be connected with somatic growth rather than cell renewal, and that the purpose of cell division may relate to a need of more cells to support the enlarged body after moulting. However, the specific life cycle of tardigrades, where energy intake and depletion, egg development, and moulting is highly intertwined and synchronized, make conclusions about the functional role of mitosis in storage cells difficult, however, and more studies are needed to reveal the mechanisms inducing mitosis in these interesting cells.

  • 26.
    Czernekova, Michaela
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Mitosis in storage cells of the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tardigrades are often reported as eutelic animals, characterized by a constant cell number after maturity and growing by cell enlargement rather than by increased cell number. However, mitosis has been reported in some of the somatic tissues of adult eutardigrades, including the storage cells, and are therefore not strictly eutelic. Very few studies have investigated the presence of mitosis in tardigrades, and the occurrence of cell division in storage cells is particularly interesting in light of the important role that these cells may play in the physiology and immunology of tardigrades. We present data on the occurrence of mitosis in storage cells of the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer and provide an analysis of storage cell mitosis in relation to different body characteristics. Specimens were examined for mitotic cells using in toto staining with aceto-lactic orcein, and the same animals were characterized with respect to egg development stage, number of oocytes, gut content, body size, and shape and size of the storage cells. Mitosis was present in ca. 30% of the animals. A large majority (3/4) of the animals with mitotic cells were found in specimens at moulting or directly after egg laying. Amount of gut content was associated with mitosis, with highest mitosis frequency (ca. 50%) in animals with an empty gut. These results for egg developmental stage (incl. moulting) and gut content are however not independent, since gut content generally decrease towards the end of the reproductive cycle. Other measured body characteristics did not influence the frequency of mitosis. In juveniles, mitotic cells were found in about half of the examined specimens. Our results suggest that proliferation of storage cells in R. coronifer is connected to the general life cycle dynamics, and provide a basis for more in depth analyses of the functional role and dynamics of storage cells in tardigrades.

  • 27.
    Czernekova, Michaela
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Tjeckien.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Chajec, Lukasz
    Polen.
    Student, Sebastian
    Polen.
    Poprawa, Izabela
    Polen.
    The structure of the desiccated Richtersius coronifer (Richters, 1903)2017In: Protoplasma, ISSN 0033-183X, E-ISSN 1615-6102, Vol. 254, no 3, p. 1367-1377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tun formation is an essential morphological adaptation for entering the anhydrobiotic state in tardigrades, but its internal structure has rarely been investigated. We present the structure and ultrastructure of organs and cells in desiccated Richtersius coronifer by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and histochemical methods. A 3D reconstruction of the body organization of the tun stage is also presented. The tun formation during anhydrobiosis of tardigrades is a process of anterior-posterior body contraction, which relocates some organs such as the pharyngeal bulb. The cuticle is composed of epicuticle, intracuticle and procuticle; flocculent coat; and trilaminate layer. Moulting does not seem to restrict the tun formation, as evidenced from tardigrade tuns that were in the process of moulting. The storage cells of desiccated specimens filled up the free inner space and surrounded internal organs, such as the ovary and digestive system, which were contracted. All cells (epidermal cells, storage cells, ovary cells, cells of the digestive system) underwent shrinkage, and their cytoplasm was electron dense. Lipids and polysaccharides dominated among reserve material of storage cells, while the amount of protein was small. The basic morphology of specific cell types and organelles did not differ between active and anhydrobiotic R. coronifer.

  • 28.
    Czernekova, Michaela
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Czech republic.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Hajer, Jaromir
    Czech republic.
    Devetter, Miroslav
    Czech Republic..
    Evaluation of extraction methods for quantitative analysis of tardigradepopulations in soil and leaf litter2018In: Pedobiologia, ISSN 0031-4056, E-ISSN 1873-1511, Vol. 70, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate quantitative analysis of soil tardigrades depends on a relevant extraction method. Over the years, a number of different methods have been used, but the efficiency of these methods has rarely been evaluated for soil and leaf litter tardigrades. Four methods of extraction were compared in this study: the light-cooling (L-C) extractor, the high-gradient (H-G), Baermann extractor, the non-gradient (N-G) Baermann extractor and sieves.The results indicate that light and temperature are significant factors influencing tardigrade extraction. The L-C and H-G extractors were more effective than sieves for all substrate categories. These extraction methods (L-C and H-G) therefore seem to be appropriate for quantitative studies of soil and leaf litter tardigrades.

  • 29.
    Czernekova, Michaela
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Charles University, Prague.
    Tassidis, Helena
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Holm, Ingvar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Primary Culture of Tardigrade Storage Cells from Richtersius coronifer Richters, 19032016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coelomocytes are macrophage-like cells in the body cavity or the coelomic spaces of many invertebrates and play major roles in their physiology and immunology. Their structure, function and diversity, however, is still poorly understood.

    Tardigrades are micrometazoans inhabiting a wide variety of environments and with an ability to survive extreme conditions. Coelomocytes (“storage cells”) represent an important part of tardigrade physiology, storing and distributing energy and possibly also having immunological functions. Few studies of tardigrade cell biology have been reported and neither primary nor continuous cell cultures have been established. Tardigrades are normally found and also cultured in an environment rich in microorganisms, some of which may even be of symbiotic value.

    In this study we have tried to establish a primary culture of storage cells in the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer. Different cell media and concentrations of fetal bovine serum (FBS) were tested. Extracting cells from the tardigrades in an antiseptical environment is challenging since it has to be done under a microscope and contamination from the tardigrades surface is also a problem. To avoid this we tried culturing with high concentrations of antibiotics and antimycotics. We managed to keep the cells viable for up to 18 days in Grace insect medium with 10 % FBS at 20-22°C. The medium was changed every third day. 10x Antibiotic-Antimycotic and 5x of Penicillin-Streptomycin were used to minimize contamination. These concentrations reduce the bacterial abundance, but contamination with fungi was still an issue. Cell morphology evaluation was performed daily and no obvious toxic effects on the cells was observed. Cell viability and cell division were evaluated with Trypan blue staining and cell counting in a haemocytometer. The results indicate that the cells are viable and that some cell division occurs, however more studies need to be performed to confirm this. Still, this study provides the first evidence that primary cultures of storage cells from tardigrades are possible to establish, but the culturing method has to be refined to avoid contamination.

  • 30.
    Ekelund, Nils
    et al.
    Malmö University.
    Bramryd, Torleif
    Lund University.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Palo, Thomas
    Umeå University.
    Wamsler, Christine
    Lund University.
    Implementing the Ecosystem Services Approach at the municipal level: a transdisciplinary project with coastal communities in south Sweden2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden a unique project supported by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency will be developed in close collaboration with coastal municipalities in Skåne, and with a coordinating role by Skåne´s Association of Local Authorities. These municipalities face a range of different environmental challenges, from areas along the eastern coast line facing problems related to the Baltic Sea, to municipalities in the Öresund region. In this study a range of different environmental conditions and related ecosystem services, from vulnerability to floods, erosion and sea level rise to strong pressure on coastal systems from urbanization will be investigated. Research questions and directions are built on cases and scenarios which are a part of the local municipality planning process. The approach will be to study the premises of implementing the Ecosystem Services (ES) in municipal planning and decision making of five coastal municipalities. The present study will analyse past decisions, present planning and future challenges for municipality development and management from the perspective of ES, with the aim of increasing our understanding of the ES concept as a tool for sustainable development. A second aim of the project is to evaluate the potential value of connecting the ES approach to ongoing climate change adaptation in the municipalities. The project will use the six-step approach developed by the Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity framework (TEEB) as the main conceptual frame. This approach includes the following steps: 1) Identifying and agreeing on the problem with stakeholders, 2) Identify the ES which are most relevant and pressing in municipality planning, 3) Collect and identify the information needs and the method to collect the data, 4) Assess expected changes in ES due to decision and input from society, 5) Identify policy options based on changes in ES and 6) Assess social and environmental impacts of 1-5.

  • 31.
    Faurby, Sören
    et al.
    Danmark.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Rebecchi, L.
    Italien.
    Funch, P.
    Danmark.
    Variation in anhydrobiotic survival of two eutardigrade morphospecies: a story of cryptic species and their dispersal2008In: Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0952-8369, E-ISSN 1469-7998, Vol. 275, no 2, p. 139-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of geographic variation in anhydrobiotic tolerance may increase our understanding of the population dynamics of terrestrial meiofauna and the relative importance of local adaptation and microhabitat niche separation. Although anhydrobiosis in tardigrades has been studied extensively, few studies have dealt with intraspecific variation in survival and none of these included genetic data to validate the intraspecific nature of the comparisons. Such data are necessary when working with meiofauna as cryptic species are common. We analysed the anhydrobiotic survival and genetic variation in cytochrome oxidase subunit I of two eutardigrades (Richtersius coronifer and Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri) from Italy and Sweden to detect possible local adaptation. Survival was analysed as a multidimensional contingency table and showed that anhydrobiotic survival was higher in Sweden for Ra. oberhaeuseri whereas no significant geographic variation was found for Ri. coronifer. Our genetic analysis indicated the coexistence of two cryptic species of Ra. oberhaeuseri in Italy, only one of which was found in Sweden. It could not be determined whether the variation in Ramazzottius is intra- or interspecific due to the presence of these cryptic species. We suggest that geographic variation in anhydrobiotic survival may be a general phenomenon in tardigrades but further research is necessary to determine the degree of intraspecific variation. The genetic analysis showed indications of long-term isolation of the individual populations of Ri. coronifer but recent dispersal in one of the cryptic species of Ramazzottius. We found higher survival in Ra. oberhaeuseri than in Ri. coronifer. These results indicate a possible coupling between anhydrobiotic survival and dispersal rate.

  • 32.
    Guidetti, Roberto
    et al.
    Italien.
    Jönsson, K Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Møbjerg Kristensen, Reinhardt
    Danmark.
    Tardigrades of Sweden: an updated check-list2015In: Zootaxa, ISSN 1175-5326, E-ISSN 1175-5334, Vol. 3981, no 4, p. 491-507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tardigrades occur worldwide and in a variety of ecosystems and habitats representing an important component of the micrometazoan biodiversity. Several studies documenting the occurrence of tardigrades in Sweden have been published since the first reports in early 1900, but no comprehensive summary of these studies have been published. We compiled the available information on recorded tardigrades from Sweden, using material from published studies and museum and university collections. In total, our review document 101 species of tardigrades that have been recorded from Sweden (an updated checklist of tardigrades from Sweden will be available online), of which 14 species are new records for the country. The highest number of species was recorded in the northernmost province of Lappland and the more southern provinces of Uppland and Skåne, while much lower species numbers are reported from the middle part of Sweden. This pattern probably represents biased sampling activities of biologists rather than real differences in biodiversity of tardigrades. In view of the few studies that have been made on tardigrade biodiversity in Sweden, the relatively high number of tardigrade species recorded, representing almost a tenth of the species recorded worldwide, indicates that many more species remain to be found. In this respect, more studies of the marine ecosystems along the Swedish west coast and the long Baltic Sea coastline would be of particular interest.

  • 33.
    Guidetti, Roberto
    et al.
    Italien.
    Rebecchi, Lorena
    Italien.
    Bertolani, Roberto
    Italien.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Kristensen, Reinhardt M.
    Danmark.
    Cesari, Michele
    Italien.
    Morphological and molecular analyses on Richtersius (Eutardigrada) diversity reveal its new systematic position and lead to the establishment of a new genus and a new family within Macrobiotoidea2016In: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4082, E-ISSN 1096-3642, Vol. 178, no 4, p. 834-845Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Important contributions have been made to the systematics of Eutardigrada in recent years, but these have also revealed that several taxa are polyphyletic and that cryptic species are present. To shed light on the taxonomy and systematic position of the genus Richtersius (Eutardigrada, Macrobiotoidea), six populations attributed to Richtersius coronifer were collected and analysed from morphological (light and scanning electron microscopy) and molecular (mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1, 18S, 28S) points of view. In particular, a new morphometric index (claw common tract: length of the common tract of the claw/total claw length × 100) and a new morphological character (stalk system) were introduced. Our integrative study was able to unveil the ‘cryptic’ species diversity within Richtersius, showing that the genus contains more than one evolutionary lineage. A morphological peculiarity in the animals of all lineages is the dimorphism in the morphology of the cuticle. Cuticular pores are present in the newborns and are lost with the first moult; this morphological change represents a novelty in the life cycle of eutardigrades. The phylogenetic analyses carried out on Richtersius populations and other Macrobiotoidea show that Richtersius is closely related to Macrobiotus islandicus, whereas Adorybiotus granulatus is more related to Richtersius and M. islandicus than to other members of the genus Macrobiotus (type genus of Macrobiotidae); therefore, the genus Macrobiotus and the family Macrobiotidae are not monophyletic. Based on these results, the new genus Diaforobiotus (for M. islandicus) and the new family Richtersiidae (composed of Richtersius, Diaforobiotus gen. nov., and Adorybiotus) are established.

  • 34.
    Gulsrud, Natalie M.
    et al.
    Denmark.
    Raymond, Christopher M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Rutt, Rebecca L.
    Denmark.
    Stahl Olafson, Anton
    Denmark.
    Plieninger, Tobias
    Denmark.
    Sandberg, Mattias
    University of Gothenburg.
    Beery, Thomas H.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för matematik- och naturvetenskapernas didaktik.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    ‘Rage against the machine’?: the opportunities and risks concerning the automation of urban green infrastructure2018In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 180, p. 85-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary society is increasingly impacted by automation; however, few studies have considered the potential consequences of automation on ecosystems and their management (hereafter the automation of urbangreen infrastructure or UGI). This Perspective Essay takes up this discussion by asking how a digital approach to UGI planning and management mediates the configuration and development of UGI and to whose benefit? This is done through a review of key issues and trends in digital approaches to UGI planning and management. We first conceptualize automation from a social, ecological, and technological interactions perspective and use this lens to present an overview of the risks and opportunities of UGI automation with respect to selected case studies. Results of this analysis are used to develop a conceptual framework for the assessment of the material and governance implications of automated UGIs. We find that, within any given perspective, the automation of UGI entails a complex dialectic between efficiency, human agency and empowerment. Further, risks and opportunities associated with UGI automation are not fixed but are dynamic properties of changing contextual tensions concerning power, actors, rules of the game and discourse at multiple scales. We conclude the paper by outlining a research agenda on how to consider different digital advances within a social-ecological-technological approach.

  • 35.
    Hettyey, Attila
    et al.
    Ungern.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University.
    Herczeg, Gábor
    Ungern.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Lund University.
    Kovács, Tibor
    Ungern.
    Merilä, Juha
    Finland.
    Does testis weight decline towards the Subarctic?: a case study on the common frog, Rana temporaria2005In: Die Naturwissenschaften, ISSN 0028-1042, E-ISSN 1432-1904, Vol. 92, no 4, p. 188-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interpopulation comparisons of variation in resource availability and in allocation patterns along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients allow insights into the mechanisms shaping the life history of animals. Patterns of between-population differences in female life history traits have been studied intensively across a wide range of taxa, but similar investigations in males have remained scarce. To study if testis weight-a measure of reproductive investment-varies on a geographical scale in anurans, we focussed on the variation in relative testis weight (RelTW) and asymmetry in 22 populations of the common frog Rana temporaria along a 1,600-km latitudinal transect across the Scandinavian peninsula. We found that RelTW decreased towards the north. Body mass and body length both had independent positive effects on testes mass. We found evidence for directional asymmetry (DA) in testis weight with the right testis being larger than the left. The level of DA in testis weight was not related to latitude, but both body mass and testes mass had independent positive effects on asymmetry. We discuss the northwards decrease in RelTW in terms of a decreased reproductive investment as a possible consequence of harsher environmental conditions, and perhaps also, weaker sexual selection in the north than in the south.

  • 36.
    Hjernquist, Mårten B.
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Söderman, Fredrik
    Uppsala University.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Herczeg, Gábor
    Finland.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University.
    Merilä, Juha
    Finland.
    Seasonality determines patterns of growth and age structure over a geographic gradient in an ectothermic vertebrate2012In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 170, no 3, p. 641-649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental variation connected with seasonality is likely to affect the evolution of life-history strategies in ectotherms, but there is no consensus as to how important life-history traits like body size are influenced by environmental variation along seasonal gradients. We compared adult body size, skeletal growth, mean age, age at first reproduction and longevity among 11 common frog ( Rana temporaria ) populations sampled along a 1,600-km-long latitudinal gradient across Scandinavia. Mean age, age at first reproduction and longevity increased linearly with decreasing growth season length. Lifetime activity (i.e. the estimated number of active days during life-time) was highest at mid-latitudes and females had on average more active days throughout their lives than males. Variation in body size was due to differences in lifetime activity among populations—individuals (especially females) were largest where they had the longest cumulative activity period—as well as to differences between populations in skeletal growth rate as determined by skeletochronological analyses. Especially, males grew faster at intermediate latitudes. While life-history trait variation was strongly associated with latitude, the direction and shape of these relationships were sex- and trait-specific. These context-dependent relationships may be the result of life-history trade-offs enforced by differences in future reproductive opportunities and time constraints among the populations. Thus, seasonality appears to be an important environmental factor shaping life-history trait variation in common frogs.

  • 37.
    Ivarsson, Helen
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Lund University.
    Aggregation effects on anhydrobiotic survival in the tardigrade Richtersius coronifer2004In: Journal of experimental zoology. Part A, Comparative experimental biology, ISSN 1548-8969, Vol. 301, no 2, p. 195-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For anhydrobiotic metazoans the rate of desiccation is an important factor influencing the probability of survival in a dry anhydrobiotic state. Formation of animal aggregations, in which the exposed body surface area of individual animals is reduced, represents one way to reduce the rate of evaporation. Such aggregations have earlier been documented in e.g., nematodes. We experimentally evaluate the effect of aggregation size (number of animals in a group of desiccating animals) on anhydrobiotic survival in the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer. The experiment shows that aggregation provides a clear improvement on anhydrobiotic survival. The most likely explanation for this is that aggregated animals were exposed to a lower rate of desiccation. Although the empirical evidence of aggregation in tardigrades is scarce, our study suggests that aggregation could potentially be an important survival factor for tardigrades living in environments characterized by periods of rapid desiccation.

  • 38.
    Jönsson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    ECOSIMP – ett transdisciplinärt projekt om införlivandet av ekosystemtjänstbegreppet i kommunala plan- och beslutsprocesser2015In: Vattenriket i Fokus, ISSN 1653-9338, Vol. 2015, no 4, p. 44-47Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The project “Implementing the ecosystem services concept at the municipal level” (ECOSIMP, 2013-2016) studies the conditions for integrating the concept and approach of ecosystem services into municipal planning and decision-making. The project is performed in close cooperation with representatives from the seven municipalities Kristianstad, Simrishamn, Trelleborg, Malmö, Lomma, Helsingborg and Båstad in the province Skåne, Region Skåne and Skåne Association of Local Authorities. The project includes studies of how municipality officials and politicians view the opportunities and obstacles to implement the concept, as well as studies of historical and present planning and decision cases involving aspects of ecosystem services. The final report from the project will be delivered at the end of 2016.

  • 39.
    Jönsson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health – Högskolan Kristianstads miljöforskning i Biosfärområde Kristianstads Vattenrike2015Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Jönsson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health och forskningen i Kristianstads Vattenrike2015In: Vattenriket i Fokus, ISSN 1653-9338, Vol. 2015, no 4, p. 2-6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Man and Biosphere Health (MABH, www.hkr.se/mabh) is a multidisciplinary research platform at Kristianstad University focusing on the interactions between human impacts on ecosystems, ecosystem functioning and biodiversity, and human health and well-being. The platform was established in 2009 and currently has 29 members from a variety of scientific fields, including microbiology, ecology, and environmental technology/chemistry/education, and has a profile towards applied sustainability research in aquatic systems. The name of the platform connects directly to the UNESCO biosphere programme “Man and the Biosphere”, which consider human populations as an integrated part of the ecosystems. The location of Kristianstad University with the biosphere reserve Kristianstads Vattenrike provides MABH with a unique opportunity to contribute to the supporting functions (which include research) within the biosphere reserve, and to benefit from the manifold activities and practical social-ecological projects taking place. Within its research, MABH collaborates with many societal partners, both local, regional and national, and with businesses, and has a wide international network of collaborators.

  • 41.
    Jönsson, Ingemar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Beltran-Pardo, Eliana
    Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Instituto de Genética Humana, Bogotá.
    Haghdoost, Siamak
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University.
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University.
    Bermúdez-Cruz, Rosa María
    Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional - CINVESTAV, Mexico City.
    Bernal Villegas, Jaime E.
    Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Instituto de Genética Humana, Bogotá.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Mats
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University.
    Tolerance to gamma-irradiation in eggs of the tardigrade Richtersius coronifer depends on stage of development2013In: Journal of limnology, ISSN 1129-5767, E-ISSN 1723-8633, Vol. 72, no s1, p. 73-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tardigrades are known as one of the most radiation tolerant animals on Earth, and several studies on tolerance in adult tardigrades have been published. In contrast, very few studies on radiation tolerance of embryonic stages have been reported. Here we report a study on tolerance to gamma irradiation in eggs of the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer. Irradiation of eggs collected directly from a natural substrate (moss) showed a clear dose-response, with a steep decline in hatchability at doses up to 0.4 kGy followed by a relatively constant hatchability around 25% up to 2 kGy, and a decline to ca. 5% at 4 kGy above which no eggs hatched. Analysis of the time required for eggs to hatch after irradiation (residual development time) showed that hatching of eggs after exposure to high doses of gamma radiation was associated with short residual development time. Since short residual development time means that the egg was irradiated at a late developmental stage, this suggests that eggs were more tolerant to radiation late in development. This was also confirmed in another experiment in which stage of development at irradiation was controlled. No eggs irradiated at the early developmental stage hatched, and only one egg at middle stage hatched, while eggs irradiated in the late stage hatched at a rate indistinguishable from controls. This suggests that the eggs are more sensitive to radiation in the early stages of development, or that tolerance to radiation is acquired only late in development, shortly before the eggs hatch, hypotheses that are not mutually exclusive. Our study emphasizes the importance of considering specific cell cycle phases and developmental stages in studies of tolerance to radiation in tardigrades, and the potential importance of embryonic studies in revealing the mechanisms behind the radiation tolerance of tardigrades and other cryptobiotic animals.

  • 42.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Lund University.
    Björndjur2001In: Biologen, ISSN 0345-1127, no 1, p. 43-47Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 43.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Lund University.
    Djuret som pendlar mellan liv och död2001In: Finlands natur, ISSN 0356-4509, no 3, p. 22-24Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Lund University.
    Inget liv utan vatten2001In: Forskning och framsteg, ISSN 0015-7937, no 6, p. 59-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Long-term experimental manipulation of moisture conditions and its impact on moss-living tardigrades2007In: Journal of limnology, ISSN 1129-5767, E-ISSN 1723-8633, Vol. 66, no Suppl. 1, p. 119-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of long-term experimentally modified hydration conditions on populations of moss-living tardigrades were investigated in a naturally dry South-Swedish alvar environment at the Island Öland. Carbonite rocks with mosses were collected from rock fences and arranged in three experimental groups: increased dehydration, increased hydration, and control. The total experimental period was 18 months, with treatments applied during two 6 month periods. The density of tardigrade populations was recorded. The total population of tardigrades, all species included, tended to be lower under watering treatment, but the difference was only marginally significant. Populations of Richtersius coronifer and Echiniscus spiniger did not respond to the treatments, while populations of Milnesium tardigradum declined under conditions of increased hydration. The density of eggs in R. coronifer was also lower in the watering treatment. Thus, no positive response to increased hydration was recorded. These results suggest that the tardigrade populations either were not limited by the amount of hydrated periods, or that some other factor(s) counteracted the expected positive response to increased hydration. All populations showed a high variability in density among different moss samples, and the rock from which a sample was taken explained a significant part of this variability. This confirms a commonly believed, but seldom quantified, high heterogeneity in density of semi-terrestrial tardigrades, also among seemingly very similar substrates.

  • 46.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Lunds universitet.
    On the disparate terminological use of the concept cryptobiosis2004In: Journal of Fish Diseases, ISSN 0140-7775, E-ISSN 1365-2761, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 175-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conceptual and terminological consistency is an important component of science, promoting clarity and preventing confusion. Scientists should therefore always try to avoid giving different meanings to the same term. Apart from this general aspect, multiple definitions of a single term also give rise to practical problems, particularly in connection with literature search. In this note, I will bring attention to a term, cryptobiosis, that has relatively recently appeared in the field of fish disease research, but which has a much longer history and use in a completely different area.

    The concept of cryptobiosis was introduced by Keilin (1959) and defined as ‘the state of an organism when it shows no visible signs of life and when its metabolic activity becomes hardly measurable, or comes reversibly to a standstill’ (Keilin 1959, p. 166). Cryptobiosis replaced the earlier term anabiosis, and is today generally accepted as the common term for different ametabolic life forms (e.g. Clegg 2001; Wright 2001). Cryptobiosis means ‘hidden life’, an appropriate name for a state in which all traditional attributes of life (metabolism, reproduction, DNA replication) are absent. Cryptobiotic life forms have been documented in a variety of organisms, including both plants and animals, but in the latter category mainly among invertebrates (Wright, Westh & Ramløv 1992). Cryptobiosis is commonly induced by desiccation (so-called anhydrobiosis; e.g. Keilin 1959; Jönsson 2001), and aquatic invertebrates such as rotifers, nematodes and tardigrades living in microhabitats exposed to rapid desiccation frequently enter a cryptobiotic state. The research field dealing with cryptobiotic, sensu ametabolic, life forms has expanded considerably during the last 30 years, to a large extent fuelled by the detection of the ability of the disaccharide trehalose to protect dry and frozen biological cells (Crowe 2002).

    More recently, a completely different use of the term cryptobiosis has appeared in the literature on fish disease. In this literature, the term refers to infections of fish by biflagellated protozoa of the genus Cryptobia. Because of the economic importance of salmonid fish, much of the Cryptobia research has focused on Cryptobia salmositica (Katz) that infects salmonids (Woo 2001). The origin of the term cryptobiosis within fish pathology and studies of Cryptobia is unclear, but the earliest record of the term that I have found is Obradovic & Fijan (1979) who used it in a paper on chemotherapeutic treatment against Cryptobia in carp. From 1987 onwards, Woo et al. have used the term frequently (e.g. Woo, Leatherland & Lee 1987; Woo 1987, 1998, 2001), but apparently without any comments on the original proposal of the term. Curiously, few other researchers on Cryptobia seem to have adopted the cryptobiosis terminology, at least as judged from an examination of published titles. Other authors have instead used the expression ‘infections by Cryptobia’. Although using cryptobiosis as a term for infections by Cryptobia is consistent with the rule of creating names for infectious diseases by putting -osis as a post-fix to the name of the infecting organism, in the current case it creates terminological confusion.

    The problems of using the term cryptobiosis in several unrelated fields are obvious. A title such as ‘The biology of cryptobiosis’ would attract the attention of many students interested in ametabolic life forms. They would be disappointed, however, if the paper turned out to be about Cryptobia infection biology. Similarly, fish biologists would find the publication irrelevant to their research if it were properly confined to ametabolic life forms.

    Because ‘cryptobiosis’ as a term for ametabolic life forms is well established and has been used for more than 40 years, it should have priority over the more recent and limited use within fish pathology. I therefore hope that fish pathologists will avoid using the term cryptobiosis and instead use ‘infections by Cryptobia’, ‘cryptobiasis’ or some other term that does not interfere with already established terminology.

  • 47.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Lund University.
    Population density and species composition of moss-living tardigrades in a boreo-nemoral forest2003In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 356-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates for the first time the tardigrade fauna in a variety of different mosses from a coniferous forest and an adjacent clear-cut area in southern Sweden. Tardigrades were found in a majority of the samples. Sixteen species were recorded, of which the cosmopolitan species Macrobiotus hufelandi was the far most common. Some mosses, particularly species with "wefts" growth form, contained more tardigrades than other mosses, indicating that growth form may have an impact on tardigrade abundance. Mosses of the same species collected from a forest and from a clear-cut, respectively, did not show a general trend in the overall abundance of tardigrades, but the forest tended to contain more species. Five species of tardigrades (Murrayon dianae, Isohypsibius sattleri, Platicrista angustata, Diphascon belgicae and Diphascon pingue) never previously reported from Sweden were recorded.

  • 48.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Radiation tolerance in tardigrades: evidence and implications2008In: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A, ISSN 1095-6433, E-ISSN 1531-4332, Vol. 151, no Suppl. 1, p. S33-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tardigrades belong to the most desiccation-tolerant animals on Earth, and are able to lose practically all water in their cells without dying. Recent investigations have also confirmed a seminal study from 1964 showing that tardigrades have an extraordinary tolerance also to ionizing radiation. The biochemical and physiological mechanisms behind these two tolerance phenomena, and the possible functional link between them, is currently not understood. However, the finding that desiccated and non-desiccated tardigrades show similar tolerances to ionizing radiation suggests that radiation tolerance in these animals is not a physical function of the dry state. Rather, both mechanisms preventing damage and mechanisms repairing damage to cell components are likely to be involved. The possible involvement of DNA repair mechanisms in tolerances of anhydrobiotic animals make them of special interest for understanding naturally evolved adaptations for coping with environmental agents inducing damage to DNA. I will summarize our current knowledge about radiation tolerance in tardigrades and other anhydrobiotic animals, discuss some of its implications for our understanding of desiccation tolerance, and also present some recent data on radiation tolerance in tardigrade embryos.

  • 49.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Lund University.
    Skendödens mästare1999In: Forskning och framsteg, ISSN 0015-7937, no 7, p. 38-41Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 50.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Tardigrades as a potential model organism in space research2007In: Astrobiology, ISSN 1531-1074, E-ISSN 1557-8070, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 757-766Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure of living organisms to open space requires a high level of tolerance to desiccation, cold, and radiation. Among animals, only anhydrobiotic species can fulfill these requirements. The invertebrate phylum Tardigrada includes many anhydrobiotic species, which are adapted to survive in very dry or cold environmental conditions. As a likely by-product of the adaptations for desiccation and freezing, tardigrades also show a very high tolerance to a number of other, unnatural conditions, including exposure to ionizing radiation. This makes tardigrades an interesting candidate for experimental exposure to open space. This paper reviews the tolerances that make tardigrades suitable for astrobiological studies and the reported radiation tolerance in other anhydrobiotic animals. Several studies have shown that tardigrades can survive gamma-irradiation well above 1 kilogray, and desiccated and hydrated (active) tardigrades respond similarly to irradiation. Thus, tolerance is not restricted to the dry anhydrobiotic state, and I discuss the possible involvement of an efficient, but yet undocumented, mechanism for DNA repair. Other anhydrobiotic animals (Artemia, Polypedium), when dessicated, show a higher tolerance to gamma-irradiation than hydrated animals, possibly due to the presence of high levels of the protective disaccharide trehalose in the dry state. Tardigrades and other anhydrobiotic animals provide a unique opportunity to study the effects of space exposure on metabolically inactive but vital metazoans.

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