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  • 1.
    Bodin, Hristina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). SLU, Alnarp.
    Asp, Håkan
    SLU, Alnarp.
    Hultberg, Malin
    SLU, Alnarp.
    Effects of biopellets composed of microalgae and fungi on cadmium present at environmentally relevant levels in water2017In: International journal of phytoremediation, ISSN 1522-6514, E-ISSN 1549-7879, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 500-504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Removal of cadmium (Cd) present at low levels (1 µg L−1) in water was investigated using three different microorganism treatments: the microalga Chlorella vulgaris, the fungus Aspergillus niger and for the first time biopellets composed of C. vulgaris and A. niger. After 5 days, all microorganism treatments resulted in significantly lower Cd concentrations compared with the control. Biopellets treatment resulted in significantly lower pH values than other microorganism treatments, indicating that the biopellets should be investigated further for their water treatment capacity, since pH is a factor affecting the fate of numerous pollutants in water. Use of biopellets as a method to simplify harvesting of microalgae from water is also suggested.

  • 2.
    Bodin, Hristina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Daneshvar, Atlasi
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Gros, Meritxell
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Hultberg, Malin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Effects of biopellets composed of microalgae and fungi on pharmaceuticals present at environmentally relevant levels in water2016In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 91, p. 169-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Removal of seven pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen, carbamazepine, diclofenac, metoprolol, naproxen, ranitidine and sulfamethoxazole) from water was investigated using three different microbial treatments with: (1) the microalga Chlorella vulgaris, (2) the fungus Aspergillus niger and (3) biopellets composed of both microorganisms. The three-day experiment was performed under laboratory conditions and pharmaceuticals were spiked at the environmentally relevant concentration of 10 mu g L-1. The biopellets and fungal treatments resulted in significantly lower ranitidine concentration compared with the initial value. Also, treatment with biopellets resulted in significantly lower final ranitidine concentrations compared to those found after control and microalgal treatments. Low removal rates were obtained for other substances, possibly because the amount of microbial biomass used was 16-500-fold lower than that normally used in activated sludge processes in wastewater treatments plants. Thus, the pharmaceutical removal potential, elimination potential and performance of biopellets should be further investigated at higher biomass concentrations. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 3.
    Bodin, Hristina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Halmstad University.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University.
    Attenuation of pharmaceutical substances: phytoremediation using constructed wetlands2018In: 13th Society of wetland scientists (SWS) Europe chapter meeting: management of wetland ecosystem services: issues, challenges and solutions, 2018, p. 19-22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Currently, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) do not efficiently remove pharmaceutical substances (PS). Thus, such substances are now frequently found in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Also, concentrations of some PS in treated effluents exceed Environmental Quality Standards proposed by EU legislation. One resource-efficient option for increasing PS removal in WWTP effluents is to use constructed wetlands (CWs) as an attenuation step (Breitholtz et al. 2012; Li et al. 2014). However, very little research has been done on how to maximize the PS attenuation capacity of CWs. Therefore, a project with the aim to investigate reduction of different pharmaceutical substances in CWs with different vegetation compositions and water depths, was performed at the Experimental Wetland Area (EVA) located 20 km north of Halmstad, Sweden. 

  • 4.
    Bodin, Hristina
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Mietto, Anna
    Italien.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Halmstad University.
    Persson, Jesper
    SLU, Alnarp.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    Halmstad University.
    Tracer behaviour and analysis of hydraulics in experimental free water surface wetlands2012In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 49, p. 201-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of inlet design and vegetation type on tracer dynamics and hydraulic performance were investigated using lithium chloride in 18 experimental free water surface wetlands. The wetlands received similar water flow but had different vegetation types: 6 emergent vegetation wetlands (EVWs), 6 submerged vegetation wetlands (SVWs) and 6 free development wetlands (FDWs). Two types of inlet designs were applied: half of each wetland vegetation type had a barrier near the inlet to help distribute incoming tracer solution, while the rest had no barrier. Residence time distribution (RTD) functions were calculated from tracer data using two techniques: method of moments and a novel Gauss modelling approach. RTD functions were used to quantify hydraulic parameters: active wetland volume (e-value), water dispersion (N-value) and hydraulic efficiency (-value). For wetlands without barrier, significantly lower tracer mass recoveries were found from EVWs compared to FDWs and SVWs, signifying a risk of tracer methodological problems in small densely vegetated wetlands. These problems were minimized in wetlands with an inflow construction promoting distribution of incoming tracer solution. Compared to the method of moments, Gauss modelling seemed to produce more reliable -values but less reliable N-values. Data for precise hydraulic quantification were lost by Gauss modelling, as indicated by overall lower variance in these data sets and lower mass recoveries. However, Gauss modelling may minimize uncertainties associated with lithium immobilization/mobilization. Parameters were significantly affected by the RTD data analysis method, showing that the choice of method could affect evaluation of wetland hydraulics. The experimental wetlands in this study exhibited relatively high e-values and low N-values. This was probably caused by the small size of the wetlands and low water flow velocities, emphasizing that hydraulic parameter values obtained in small experimental wetlands may not be applicable to hydraulics in larger wetlands. The method of moments revealed lower e-values from EVWs compared to SVWs and FDWs. It was indicated that lower e-values were mainly caused by vegetation volumes. This highlighted a need for regular maintenance to secure efficient treatment volume in wetlands with dense vegetation.

  • 5.
    Bodin, Hristina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Persson, Jesper
    SLU.
    Hydraulic performance of small free water surface constructed wetlands treating sugar factory effluent in western Kenya2012In: Hydrology Research, ISSN 1998-9563, Vol. 43, p. 476-488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated, usinga iithium salt tracer, how macrophyte species and hydraulic ioading rate (HLR) of wastewater infiuenced hydrauiics in constructed wetiands (CWs). Four piiot-scale CWs received 45 mm/day of pre-treated sugar factory effluent and another four received 110 mm/day.Haif the CWs were planted with Cyperus papyrus and haif with Echinochloa pyramidalis. Resuits showed a significant negative connection between tracer mass recovery and wetiand water leaioges. Aiso, a significant negative reiationship between active wetiand water volume and macrophyte density was detected. Further, a significant effect of HLR on mass removal rates of NH/-N was observed. However, no significant effect of either HLR or macrophyte species on wetland hydraulic parameters was found.

    Keywords | constructed wetiand, Cyperus papyrus. Echinochloa pyramidalis, hydrauiic ioading rate, hydraulic tracer study, vegetation

  • 6.
    Bodin, Hristina
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Persson, Jesper
    SLU, Alnarp.
    Englund, Jan-Erik
    SLU, Alnarp.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University.
    Influence of residence time analyses on estimates of wetland hydraulics and pollutant removal2013In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 501, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydraulic tracer studies are frequently used to estimate wetland residence time distributions (RTDs) and ultimately pollutant removal. However, there is no consensus on how to analyse these data. We set out to (i) review the different methods used and (ii) use simulations to explore how the data analysis method influences the quantification of wetland hydraulics and pollutant removal. The results showed that the method influences the water dispersion (N) most strongly and the removal least strongly. The influence increased with decreasing effective volume ratio (e) and N, indicating a greater effect of the method in wetlands with low effective volume and high dispersion. The method of moments with RTD truncation at 3 times the theoretical residence time (tn) and tracer background concentration produced the most dissimilar parameters. The most similar parameters values were those for gamma modelling and the method of moments with RTD truncation at tracer background concentration. For correct removal estimates, e was more important than N. However, the results from the literature review and simulations indicated that previously published articles may contain overestimated e and underestimated N values as a result of frequent RTD truncations at 3tn when using the method of moments. As a result, the removal rates may also be overestimated by as much as 14% compared to other truncation methods or modelling. Thus, it is recommended that wetland hydraulic tracer studies should use the same method, specifically, RTD truncation. We conclude that the choice of tracer data analysis method can greatly influence the quantifications of wetland hydraulics and removal rate.

  • 7. Bojcevska, Hristina
    et al.
    Raburu, Philip O.
    Kenya.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University.
    Free water surface constructed wetlands for polishing sugar factory effluent in western Kenya: macrophyte phosphorus recovery and treatment results2006In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control, 23-29 September 2006 / [ed] Dias, V., Vymazal, J, Lisbon: Ministério de Ambiente, do Ordenamento do Territóri e do Desenvolvimento Regional (MAOTDR) and IWA , 2006, p. 709-718Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater treatment and nitrogen and phosphorus (P) recovery in harvested biomass of two macrophyte species receiving two wastewater loading rates was studied in a free water surface constructed wetland (FWS CW) in Kenya. Half the CWs were planted with Cyperus papyrus and half with Echinochloa pyramidalis. Inlets and outlets water samples were analysed for selected water quality parameters. Macrophytes were harvested at around 7 month intervals on three occasions for determination of biomass, P and N content. Area specific removals of TP, TSS and Nh4+-N were higher in the high-load CWs and in the low-load ones, but the relative removal was lower. For Nh4+-N, there was a significantly higher removal in C. papyrus CWs- Each macrophyte species had similar tissue P content independent of mass load suggesting excess available phosphorus in all CWs, as supported by the low N:P ratios. During a 7 month period, the amount of P stored daily in the green biomass of the macrophytes represented 18-29% and 25-100% of the daily removal of TP and TDP, respectively.

  • 8.
    Bojcevska, Hristina
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University.
    Impact of loads, season, and plant species on the performance of a tropical constructed wetland polishing effluent from sugar factory stabilization ponds2007In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 66-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of wastewater loading rates and two macrophyte species on treatment of sugar factory stabilization pond effluent were investigated in a pilot-scale free water surface constructed wetland (FWS CW) system in western Kenya. For 12 months, four CWs were operated at a hydraulic loading rate of 75 mm day−1 and four at 225 mm day−1. Half the CWs were planted with Cyperus papyrus and half with Echinochloa pyramidalis. Water samples were taken at the inlets and outlets and analyzed for TP, TDP, NH4-N, and TSS. Mass removal rates of the selected water quality parameters were compared during three periods designated the short rain (period 1), dry (period 2), and long rain (period 3) seasons. There was a significant linear relationship between the mass removal rate of TP, NH4-N, and TSS and the mass load, and season had a significant effect on the mass removal rate of TSS, NH4-N, and TDP. Mass loading rates for TDP were about 78% of those for TP, whereas TDP comprised 78–99% of TP mass outflow rates, indicating a release of dissolved P within the CWs. The only significant difference between the two macrophyte species was associated with mass removal of NH4-N, with more efficient removal in CWs planted with C. papyrus than those with E. pyramidalis. TP mass removal rates were 50–80% higher when a mean water loss for CWs 6–8 during periods 1 and 2 was assumed to represent evapotranspiration for all CWs in period 3 instead of pan evaporation data. This illustrated the importance of accurate estimations of evapotranspiration for pollutant mass removal rates in CWs in tropical climates.

  • 9.
    Hultberg, M.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bodin, Hristina
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Fungi-based treatment of brewery wastewater-biomass production and nutrient reduction2017In: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, ISSN 0175-7598, E-ISSN 1432-0614, Vol. 101, no 11, p. 4791-4798Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The beer-brewing process produces high amounts of nutrient-rich wastewater, and the increasing number of microbreweries worldwide has created a need for innovative solutions to deal with this waste. In the present study, fungal biomass production and the removal of organic carbon, phosphorus and nitrogen from synthetic brewery wastewater were studied. Different filamentous fungi with a record of safe use were screened for growth, and Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus and Trichoderma harzianum were selected for further work. The highest biomass production, 1.78 ± 0.31 g L(-1) of dry weight, was observed when P. ostreatus was used for the treatment, while T. harzianum demonstrated the best capability for removing nutrients. The maximum reduction of chemical oxygen demand, 89% of the initial value, was observed with this species. In the removal of total nitrogen and phosphorus, no significant difference was observed between the species, while removal of ammonium varied between the strains. The maximum reduction of ammonium, 66.1% of the initial value, was also found in the T. harzianum treatment. It can be concluded that all treatments provided significant reductions in all water-quality parameters after 3 days of growth and that the utilisation of filamentous fungi to treat brewery wastewater, linked to a deliberate strategy to use the biomass produced, has future potential in a bio-based society.

  • 10.
    Hultberg, Malin
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bodin, Hristina
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Effects of fungal-assisted algal harvesting through biopellet formation on pesticides in water2018In: Biodegradation, ISSN 0923-9820, E-ISSN 1572-9729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has demonstrated the potential of using filamentous fungi to form pellets with microalgae (biopellets), in order to facilitate harvesting of microalgae from water following algae-based treatment of wastewater. In parallel, there is a need to develop techniques for removing organic pollutants such as pesticides and pharmaceuticals from wastewater. In experiments using the microalga Chlorella vulgaris, the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger and biopellets composed of these microorganisms, this study investigated whether fungal-assisted algal harvesting can also remove pesticides from contaminated water. A mixture of 38 pesticides was tested and the concentrations of 17 of these were found to be reduced significantly in the biopellet treatment, compared with the control. After harvesting, the concentration of total pesticides in the algal treatment did not differ significantly from that in the control. However, in the fungal treatment and biopellet treatment, the concentration was significantly lower (59.6 ± 2.0 µg/L and 56.1 ± 2.8 µg/L, respectively) than in the control (66.6 ± 1.0 µg/L). Thus fungal-assisted algal harvesting through biopellet formation can also provide scope for removing organic pollutants from wastewater, with removal mainly being performed by the fungus.

  • 11.
    Hultberg, Malin
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bodin, Hristina
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Ardal, Embla
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Asp, Håkan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Effect of microalgal treatments on pesticides in water2016In: Environmental Technology, Vol. 37, no 7, p. 893-898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris on a wide range of different pesticides in water was studied. Treatments included short-term exposure (1 h) to living and dead microalgal biomass and long-term exposure (4 days) to actively growing microalgae. The initial pesticide concentration was 63.5 ± 3.9 µg L−1. There was no significant overall reduction of pesticides after short-term exposure. A significant reduction of the total amount of pesticides was achieved after the long-term exposure to growing microalgae (final concentration 29.7 ± 1.0 µg L−1) compared with the long-term control (37.0 ± 1.2 µg L−1). The concentrations of 10 pesticides out of 38 tested were significantly lowered in the long-term algal treatment. A high impact of abiotic factors such as sunlight and aeration for pesticide reduction was observed when the initial control (63.5 ± 3.9 µg L−1) and the long-term control (37.0 ± 1.2 µg L−1) were compared. The results suggest that water treatment using microalgae, natural inhabitants of polluted surface waters, could be further explored not only for removal of inorganic nutrients but also for removal of organic pollutants in water.

  • 12.
    Hultberg, Malin
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Prade, Thomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bodin, Hristina
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Vidakovic, Aleksandar
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Asp, Håkan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Adding benefit to wetlands: valorization of harvested common reed through mushroom production2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 637-638, p. 1395-1399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wetlands have been successfully implemented as water purification systems for removal of plant nutrients and can play a significant role in nutrient recycling, depending on use of the harvested biomass. In a constructed wetland in southern Sweden examined in this study, assimilation of plant nutrients in wetland biomass corresponded to 234 kg/ha nitrogen, 22.8 kg/ha phosphorus, and 158 kg/ha potassium in the study year (2016). The harvested biomass, composed exclusively of common reed, was evaluated as a substrate for production of oyster mushrooms, one of the most widely produced edible mushrooms in the world. The biological efficiency of the substrate was 138 ± 10%, corresponding to production of 1.4 kg mushrooms (fresh weight) based on 1 kg reed (dry weight). The fruiting bodies had high quality, with total protein concentration 18.3 ± 2.8% and very low levels of contaminating heavy metals. Thus, nutrient assimilation in wetland biomass not only decreases the risk of eutrophication in recipient waters, but can be utilized for direct production of high-quality food. The biomass remaining after mushroom production, composed of mycelium and partly degraded wetland biomass, has potential for use in ruminant feed, i.e., as roughage.

  • 13.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Sandberg, Jasmin
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Ejhed, Helene
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Bodin, Hristina
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Utvärdering av Alnarp Cleanwater Technology AB:s avloppsreningsanläggning ACT NaturalTM med avseende på läkemedelsrester2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige finns cirka 700 000 fastigheter med enskilda avlopp, varav cirka 75 % utgörs av markbaserade anläggningar där det renade avloppsvattnet direkt eller via grundvattnet når ytvattenrecipienter. Spridning av läkemedelsrester och kemikalier via avloppsvatten från reningsverk är ett välkänt problem, som bland annat studerats i ett flertal screening projekt på uppdrag av Naturvårdsverket. I genomförda sammanställningar av reningsverkens effektivitet i tidigare screeningprojekt, har läkemedelsubstanser påvisats även i bakgrundssjöar, där enskilda avlopp konstaterats vara den troliga källan. Flera EU-direktiv, Baltic Sea Action Plan och EU:s strategi för östersjöregionen har bland annat medfört ökat fokus på spridning av läkemedelsrester och andra kemikalier till vatten och havsmiljö genom identifiering av prioriterade ämnen. Alnarp Cleanwater Technology har utvecklat ett biologiskt, kretsloppsbaserat system ACT Natural™ för rening av enskilda avlopp.Hypotesen är att ACT Natural™ kan ge en signifikant reduktion av läkemedel i avloppsvatten jämfört med system som saknar vattenväxter, kontinuerlig syrestillförsel, UV-instrålning och tillräckligt lång uppehållstid. Målet med denna studie är att kvantifiera ACT Natural™ förmåga att reducera läkemedelsrester i avloppsvatten.

    De dominerande reningsstegen hos ACT NaturalTM uppvisade sammantaget en generell trend av högre avskiljning för flertalet läkemedel jämfört med snittet för fyra svenska reningsverk och markbädd som tidigare studerats (Ejhed et al 2012). Tyvärr kunde inte hela reduceringsförmågan av läkemedel hos ACT NaturalTM studeras då försteget uteslöts ur studien på grund av tekniska svårigheter att tillsätta spikningslösningen redan i inloppet. Därav kan det antas att reduktionsförmågan avseende läkemedelsrester i avloppsvatten hos ACT NaturalTM kan ha underskattats.

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