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  • 1.
    Arnarsson, Arsaell
    et al.
    Iceland.
    Nygren, Jens
    Halmstad University.
    Nyholm, Maria
    Halmstad University.
    Torsheim, Torbjorn
    Norway.
    Augustine, Lilly
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Bjereld, Ylva
    University of Gothenburg.
    Markkanen, Ilona
    Finland.
    Schnohr, Christina W
    Denmark.
    Rasmussen, Mette
    Denmark.
    Nielsen, Line
    Denmark.
    Bendtsen, Pernille
    Denmark.
    Cyberbullying and traditional bullying among Nordic adolescents and their impact on life satisfaction2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cybervictimization in the six Nordic countries and to assess its overlap with traditional bullying. A further aim was to examine potential associations between life satisfaction, on the one hand, and traditional bullying and cyberbullying on the other.

    METHODS: Analyses were based on data from the 2013⁄2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. It included 32,210 boys and girls, aged 11, 13, and 15, living in the six Nordic countries.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of cyberbullying by both pictures and by messages was around 2% in all the Nordic countries except Greenland. There it was considerably higher. The prevalence of being bullied in a traditional manner varied widely by country. For boys, this type of bullying was most frequent in the youngest age group and then decreased steadily in the older age groups. Girls were on average more likely to be cyberbullied. Cyberbullying was more common among 13- and 15-year-olds than 11-year-olds. Higher family affluence was unrelated to the risk of cyberbullying. However, it was related to traditional bullying and combined forms of bullying. Compared with intact families, cybervictimization was commoner among single-parent families and stepfamilies. Adjusting for age, gender, family affluence, and family structure, those subjected to cyberbullying had lower life satisfaction than those who were not bullied.

    CONCLUSIONS: We found relatively little overlap between cyberbullying and traditional bullying, indicating that the two may be separate phenomena stemming from different mechanisms, at least in the Nordic context.

  • 2.
    Augustine, Lilly
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Psykologi. Jönköping University.
    Lygnegård, Frida
    Jönköping University.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University.
    Adolfsson, Margareta
    Jönköping University.
    Linking youths' mental, psychosocial, and emotional functioning to ICF-CY: lessons learned2017In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 40, no 19, p. 2293-2299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Linking ready-made questionnaires to codes within the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Children and Youth Version with the intention of using the information statistically for studying mental health problems can pose several challenges. Many of the constructs measured are latent, and therefore, difficult to describe in single codes. The aim of this study was to describe and discuss challenges encountered in this coding process.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire from a Swedish research programme was linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Children and Youth Version and the agreement was assessed.

    RESULTS: Including the original aim of the questionnaire into the coding process was found to be very important for managing the coding of the latent constructs of the items. Items from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Children and Youth Version chapters with narrow definitions for example mental functions, were more easily translated to meaningful concepts to code, while broadly defined chapters, such as interactions and relationships, were more difficult.

    CONCLUSION: This study stresses the importance of a clear, predefined coding scheme as well as the importance of not relying too heavily on common linking rules, especially in cases when it is not possible to use multiple codes for a single item. Implications for rehabilitation The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Children and Youth Version, is a useful tool for merging assessment data from several sources when documenting adolescents' mental functioning in different life domains. Measures of mental health are often based on latent constructs, often revealed in the description of the rationale/aim of a measure. The latent construct should be the primary focus in linking information. By mapping latent constructs to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Children and Youth Version, users of the classification can capture a broad range of areas relevant to everyday functioning in adolescents with mental health problems. The subjective experience of participation, i.e., the level of subjective involvement, is not possible to code into the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Children and Youth Version. However, when linking mental health constructs to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Children and Youth Version codes, the two dimensions of participation (the being there, and the level of involvement) need to be separated in the linking process. This can be performed by assigning codes focusing on being there as separate from items focusing on the subjective experience of involvement while being there.

  • 3.
    Bertills, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University.
    Augustine, Lilly
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Psykologi. Jönköping University.
    Measuring self-efficacy, aptitude to participate and functioning in students with and without impairments2018In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 572-583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Including vulnerable groups of students such as students with learning disabilities in mainstream school research, require ethical considerations and questionnaire adaptation. These students are often excluded, due to low understanding or methodologies generating inadequate data. Students with disability need be studied as a separate group and provided accessible questionnaires. This pilot study aims at developing and evaluating student self-reported measures, rating aspects of student experiences of school-based Physical Education (PE). Instrument design, reliability and validity were examined in Swedish secondary school students (n = 47) including students, aged 13, with intellectual disability (n = 5) and without impairment and test–retested on 28 of these students. Psychometric results from the small pilot-study sample were confirmed in analyses based on replies from the first wave of data collection in the main study (n = 450). Results show adequate internal consistency, factor structure and relations between measures. In conclusion, reliability and validity were satisfactory in scales to measure self-efficacy in general, in PE, and aptitude to participate. Adapting proxy ratings for functioning into self-reports indicated problems. Adequacy of adjustments made were confirmed and a dichotomous scale for typical/atypical function is suggested for further analyses.

  • 4.
    Bertills, Karin
    et al.
    Jönkoping University.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönkoping University.
    Dahlstrom, Orjan
    Linköping University.
    Augustine, Lilly
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Relationships between physical education (PE) teaching and student self-efficacy, aptitude to participate in PE and functional skills: with a special focus on students with disabilities2018In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 387-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Students with disability show an increasing incidence of school failure. Quality teaching and appropriate support may foster high self-efficacy, a predictive factor for successful school outcomes. Physical Education (PE) can provide students with a context in which self-efficacy and participation are promoted leading to improved academic achievement. The transition into secondary school can be challenging for many students with increased educational demands, developmental changes and individual social identification coinciding. A disability may add to the challenge of success.Methods: Three groups of students, aged 13 years and enrolled in Swedish mainstream schools were targeted (n=439). Groups included students with 1.A diagnosed disability, 2.Low grades in PE (D-F) and 3.High grades (A-C) in PE. Questionnaires were collected and analyzed from 30/439 students with a diagnosed disability (physical, neuro-developmental and intellectual) from 26 classes, their classmates and their PE-teachers (n=25). Relationships between student self-reports and PE-teachers' self-ratings were investigated. Also examined was the potential to which students' functional skills could predict elevated general school self-efficacy, PE specific self-efficacy and aptitude to participate in PE. Results were compared with the total sample and between the three target groups (n=121).Results: For students with disabilities, better self-rated teaching skills were related to lower student perceived general school self-efficacy, PE specific self-efficacy and aptitude to participate in PE. The impact of classroom climate in PE was more obvious among students with disabilities. Perceived functional skills were associated with elevated general school self-efficacy, PE specific self-efficacy and aptitude to participate in PE. Better socio-cognitive functional skills had an overall positive effect on all outcomes. Students with disabilities reported results similar to the total sample, the D-F group scored lower and the A-C group higher than the total sample and the disability group. Elevated self-efficacy in PE is six times less probable in students with disabilities, compared to the A-C group.Conclusions: Our findings that better teacher planning and grading skills, are detrimental to students disadvantaged by disability is contradictive. Improving the establishment and communication of adapted learning standards at the transition to secondary school is a crucial and a predictive factor for promoting positive school experiences for students with disability. Students with disabilities need to be assured that the intended learning outcomes can be reached by doing activities differently than their typically functioning peers. Consideration of class composition is suggested as a means of promoting a positive learning climate, which would particularly benefit students with disabilities. Allocation of resources to support student socio-cognitive skills would improve experiences for the D-F group and likely promote a positive learning environment.

  • 5.
    Fismen, Anne-Siri
    et al.
    Norge.
    Smith, Otto Robert Frans
    Norge.
    Torsheim, Torbjørn
    Norge.
    Rasmussen, Mette
    Danmark.
    Pedersen Pagh, Trine
    Danmark.
    Augustine, Lilly
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO).
    Ojala, Kristiina
    Finland.
    Samdal, Oddrun
    Norge.
    Trends in food habits and their relation to socioeconomic status among Nordic adolescents 2001/2002-2009/20102016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In the Nordic countries, substantial policy and intervention efforts have been made to increase adolescents' consumption of fruit and vegetables and to reduce their intake of sweets and soft drinks. Some initiatives have been formulated in a Nordic collaboration and implemented at national level. In recent years, social inequalities in food habits have been attracted particular governmental interest and several initiatives addressing the socioeconomic gradient in food habits have been highlighted. However, few internationally published studies have evaluated how trends in adolescents' food habits develop in the context of Nordic nutrition policy, or have compared differences between the Nordic countries.

    Methods

    The study was based on Danish, Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish cross-sectional data from the international Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study, collected via three nationally representative and comparable questionnaire surveys in 2001/2002, 2005/2006 and 2009/2010. Food habits were identified by students' consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and sugar sweetened soft drink. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured with the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data.

    Results

    Trends in fruit consumption developed differently across countries, characterized by an increase in Denmark and Norway and more stable trends in Sweden and Finland. Vegetable consumption increased particularly in Denmark and to a lesser extent in Norway, whereas Sweden and Finland displayed stable trends. Decreased trends were observed for sweet and soft drink consumption and were similar in Norway, Sweden and Finland. Sweet consumption decreased across all survey years, whereas soft drink consumption decreased between 2001/2002–2005/2006 and was stable thereafter. Denmark displayed an increase between 2001/2002–2005/2006 followed by a similar decrease between 2005/2006–2009/2010 for both sweet and soft drink consumption. Socioeconomic inequalities in fruit and vegetable consumption were observed in all countries, with no cross-country differences, and no changes over time. Small but not significant cross-country variation was identified for SES inequalities in sweet consumption. Reduced SES inequalities were observed in Sweden between 2005/2006 and 2009/2010. SES was not associated with soft drink consumption in this study population, with the exception of Denmark for the survey year 2009/2010.

    Conclusion

    Different trends resulted in increased country differences in food habits during the time of observations. In survey year 2009/2010, Danish students reported a higher intake of fruit and vegetable consumption than their counterparts in the other Nordic countries. Finnish students reported the lowest frequency of sweets and soft drink consumption. Despite the positive dietary trends documented in the present study, the majority of Nordic adolescents are far from meeting national dietary recommendations. Our findings underline the need for more comprehensive initiatives targeting young people's food habits as well as a more deliberate and focused action to close gaps in social inequalities that affect food choices.

  • 6.
    Huus, Karina
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Olsson, Lena, M
    Jönköping University.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    Jönköping University.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University.
    Augustine, Lilly
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO).
    Perceived needs among parents of children with a mild intellectual disability in Sweden2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, E-ISSN 1745-3011, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 307-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parents of children with a mild intellectual disability experience more distress and require more support than other parents. The aim was to investigate the perceived family needs of parents of children with an MID and to investigate the relationship between parents’ perceived self-efficacy in their parental role and in collaborating with professionals as well as with their perceived needs for support. Interviews were based on questionnaires to the parents of 38 children. The results revealed that parents perceived need for information, respite, and venues in which to meet other parents in similar situations. The informational needs were related to parental self-efficacy and obtaining support. A lower need for information was related to higher perceived control over services. In conclusion, it appears that professionals need to work to strengthen parents’ ability to ask for support and to express the needs. Well-informed parents will develop stronger parental self-efficacy and perceived control over services.

  • 7.
    Lygnegård, Frida
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Augustine, Lilly
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Jönköping University.
    Huus, Karina
    Jönköping University.
    Factors associated with participation and change over time in domestic life, peer relations and school for adolescents with and without self-reported neurodevelopmental disorders: a follow-up prospective study2018In: Frontiers in Education Conference, Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1539-4565, Vol. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though participation in everyday events is a vital part in the fulfilment of human rights, adolescents with neurodevelopmental disorders often face participation restrictions in every-day activities. Few studies have investigated the predictors for participation in different contexts, over time and in relation to the same outcome variables. The objective of the current study was therefore to investigate predictors of change in participation operationalized as frequency of attendance and perceived importance in domestic life activities, peer related activities, and school activities as experienced by adolescents with and without self-reported neurodevelopmental disorders. Method: Associations with participation, both in terms of frequency and perceived importance, in domestic life, peer relations, and the school setting were investigated using six independent variables measuring experience of time and self, sex, age, stress, support from siblings, and atmosphere in family at two-time (with approximately 2 years in between). The sample consisted of adolescents with and without self-reported neurodevelopmental disorders (n= 916). Adolescents with self-reported neurodevelopmental disorders were n=154 and adolescents without self-reported neurodevelopmental disorders was n= 762. Data was collected via self-reported questionnaires administered in schools. Results: Three key findings are presented. 1) more factors were associated with participation outcomes at time1 for adolescents without NDD than for adolescents with NDD, but this difference in the number of factors decreases with time; 2) few associations were related to time for both adolescents with and without NDD; and 3) patterns of predicting variables were different for adolescents with and without NDD. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the factors related to participation in and outside school differs between groups, when the impairment or disability is not considered as a predictor for participation. This study supports the need for using a multidimensional developmental and contextual perspective in addressing enhanced participation for adolescents with neurodevelopmental disorders.

  • 8.
    Maxwell, Gregor
    et al.
    Jönköping University & Norge.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University & Norge.
    Augustine, Lilly
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi. Jönköping University.
    Inclusion through participation: understanding participation in the international classification of functioning, disability, and health as a methodological research tool for investigating inclusion2018In: Frontiers in Education, ISSN 2504-284X, Vol. 3, no 41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the use and validity of the International Classification of Functioning disability and health (ICF) as a common language for describing inclusive educational settings. There is a specific focus on investigating participation through the ICF as one aspect of inclusion as an improved understanding of participation as a measure of inclusion will greatly benefit children with additional support needs. In addition there will be a better understanding of the operationalization of participation, in terms of both policy and practice, and improved applications of the ICF. The study uses a narrative summary to review to analyse the findings from a selection of studies where the ICF has been used as a methodological tool in the field of education. In the 16 included studies the ICF is either used to present a new theoretical position, synthesize a new research approach or tool, or is integrated into the framework of an existing research method. Findings also show that the ICF is used in a number of different ways and that when it is used directly, variation is found in the type of information that was linked to ICF codes or categories. In conclusion further clarity on defining and measuring participation with the ICF framework is required in order to create a more consistent tool for investigating inclusive education. One way to improve the construct of participation is to take a bi-dimensional approach. It is the authors’ belief that this newer approach to modelling participation will be considered in any future revisions of the ICF/ICF-CY – a so-called ‘ICF-2’. This would thus create a more accountable classification framework that succeeds in capturing the involvement experience of the individual and in doing so achieves a more effective and useful classification framework for the field of inclusive education.

  • 9.
    Ng, Kwok
    et al.
    Finland.
    Tynjälä, Jorma
    Finland.
    Sigmundová, Dagmar
    Czech republic.
    Augustine, Lilly
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Psykologi.
    Sentenac, Mariane
    Frankrike.
    Rintala, Pauli
    Finland.
    Inchley, Jo
    England.
    Physical activity among adolescents with long-term Illnesses or disabilities in 15 European countries2017In: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, ISSN 0736-5829, E-ISSN 1543-2777, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 456-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity (PA) is an important health-promoting behavior from which adolescents with long-term illnesses or disabilities (LTID) can benefit. It is important to monitor differences across countries in adherence with PA recommendations for health. The aim of this study was to compare PA levels among 15 European countries after disaggregating data by disability. Data from pupils (mean age = 13.6 years, SD = 1.64) participating in the 2013/2014 Health Behavior in School-aged Children study were analyzed to compare adolescents without LTID, with LTID, and with LTID that affects their participation (affected LTID). Logistic regression models adjusted for age and family affluence, stratified by gender and country group with PA recommendations for health as the outcome variable. With the data pooled, 15% (n = 9,372) of adolescents reported having LTID and 4% (n = 2,566) having affected LTID. Overall, fewer boys with LTID met PA recommendations for health than boys without LTID, although it was not statistically significant either at the national levels or for girls.

  • 10.
    Ottová-Jordan, Veronika
    et al.
    Tyskland.
    Smith, Otto R. F.
    Norge.
    Augustine, Lilly
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi. Jönköping University, HLK.
    Gobina, Inese
    Lettland.
    Rathmann, Katharina
    Tyskland.
    Torsheim, Torbjørn
    Norge.
    Mazur, Joanna
    Polen.
    Välimaa, Raili
    Finland.
    Cavallo, Franco
    Italien.
    Jericek Klanscek, Helena
    Slovenien.
    Vollebergh, Wilma
    Nederländerna.
    Meilstrup, Charlotte
    Danmark.
    Richter, Matthias
    Tyskland.
    Moor, Irene
    Tyskland.
    Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike
    Tyskland.
    Trends in health complaints from 2002 to 2010 in 34 countries and their association with health behaviours and social context factors at individual and macro-level2015In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 83-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: This article describes trends and stability over time in health complaints in adolescents from 2002 to 2010 and investigates associations between health complaints, behavioural and social contextual factors at individual level and economic factors at macro-level.

    METHODS: Comprising N = 510 876 11-, 13- and 15-year-old children and adolescents in Europe, North America and Israel, data came from three survey cycles of the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Age- and gender-adjusted trends in health complaints were examined in each country by means of linear regression. By using the country as the random effects variable, we tested to what extent individual and contextual variables were associated with health complaints.

    RESULTS: Significant associations are stronger for individual level determinants (e.g. being bullied, smoking) than for determinants at macro-level (e.g. GDP, Gini), as can be seen by the small effect sizes (less than 5% for different trends). Health complaints are fairly stable over time in most countries, and no clear international trend in health complaints can be observed between 2002 and 2010. The most prominent stable determinants were being female, being bullied, school pressure and smoking.

    CONCLUSION: Factors associated with health complaints are more related to the proximal environment than to distal macro-level factors. This points towards intensifying targeted interventions, (e.g. for bullying) and also targeting specific risk groups. The comparably small effect size at country-level indicates that country-level factors have an impact on health and should not be ignored.

  • 11. Ottová-Jordan, Veronika
    et al.
    Smith, Otto R.F.
    Gobina, Inese
    Mazur, Joanna
    Augustine, Lilly
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO).
    Cavallo, Franco
    Välimaa, Raili
    Moor, Irene
    Torsheim, Torbjörn
    Katreniakova, Zuzana
    Vollebergh, Wilma
    Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike
    Trends in Multiple Recurrent health complaitns in 15-year-olds in 35 countries in Europe, North America and Israel from 1994 to 20102015In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 25, no suppl 2, p. 24-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Health complaints are a good indicator of an individual's psychosocial health and well-being. Studies have shown that children and adolescents report health complaints which can cause significant individual burden.

    METHODS: Using data from the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study, this article describes trends in multiple recurrent health complaints (MHC) in 35 countries among N = 237 136 fifteen-year-olds from 1994 to 2010. MHC was defined as the presence of two or more health complaints at least once a week. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate trends across the five survey cycles for each country.

    RESULTS: Lowest prevalence throughout the period 1994-2010 was 16.9% in 1998 in Austria and highest in 2006 in Israel (54.7%). Overall, six different trend patterns could be identified: No linear or quadratic trend (9 countries), linear decrease (7 countries), linear increase (5 countries), U-shape (4 countries), inverted U-shape (6 countries) and unstable (4 countries).

    CONCLUSION: Trend analyses are valuable in providing hints about developments in populations as well as for benchmarking and evaluation purposes. The high variation in health complaints between the countries requires further investigation, but may also reflect the subjective nature of health complaints.

  • 12.
    Plenty, Stephanie
    et al.
    Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet.
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet.
    Almqvist, Ylva
    Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet.
    Augustine, Lilly
    Swedish National Institute of Public Health .
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet.
    Psychosocial working conditions: an analysis of emotional symptoms and conduct problems amongst adolescent students2014In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 407-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored how psychosocial features of the schoolwork environment are associated with students' mental health. Data was drawn from 3699 ninth grade (15 year-old) Swedish students participating in the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey. Using Structural Equation Modelling, perceived school demands, decision control and social support from teachers, classmates and parents were examined in relation to students' emotional and conduct problems. Higher demands were associated with greater emotional symptoms and conduct problems. Although weaker social support predicted emotional symptoms and conduct problems, the relative influence of teachers, classmates and parents differed. Teacher support was more closely associated with conduct problems, particularly for girls, while classmate support was more strongly related to emotional symptoms. The findings indicate that while excessive school pressure is associated with poorer mental health, social support can assist in optimising adolescents' emotional health and adaptive behaviour, as well as shaping perceptions of demands.

  • 13. Sonmark, Kristina
    et al.
    Godeau, Emmanuelle
    Augustine, Lilly
    Högskolan Jönköping, CHILD.
    Bygren, Magnus
    Modin, Bitte
    Individual and contextual expressions of school demands and their relation to psychosomatic health: a comparative study of students in France and Sweden2016In: Child Indicators Research, ISSN 1874-897X, E-ISSN 1874-8988, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 93-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the health-related implications of both individual students’ and class-level concentrations of perceived demands in terms of pressuring, difficult and tiring schoolwork in France and Sweden, two countries with substantial differences in their educational systems and recent notable differences in PISA-results. Data come from Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (2001/02, 2005/06 and 2009/10) and comprise a total of 33,243 students aged 11, 13 and 15. Findings show that feeling under pressure from schoolwork is less prevalent in Sweden than in France among 11 and 13-year olds, but almost twice as common among 15-year olds. Yet its correlation with 15-year olds’ psychosomatic complaints is stronger in France than in Sweden. Feeling tired by schoolwork is equally common for 11- and 13-year olds in the two countries, but more frequent among 15-year olds in Sweden. It is also a stronger predictor of psychosomatic complaints in Sweden than in France across all age-groups. While it is more common at all ages to perceive the schoolwork as difficult in France, its relationship with psychosomatic complaints is stronger among students in Sweden. The proportion of classmates reporting high school demands is also linked to poorer student health, but these effects were largely confined to girls in both countries.

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  • rtf