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  • 1.
    Anderson, Rachele
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Sandsten, Maria
    Lund University.
    Effects of age, BMI, anxiety and stress on the parameters of a stochastic model for heart rate variability including respiratory information2018In: Proceedings of the 11th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies, SCITEPRESS , 2018, Vol. 4, p. 17-25Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have focused on investigating different factors that may affect heart rate variability (HRV),pointing especially to the effects of age, gender and stress level. Other findings raise the importance of consid- ering the respiratory frequency in the analysis of HRV signals. In this study, we evaluate the effect of several covariates on the parameters of a stochastic model for HRV. The data was recorded from 47 test participants, whose breathing was controlled by following a metronome with increasing frequency. This setup allows for a controlled acquisition of respiratory related HRV data covering the frequency range in which adults breathe in different everyday situations. A stochastic model, known as Locally Stationary Chirp Process, accounts for the respiratory signal information and models the HRV data. The model parameters are estimated with a novel inference method based on the separability features possessed by the process covariance function. Least square regression analysis using several available covariates is used to investigate the correlation with the stochastic model parameters. The results show statistically significant correlation of the model parameterswith age, BMI, State and Trait Anxiety as well as stress level.

  • 2.
    Arnarsson, Arsaell
    et al.
    Iceland.
    Nygren, Jens
    Halmstad University.
    Nyholm, Maria
    Halmstad University.
    Torsheim, Torbjorn
    Norway.
    Augustine, Lilly
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Bjereld, Ylva
    University of Gothenburg.
    Markkanen, Ilona
    Finland.
    Schnohr, Christina W
    Denmark.
    Rasmussen, Mette
    Denmark.
    Nielsen, Line
    Denmark.
    Bendtsen, Pernille
    Denmark.
    Cyberbullying and traditional bullying among Nordic adolescents and their impact on life satisfaction2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cybervictimization in the six Nordic countries and to assess its overlap with traditional bullying. A further aim was to examine potential associations between life satisfaction, on the one hand, and traditional bullying and cyberbullying on the other.

    METHODS: Analyses were based on data from the 2013⁄2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. It included 32,210 boys and girls, aged 11, 13, and 15, living in the six Nordic countries.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of cyberbullying by both pictures and by messages was around 2% in all the Nordic countries except Greenland. There it was considerably higher. The prevalence of being bullied in a traditional manner varied widely by country. For boys, this type of bullying was most frequent in the youngest age group and then decreased steadily in the older age groups. Girls were on average more likely to be cyberbullied. Cyberbullying was more common among 13- and 15-year-olds than 11-year-olds. Higher family affluence was unrelated to the risk of cyberbullying. However, it was related to traditional bullying and combined forms of bullying. Compared with intact families, cybervictimization was commoner among single-parent families and stepfamilies. Adjusting for age, gender, family affluence, and family structure, those subjected to cyberbullying had lower life satisfaction than those who were not bullied.

    CONCLUSIONS: We found relatively little overlap between cyberbullying and traditional bullying, indicating that the two may be separate phenomena stemming from different mechanisms, at least in the Nordic context.

  • 3.
    Bertills, Karin
    et al.
    Jönkoping University.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönkoping University.
    Dahlstrom, Orjan
    Linköping University.
    Augustine, Lilly
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Relationships between physical education (PE) teaching and student self-efficacy, aptitude to participate in PE and functional skills: with a special focus on students with disabilities2018In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 387-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Students with disability show an increasing incidence of school failure. Quality teaching and appropriate support may foster high self-efficacy, a predictive factor for successful school outcomes. Physical Education (PE) can provide students with a context in which self-efficacy and participation are promoted leading to improved academic achievement. The transition into secondary school can be challenging for many students with increased educational demands, developmental changes and individual social identification coinciding. A disability may add to the challenge of success.Methods: Three groups of students, aged 13 years and enrolled in Swedish mainstream schools were targeted (n=439). Groups included students with 1.A diagnosed disability, 2.Low grades in PE (D-F) and 3.High grades (A-C) in PE. Questionnaires were collected and analyzed from 30/439 students with a diagnosed disability (physical, neuro-developmental and intellectual) from 26 classes, their classmates and their PE-teachers (n=25). Relationships between student self-reports and PE-teachers' self-ratings were investigated. Also examined was the potential to which students' functional skills could predict elevated general school self-efficacy, PE specific self-efficacy and aptitude to participate in PE. Results were compared with the total sample and between the three target groups (n=121).Results: For students with disabilities, better self-rated teaching skills were related to lower student perceived general school self-efficacy, PE specific self-efficacy and aptitude to participate in PE. The impact of classroom climate in PE was more obvious among students with disabilities. Perceived functional skills were associated with elevated general school self-efficacy, PE specific self-efficacy and aptitude to participate in PE. Better socio-cognitive functional skills had an overall positive effect on all outcomes. Students with disabilities reported results similar to the total sample, the D-F group scored lower and the A-C group higher than the total sample and the disability group. Elevated self-efficacy in PE is six times less probable in students with disabilities, compared to the A-C group.Conclusions: Our findings that better teacher planning and grading skills, are detrimental to students disadvantaged by disability is contradictive. Improving the establishment and communication of adapted learning standards at the transition to secondary school is a crucial and a predictive factor for promoting positive school experiences for students with disability. Students with disabilities need to be assured that the intended learning outcomes can be reached by doing activities differently than their typically functioning peers. Consideration of class composition is suggested as a means of promoting a positive learning climate, which would particularly benefit students with disabilities. Allocation of resources to support student socio-cognitive skills would improve experiences for the D-F group and likely promote a positive learning environment.

  • 4.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Bäckstrom, Martin
    Lunds universitet.
    Jørgensen, Øyvind
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    In-group ratings are affected by who asks and how: interactive effects of experimenter group-membership and response format2011In: Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-4545, E-ISSN 1940-1183, Vol. 151, no 5, p. 625-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In three experiments, participants rated how well a number of adjectives described their in-group (e.g. kind-hearted, helpful, intelligent, efficient, etc.). In Experiment 1, females were found to rate their ingroup (females) more favorably when reporting verbally to female (rather than male) experimenters. This finding was further explored in two subsequent experiments where response format (written vs. verbal) was also manipulated. Both experiments revealed an interaction such that ethnic Swedes rated their in-group (Swedes) the most favorably when reporting verbally to an in-group experimenter and the least favorably when reporting verbally to a Middle Eastern experimenter. Results are discussed in relation to correction and contextual activation of social norms.

  • 5.
    Davidson, Per
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Carlsson, Ingegerd
    Lund University.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Johansson, Mikael
    Lund University.
    A more generalized fear response after a daytime nap2018In: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, ISSN 1074-7427, E-ISSN 1095-9564, Vol. 151, p. 18-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine how a daytime nap affected the consolidation of fear learning. Participants first underwent fear conditioning during which they were exposed to a large and a small circle. One of these was repeatedly paired with an electric shock (making it the CS+), whereas the other circle was never paired with the shock (the CS-). After a delay interval containing either a nap or wake, participants again viewed the CS+ and the CS- intermixed with eight novel circles that varied in size between the two stimuli seen before, as well as a blue triangle that served as a novel stimulus without prior fear relevance. We examined both fear retention (the difference between the CS+ and the CS-) as well as fear generalization (responses to the novel stimuli based on their similarity to the original CS+). Contrary to previous studies, results from the participants who acquired a differentiated fear response during the acquisition phase revealed that the wake group showed significantly larger skin conductance responses to the CS+ compared to the CS-, whereas no such difference was present in the sleep group. These results were not driven by differences in explicit memory or by differences in general reactivity. Analyzing responses to the novel stimuli revealed a tendency towards a more generalized response in the sleep group, with no differences between the CS+ and any other stimulus, whereas the wake group showed increased responses to the stimuli depending on their similarity to the original CS+. This effect was however only present when controlling for baseline differences in worry.

  • 6.
    Emig, Yvonne
    et al.
    Tyskland.
    Jørgensen, Øyvind
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Studying gay and straight males' implicit gender attitudes to understand previously found gender differences in implicit in-group bias2017In: Current Research in Social Psychology, ISSN 1088-7423, E-ISSN 1088-7423, Vol. 25, p. 45-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows that men overall, in contrast to women, do not show a typical implicit in-group preference. One proposed explanation is greater interest in sex among males. If so, then gay males should show an implicit preference for males whereas straight males should prefer females. We tested this hypothesis using a modified version of the Brief Implicit Association Test on 38 gay and 65 straight males. The hypothesis was supported. As the majority of participants in previous studies on implicit gender attitudes are expected to be straight, this could contribute to the low implicit in-group bias among males.

  • 7. Fich, Lars B.
    et al.
    Gimmler, Antje
    Petrini, Laura
    Jelic, Andrea
    Djebbara, Zakaria
    Jönsson, Peter
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    CAN THE DESIGN OF SPACES INFLUENCE THE PHYSIOLOGICAL REACTION TO PAIN – AND WHAT CAN ACTUALLY BE DONE THROUGH DESIGN2018In: ANFA: ACADEMY OF NEUROSCIENCE FOR ARCHITECTURESHARED BEHAVIORAL OUTCOMESSEPTEMBER 20-22, 2018 SALK INSTITUTELa Jolla, California, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8. Fich, Lars
    et al.
    Wallergård, Mattias
    Hansen, Åse Marie
    Jönsson, Peter
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Stress hormones mediated by the built environment: a possibility to influence the progress of Alzheimer's disease?2017In: ARCH17 3RD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ARCHITECTURE, RESEARCH, CARE AND HEALTH CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS / [ed] Nanet Mathiasen & Anne Kathrine Frandsen, Copenhagen: Polyteknisk Boghandel og Forlag, 2017, p. 150-162Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Forsberg, Erik
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Nilsson, Artur
    Lund University.
    Jørgensen, Øyvind
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Moral dichotomization at the heart of prejudice: the role of moral foundations and intolerance of ambiguity in generalized prejudice2018In: Social Psychological and Personality Science, ISSN 1948-5506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study confronted the classical idea that generalized prejudice is rooted in a cognitive tendency to sort reality into rigid and simple categories with the more recent idea that prejudice is shaped by moral intuitions. In a diverse Swedish sample (N = 430), moral absolutism was more strongly associated with generalized prejudice against derogated and dissident (but not dangerous) groups than were other aspects of intolerance of ambiguity. But there was little direct association between any aspect of intolerance of ambiguity and generalized prejudice once indirect relations through binding moral intuitions (which elevated prejudice) and individualizing moral intuitions (which decreased prejudice) had been taken into account. These findings suggest that intolerance of ambiguity is associated with generalized prejudice mainly insofar as it leads to a distinctly moral dichotomization of persons into categories such as insiders and outsiders, law-abiding citizens and deviants, and the righteous and the impure.

  • 10.
    Garmy, Pernilla
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap.
    Hansson, Erika
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Vilhjalmsson, Runar
    Island.
    Kristjansdottir, Gudrun
    Island.
    Is there a link between analgesic use and bullying among children and adolescents?2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Garmy, Pernilla
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap. Lund University.
    Hansson, Erika
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Vilhjálmsson, Rúnar
    Iceland.
    Kristjánsdóttir, Gudrún
    Iceland.
    Bullying, pain and analgesic use in school-age children2019In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study was to examine whether the self-reported use of analgesics is associated with being a victim of bullying.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional, school-based survey included all students in grades 6 (11 years old), 8 (13 years old) and 10 (15 years old) in Iceland (response rate: 84%; n = 11 018). The students filled out an anonymous standardised questionnaire: the Icelandic Contribution to the International Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study.

    RESULTS: Being bullied was associated with increased use of analgesics even after controlling for self-reported pain.

    CONCLUSION: Bullying occurs in all schools, and its effects on health are pervasive. Interventions aimed at reducing bullying and promoting health in schools are important and may reduce the use of analgesics in adolescents.

  • 12.
    Jørgensen, Øyvind
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Contrasting positive and negative associations to neutral associations in implicit tests2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tests like the Implicit Association Test (IAT), the Sorting Paired Features task (SPF) and the Brief IAT (BIAT), all to some degree contrast positively and negatively valenced categories against each other, in the task itself and/or in the scoring procedure. This makes it difficult to truly disentangle positive and negative associations, something that is important when measuring attitudes. A different approach was explored in a series of studies using a method similar to SPF and BIAT, but using a neutral category as a contrast against positive and negative associations. The method was tested using gender SPFs and gender BIATs, as well as various ethnicity SPFs. The results show support for the validity of the positive-neutral tests, but the results for the negative-neutral tests are less clear, and questions remain concerning reliability when using the latter test. Results on positive-netrual tests, on the other hand, showed some support for its validity, for instance was scores on a gender BIAT related to the level of appreciation of sexist jokes. Further studies using large samples are needed to determine the psychometric of this method.

  • 13.
    Jørgensen, Øyvind
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Bäckström, Martin
    Lunds universitet.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    A measure of internal and external motivation to control in-group bias2012In: Lund Psychological Reports, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 1-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A measure of individual differences in the motivation to control in-group bias ( favouritism) was created. As in Plant and Devine’s (1998) measure of out-group bias, one subscale referred to an internal motivational source and the other to an external motivational source. The psychometric properties of the measure were tested across four samples. The results indicate that the measure reliably captures individual differences in the motivation to control in-group bias, and that a distinction between internal and external motivational sources of control can be made. However, the convergent and discriminant validity of both subscalesneeds to be examined further before the measure can be considered launchable. Implications for research on intergroup bias are discussed.

  • 14.
    Jørgensen, Øyvind
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Bäckström, Martin
    Lunds universitet.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Bidirectional correction in social judgments: how a cue to the risk of bias causes more favorable ratings of some groups but less favorable of others2013In: Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-4545, E-ISSN 1940-1183, Vol. 153, no 2, p. 131-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Correction of judgments of people of different ethnicities and sexes was explored by exposing participants to cues to the risk of making biased judgments (from explicit warnings to subtle hints). In three experiments, a three-way interaction was revealed, where the effect of a cue to bias varied as a function of both the ethnicity and sex of the target person. Some targets (White males) were generally rated less favorably when judges were reminded of bias, whereas other targets (Black males, Middle Eastern males and White females) were generally rated more favorably, indicating bidirectional correction. Finally, a normative account of the results was explored. In a pattern consistent with the experimental results, it was considered more important to avoid overrating White men than all other groups, and more important to avoid underrating all other groups than White men. The results are discussed in relation to theories of correction and intergroup bias.

  • 15.
    Jørgensen, Øyvind
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Bäckström, Martin
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Bidirectional correction in social judgments: how a cue to the risk of bias causes more favorable ratings of some groups but less favorable of others2013In: Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-4545, E-ISSN 1940-1183, no 2, p. 131-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Correction of judgments of people of different ethnicities and sexes was exploredby exposing participants to cues to the risk of making biased judgments (from explicitwarnings to subtle hints). In three experiments, a three-way interaction was revealed, wherethe effect of a cue to bias varied as a function of both the ethnicity and sex of the targetperson. Some targets (White males) were generally rated less favorably when judges werereminded of bias, whereas other targets (Black males, Middle Eastern males and Whitefemales) were generally rated more favorably, indicating bidirectional correction. Finally, anormative account of the results was explored. In a pattern consistent with the experimentalresults, it was considered more important to avoid overrating White men than all othergroups, and more important to avoid underrating all other groups than White men. Theresults are discussed in relation to theories of correction and intergroup bias.

  • 16.
    Karlsson, Kristoffer
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Sambandet mellan tre dimensioner av meningsfullt liv och vissa psykologiska utfall2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Meningsfullt liv är idag ett etablerat forskningsämne inom psykologin. Nyligen har det uppstått viss konsensus om att begreppet meningsfullt liv är multidimensionellt och främst består av dimensionerna förståelse (en slags känsla av sammanhang), syfte (innehav av viktiga livsmål) och betydelse (upplevelsen att ens existens är av värde). Den aktuella studien hade som syfte att undersöka vilka samband som finns mellan dessa dimensioner och variablerna tacksamhet, självbildsklarhet, optimism, ensamhet och livstillfredsställelse. Tidigare forskning har funnit signifikanta samband, men då har främst endimensionella meningstest använts. En hypotes i den aktuella studien var att det skulle uppstå signifikanta samband även med användande av ett multidimensionellt mätinstrument bestående av nyss nämnda tre dimensioner. En annan hypotes var att studien vid multipla regressionsanalyser skulle upptäcka minst något fall där en meningsdimension är särskilt framträdande när det gäller att predicera ett visst utfall. Hypoteserna testades genom en enkätundersökning som främst hade universitetsstudenter som deltagare. Sammanlagt deltog 191 personer i studien. Den första hypotesen fick entydigt stöd. Angående den andra hypotesen uppstod fall där inte alla tre meningsdimensioner samtidigt unikt kunde predicera ett visst utfall. När utfallet var ensamhet visade det sig att alla tre meningsdimensioner kunde predicera detta utfall ungefär likvärdigt. Men när utfallet var exempelvis självbildsklarhet visade det sig att det främst var förståelse som kunde predicera detta utfall och i viss mån betydelse, men däremot inte syfte. Uppsatsens slutsats är därmed att det verkar finnas åtminstone vissa fall då det kan vara relevant att göra åtskillnad mellan olika meningsdimensioner och inte mäta begreppet meningsfullt liv enbart endimensionellt.

  • 17.
    Lidström, Anette
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Visual uncertainty in serial dependence: facing noise2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical evidence suggests that the visual system uses prior visual information to predict the future state of the world. This is believed to occur through an information integration mechanism known as serial dependence. Current perceptions are influenced by prior visual information in order to create perceptual continuity in an everchanging noisy environment. Serial dependence has been found to occur for both low-level stimuli features (e.g., numerosity, orientation) and high-level stimuli like faces. Recent evidence indicates that serial dependence for low-level stimuli is affected by current stimulus reliability. When current stimuli are low in reliability, the perceptual influence from previously viewed stimuli is stronger. However, it is not clear whether stimulus reliability also affects serial dependence for high-level stimuli like faces. Faces are highly complex stimuli which are processed differently from other objects. Additionally, face perception is suggested to be especially vulnerable to external visual noise. Here, I used regular and visually degraded face stimuli to investigate whether serial dependence for faces is affected by stimulus reliability. The results showed that previously viewed degraded faces did not have a very strong influence on perceptions of currently viewed regular faces. In contrast, when currently viewed faces were degraded, the perceptual influence from previously viewed regular faces was rather strong. Surprisingly, there was a quite strong perceptual influence from previously viewed faces on currently viewed faces when both faces were degraded. This could mean that the effect of stimulus reliability in serial dependence for faces is not due to encoding disabilities, but rather a perceptual choice.

  • 18.
    Lygnegård, Frida
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Augustine, Lilly
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Jönköping University.
    Huus, Karina
    Jönköping University.
    Factors associated with participation and change over time in domestic life, peer relations and school for adolescents with and without self-reported neurodevelopmental disorders: a follow-up prospective study2018In: Frontiers in Education Conference, Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1539-4565, Vol. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though participation in everyday events is a vital part in the fulfilment of human rights, adolescents with neurodevelopmental disorders often face participation restrictions in every-day activities. Few studies have investigated the predictors for participation in different contexts, over time and in relation to the same outcome variables. The objective of the current study was therefore to investigate predictors of change in participation operationalized as frequency of attendance and perceived importance in domestic life activities, peer related activities, and school activities as experienced by adolescents with and without self-reported neurodevelopmental disorders. Method: Associations with participation, both in terms of frequency and perceived importance, in domestic life, peer relations, and the school setting were investigated using six independent variables measuring experience of time and self, sex, age, stress, support from siblings, and atmosphere in family at two-time (with approximately 2 years in between). The sample consisted of adolescents with and without self-reported neurodevelopmental disorders (n= 916). Adolescents with self-reported neurodevelopmental disorders were n=154 and adolescents without self-reported neurodevelopmental disorders was n= 762. Data was collected via self-reported questionnaires administered in schools. Results: Three key findings are presented. 1) more factors were associated with participation outcomes at time1 for adolescents without NDD than for adolescents with NDD, but this difference in the number of factors decreases with time; 2) few associations were related to time for both adolescents with and without NDD; and 3) patterns of predicting variables were different for adolescents with and without NDD. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the factors related to participation in and outside school differs between groups, when the impairment or disability is not considered as a predictor for participation. This study supports the need for using a multidimensional developmental and contextual perspective in addressing enhanced participation for adolescents with neurodevelopmental disorders.

  • 19.
    Madsen, Kent
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi. Åbo Akademi University.
    Santtila, Pekka
    Finland.
    Interview styles, adult's recall and personality in investigative interview settings: mediation and moderation effects2018In: Congent Psychology, ISSN 2331-1908, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have investigated the effects of a humanitarian rapport-orientated and a dominant non-rapport-orientated interview style on the memory performance of adults in two interviews separated by a 6-month interval. Also, the impact of interviewees’ personality on recall was investigated. In the present exploratory study, the data that formed the basis of previous findings were re-analysed for potential indirect effects of interview approach on interviewees’ recall, and for any potential relation between the interview approach and interviewees’ recall as moderated by their personality. Results showed three full mediation effects in the second interview: the rapport index (interviewers’ demeanour) mediated the relation between the interview approach and increased recall; the non-rapport index mediated the relations between the interview approach and decreased recall. Follow-up analyses showed a full mediation effect for the individual items friendliness and cooperation in the rapport index, and for negative attitude, nonchalance, impatience and brusqueness and obstinacy in the non-rapport index. Moreover, the results showed a significant moderation effect; the relationship between the interview approach and confabulated memories being moderated by openness to experience; and a high level of openness was associated with an increase in confabulated memories.

  • 20.
    Maxwell, Gregor
    et al.
    Jönköping University & Norge.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University & Norge.
    Augustine, Lilly
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi. Jönköping University.
    Inclusion through participation: understanding participation in the international classification of functioning, disability, and health as a methodological research tool for investigating inclusion2018In: Frontiers in Education, ISSN 2504-284X, Vol. 3, no 41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the use and validity of the International Classification of Functioning disability and health (ICF) as a common language for describing inclusive educational settings. There is a specific focus on investigating participation through the ICF as one aspect of inclusion as an improved understanding of participation as a measure of inclusion will greatly benefit children with additional support needs. In addition there will be a better understanding of the operationalization of participation, in terms of both policy and practice, and improved applications of the ICF. The study uses a narrative summary to review to analyse the findings from a selection of studies where the ICF has been used as a methodological tool in the field of education. In the 16 included studies the ICF is either used to present a new theoretical position, synthesize a new research approach or tool, or is integrated into the framework of an existing research method. Findings also show that the ICF is used in a number of different ways and that when it is used directly, variation is found in the type of information that was linked to ICF codes or categories. In conclusion further clarity on defining and measuring participation with the ICF framework is required in order to create a more consistent tool for investigating inclusive education. One way to improve the construct of participation is to take a bi-dimensional approach. It is the authors’ belief that this newer approach to modelling participation will be considered in any future revisions of the ICF/ICF-CY – a so-called ‘ICF-2’. This would thus create a more accountable classification framework that succeeds in capturing the involvement experience of the individual and in doing so achieves a more effective and useful classification framework for the field of inclusive education.

  • 21.
    Ottová-Jordan, Veronika
    et al.
    Tyskland.
    Smith, Otto R. F.
    Norge.
    Augustine, Lilly
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi. Jönköping University, HLK.
    Gobina, Inese
    Lettland.
    Rathmann, Katharina
    Tyskland.
    Torsheim, Torbjørn
    Norge.
    Mazur, Joanna
    Polen.
    Välimaa, Raili
    Finland.
    Cavallo, Franco
    Italien.
    Jericek Klanscek, Helena
    Slovenien.
    Vollebergh, Wilma
    Nederländerna.
    Meilstrup, Charlotte
    Danmark.
    Richter, Matthias
    Tyskland.
    Moor, Irene
    Tyskland.
    Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike
    Tyskland.
    Trends in health complaints from 2002 to 2010 in 34 countries and their association with health behaviours and social context factors at individual and macro-level2015In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 83-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: This article describes trends and stability over time in health complaints in adolescents from 2002 to 2010 and investigates associations between health complaints, behavioural and social contextual factors at individual level and economic factors at macro-level.

    METHODS: Comprising N = 510 876 11-, 13- and 15-year-old children and adolescents in Europe, North America and Israel, data came from three survey cycles of the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Age- and gender-adjusted trends in health complaints were examined in each country by means of linear regression. By using the country as the random effects variable, we tested to what extent individual and contextual variables were associated with health complaints.

    RESULTS: Significant associations are stronger for individual level determinants (e.g. being bullied, smoking) than for determinants at macro-level (e.g. GDP, Gini), as can be seen by the small effect sizes (less than 5% for different trends). Health complaints are fairly stable over time in most countries, and no clear international trend in health complaints can be observed between 2002 and 2010. The most prominent stable determinants were being female, being bullied, school pressure and smoking.

    CONCLUSION: Factors associated with health complaints are more related to the proximal environment than to distal macro-level factors. This points towards intensifying targeted interventions, (e.g. for bullying) and also targeting specific risk groups. The comparably small effect size at country-level indicates that country-level factors have an impact on health and should not be ignored.

  • 22.
    Schmidt, Manuela
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap. Lund University.
    Hansson, Erika
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Doctoral students' well-being: a literature review2018In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 13, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Doctoral student well-being is an important matter that shapes the well-being of academics throughout their careers. Given that well-being has been found to be closely related to employee productivity and efficiency, strategies associated with maintaining well-being during PhD studies might be crucial for higher education, its outcomes and-just as importantly-for a balanced life of PhD students.  Method: Based on 17 studies, this literature review critically assesses the literature on doctoral student well-being.  Results: Theoretical models, concepts of well-being, and methods applied are discussed, as are the results of the articles. The reviewed studies are then discussed based on a SWOT analysis addressing the strengths and weaknesses of the reviewed research as well as the identified opportunities and threats, which can be used as a basis for future research. Based on the review findings and the SWOT analysis, a multidimensional view of the well-being of doctoral students is proposed.  Conclusions: The study proposes a more student-centred approach to meeting doctoral students' needs, and the enhancement of doctoral student well-being in order, as a long-term goal, to improve academics' well-being and productivity.Doctoral student well-being is an important matter that shapes the well-being of academics throughout their careers. Given that well-being has been found to be closely related to employee productivity and efficiency, strategies associated with maintaining well-being during PhD studies might be crucial for higher education, its outcomes and-just as importantly-for a balanced life of PhD students. Based on 17 studies, this literature review critically assesses the literature on doctoral student well-being. Theoretical models, concepts of well-being, and methods applied are discussed, as are the results of the articles. The reviewed studies are then discussed based on a SWOT analysis addressing the strengths and weaknesses of the reviewed research as well as the identified opportunities and threats, which can be used as a basis for future research. Based on the review findings and the SWOT analysis, a multidimensional view of the well-being of doctoral students is proposed. The study proposes a more student-centred approach to meeting doctoral students' needs, and the enhancement of doctoral student well-being in order, as a long-term goal, to improve academics' well-being and productivity.

  • 23.
    Sikström, Sverker
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Hellman, Johan
    Lund University.
    Dahl, Mats
    Lund University.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education.
    Johansson, Marcus
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    The role of sparsely distributed representations in familiarity recognition of verbal and olfactory materials2018In: Cognitive Processing, ISSN 1612-4782, E-ISSN 1612-4790, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 481-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the generalized signal detection theory (GSDT), where familiarity is described by a sparse binomial distribution of binary node activity rather than by normal distribution of familiarity. Items are presented in a distributed representation, where each node receives either noise only, or signal and noise. An old response (i.e., a "yes" response) is made if at least one node receives signal plus noise that is larger than the activation threshold, and item variability is determined by the distribution of activated nodes as the threshold is varied. A distinct representation leads to better performance and a lower ratio of new to old item variability, than a more distributed and less distinct representations. Here we apply the GSDT to empirical data on verbal and olfactory memory and suggest that verbal memory relies on a distinct neural item representation, whereas olfactory memory has a fuzzy neural representation leading to poorer memory and inducing a larger ratio of new to old item variability.

  • 24.
    Siotis Ekberg, Camilla
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Ibland leka lika barn bäst: en metod för gruppindelning av studenter2018In: Högskolepedaogisk debatt, ISSN 2000-9216, no 2, p. 35-49Article in journal (Other academic)
1 - 24 of 24
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