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  • 1.
    Bengtsson Tops, Anita
    et al.
    Växjö universitet.
    Markström, U
    Lewin, B
    The prevalence of abuse in Swedish female psychiatric users, the perpetrators and places where abuse occurred2005In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 59, no 6, p. 504-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the study were to investigate self-reported physical, sexual, emotional and economical abuse in Swedish female users of psychiatric services, who the perpetrators were and in which places abuse occurred. An anonymous self-administrated questionnaire was answered in the waiting room of the services. The drop-out rate was 21% and n=1382 women completed the questionnaire. Fifty-three per cent of the women had been abused during childhood, 63% during adulthood and 31% during past year. Seventy-four per cent of those exposed during childhood were also exposed later in life. Women subjected to abuse reported longer contact with psychiatric care. Regardless of life period, the majority reported multiple and frequent abuse. Emotional abuse was most frequent reported in both childhood and adulthood followed by physical and sexual abuse. The reported perpetrators were mainly male persons to whom the woman had an intimate relationship. Mostly the abuse occurred in the women's own home. However, other women, strangers, acquaintances and relatives were also stated as perpetrator and abusive acts also took place in other homes, outdoors or down town. The high prevalence of abuse and its multiplicity point to the necessity for the care and support system to prioritize abuse against women with psychiatric illness.

  • 2. Eklund, Mona
    et al.
    Bengtsson Tops, Anita
    Växjö universitet.
    Lindstedt, Helena
    Construct and discriminant validity and dimensionality of the Interview Schedule for Social Interaction (ISSI) in three psychiatric samples2007In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 182-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was aimed at investigating the psychometric properties of the Interview Schedule for Social Interaction (ISSI), in terms of construct and discriminant validity and unidimensionality, in three psychiatric samples with varying prerequisites for social interaction: 1) an outpatient sample of working age with mixed diagnoses, 2) an outpatient sample with schizophrenia, and 3) an inpatient sample composed of mentally ill, male offenders. The target constructs were psychosocial functioning and satisfaction in different life domains. It was hypothesized that the ISSI would mainly be related to psychosocial functioning and life domains characterized by social interaction, such as friends and family. A second hypothesis was that the ISSI ratings would discriminate between the three samples. The first hypothesis was confirmed, but the pattern of relationships was somewhat different between the groups. Whereas family contacts were of great importance for social integration in Samples 1 and 2, friends seemed more important for the mentally ill offenders. The second hypothesis was partly confirmed: three ISSI sub-scales out of four discriminated between the samples. Moreover, the ISSI proved to be a unidimensional construct. The support for the four proposed sub-scales was not unanimous, however, and the sub-scales targeting attachment constituted less stable factors. This study demonstrated the construct and discriminant validity of the ISSI when applied to samples with various mental disorders. The fact that similar results were obtained in all three samples, despite varying prerequisites for social interaction, strongly supports the validity of the ISSI. Providing the sub-scales are used with caution, the ISSI seems to be a reliable tool for use with patients with severe mental disorders.

  • 3.
    Eklund, Mona
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University.
    Erlandsson, Lena-Karin
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University.
    Hagell, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE.
    Psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Pearlin Mastery Scale in people with mental illness and healthy people2012In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 66, no 6, p. 380-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mastery refers to the degree to which people perceive that they can control factors that influence their life situation, and has been found important for people's quality of life and well-being. It is thus essential to be able to measure mastery in a valid and reliable way. Aim: This study aimed at using the Rasch measurement model to investigate the psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Pearlin Mastery Scale (Mastery-S). Methods: A sample of 300 healthy individuals and 278 persons with mental illness responded to the Mastery-S. Item responses were Rasch analysed regarding model fit, response category functioning, differential item functioning (DIF) and targeting, using the partial credit model. Results: The Mastery-S items represented a logical continuum of the measured construct but one item displayed misfit. Reliability (Person Separation Index) was 0.7. The response categories did not work as expected in three items, which could be corrected for by collapsing categories. Three items displayed DIF between the two subsamples, which caused a bias when comparing mastery levels between subsamples, suggesting the Mastery-S is not truly generic. Conclusions: The Mastery-S may be used to obtain valid and reliable data, but some precautions should be made. If used to compare groups, new analyses of DIF should first be made. Users of the scale should also consider exempting item 6 from the scale and analyse it as a separate item. Finally, rewording of response categories should be considered in order to make them more distinct and thereby improve score reliability.

  • 4.
    Hansson, Lars
    et al.
    Lund University Hospital.
    Sandlund, Mikael
    Umeå University.
    Bengtsson Tops, Anita
    Department of Psychiatry Sector West Malmö.
    Bjarnason, Olafur
    Island.
    Karlsson, Hasse
    Finland.
    Mackerprang, Torben
    Danmark.
    Merinder, Lars
    Danmark.
    Nilsson, Liselotte
    Department of Psychiatry Sector West Malmö.
    Sørgaard, Knut
    Norge.
    Vinding, Hanne
    Danmark.
    Middelboe, Thomas
    Danmark.
    The relationship of needs and quality of life in persons with schizophrenia living in the community: a Nordic multi-center study2003In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 5-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between needs for care and support and subjective quality of life was investigated in a cross-sectional multi-center study including 418 individuals with schizophrenia from 10 centers in Nordic countries. Needs in 22 domains were investigated by interviews with key workers and their patients using the Camberwell Assessment of Need scale, and quality of life by the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile. The results showed that key workers rated slightly more needs than patients. To have more unmet needs, as rated by both key workers and patients, were correlated to a worse overall subjective quality of life, while met needs showed no such association. A regression analysis, controlling for clinical and social characteristics of the patients, showed more unmet needs to be associated with a worse quality of life, accounting for 6% out of a total of 41% explained variance in subjective quality of life. Regression analyses of the relationship of unmet needs in specific life domains and overall quality of life showed that unmet needs in five domains as perceived by patients accounted for 17% of the explained variance in overall quality of life. More than half of this variance was related to an unmet need in the domain of social relationships. It is concluded that unmet needs are of specific importance in needs assessment and that attention must be paid to separate met needs for care and services from unmet needs, since the latter seem more important to consider in order to improve outcome of interventions with regard to quality of life. Specific attention should in this context also be paid to unmet needs concerning social relationships and problems with accommodation.

  • 5.
    Johansson, Maurits
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Johansson, Per
    Lund University & Gothenburg University.
    Stomrud, Erik
    Lund University.
    Hagell, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Hansson, Oskar
    Lund University.
    Psychometric testing of a Swedish version of the Apathy Evaluation Scale2017In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 71, no 6, p. 477-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Apathy, a prevalent and clinically relevant symptom in neurodegenerative disease, is often evaluated by the instrument Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES). However, this instrument has not been translated into Swedish, halting clinical and research efforts. Furthermore, previous studies lack analyses of some basic properties, such as the legitimacy of a total score, or have analysed dimensionality by questionable methods.

    AIM: To translate and psychometrically evaluate a Swedish version of the AES.

    METHOD: The AES was translated, and its psychometric properties were tested in the Swedish BioFINDER study, including cognitively well elderly, and subjects with mild cognitive or parkinsonian symptoms. Psychometric analyses were conducted according to classical test theory (CTT) and aimed to resemble those performed in the English original study by Marin et al. in 1991. Dimensionality was additionally analysed on a matrix of polychoric correlations and parallel analyses.

    RESULTS: Data indicate that the Swedish AES performs satisfactorily regarding data completeness, scaling assumptions, targeting, and reliability. Principal component analyses (with parallel analysis) of polychoric correlation matrices identified a single component. Convergent and discriminative validity correlations accorded with a priori expectations.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study provides initial support that this Swedish AES performs similarly to the English original, and exhibits acceptable psychometric properties according to CTT, including supported unidimensionality, and may be adopted for use in clinical and research settings.

  • 6.
    Schmidt, Manuela
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society. Lund University.
    Ekstrand, Joakim
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Ekonomi och arbetsliv. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Bengtsson-Tops, Anita
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Clinical profiles and temporal patterns of psychiatric emergency room visitors in Sweden2018In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 72, no 3, p. 197-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: To describe persons visiting the psychiatric emergency room (PER) in Sweden and to compare persons who frequently (PFV) and infrequently (PIFV) visit PERs in terms of group size, age, gender, PER location inside versus outside the home municipality, diagnosis (ICD 10), temporal patterns of visits and hospital admissions.

    METHODS: This register study included all visits to PERs in one Swedish county over 3 years, 2013-2015 (N = 67,031 visits). The study employed descriptive statistics as well as Chi-square tests combined with Bonferroni correction to compare PFV with PIFV.

    RESULTS: Of the total of 27,282 visitors, 2201 (8.1%) were identified as PFV (five or more visits within 12 months) and they accounted for 38.1% of the total visits. The study found differences between PFV and PIFV in gender, diagnostic profile, hospital admissions and temporal patterns. Differences were also detected with regard to distance between PERs and home municipalities. However, no age-related differences were found between the two groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: PFV and PIFV have different clinical profiles and temporal patterns. These results may be important when planning, developing and evaluating interventions targeting the needs of each group, which is in accordance with a person-centred approach. Such an approach might eventually result in fewer visits to PERs.

  • 7. Sørgaard, Knut W.
    et al.
    Sandlund, Mikael
    Heikkilä, Jyrki
    Hansson, Lars
    Vinding, Hanne R.
    Bjarnason, Olafur
    Bengtsson Tops, Anita
    Department of Psychiatry Sector West Malmö.
    Merinder, Lars
    Nilsson, Lise-Lotte
    Middelboe, Thomas
    Schizophrenia and contact with health and social services: A Nordic multi-centre study2003In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 253-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In a Nordic multi-centre study investigating the life and care situation of persons with schizophrenia living in the community, factors explaining use of health and social services were examined. Method: Four hundred and eighteen individuals with schizophrenia from 10 sites were interviewed about their contact with different services (support functions within and outside the mental health services, general practitioners (GPs), physicians in the mental health, psychotherapy, day-care and inpatient treatment), psychopathology, social network and needs for care. Results: Physicians and support contacts within the mental health system were most used and GPs and psychotherapy least. Three groups of variables were stabile predictors of contact: rural-urban differences, diagnoses (hebephrenic schizophrenia associated with less contact with physicians in the mental services and more with GPs) and health needs as experienced by the patients. No differences between the centres with regard to total service use were found, but the patterns of contact reflected urban-rural variance. A low number of health needs predicted contact with physicians within the mental health services, whereas a high number of such needs was related to contact with GPs and support functions within the mental health services. Social relations exhibited the highest number of unmet needs. Conclusions: Contact with physicians working in the mental health services was much more common than contact with GPs. Based on a broad spectre of demographic, clinical and network variables, it was not possible to find models that explained substantial parts of the variance of service use. Patterns of contact were different in rural, town and city-surroundings, and with the exception of psychotherapy, the rural pattern was characterized by use of less specialized services. The importance of health needs and diagnosis as predictors of contact illustrate the profound and lasting effects on health of having a diagnosis of schizophrenia.

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