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  • 1.
    Brundin, P
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Pogarell, O
    Tyskland.
    Hagell, Peter
    Lund University.
    Piccini, P
    England.
    Widner, H
    Lund University.
    Schrag, A
    England.
    Kupsch, A
    Tyskland.
    Crabb, L
    England.
    Odin, P
    Lund University.
    Gustavii, B
    Lund University.
    Björklund, A
    Lund University.
    Brooks, D J
    England.
    Marsden, C D
    England.
    Oertel, W H
    Tyskland.
    Quinn, N P
    England.
    Rehncrona, S
    Lund University.
    Lindvall, O
    Lund University.
    Bilateral caudate and putamen grafts of embryonic mesencephalic tissue treated with lazaroids in Parkinson's disease2000In: Brain, ISSN 0006-8950, E-ISSN 1460-2156, Vol. 123, no 7, 1380-1390 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Five parkinsonian patients were transplanted bilaterally into the putamen and caudate nucleus with human embryonic mesencephalic tissue from between seven and nine donors. To increase graft survival, the lipid peroxidation inhibitor tirilazad mesylate was administered to the tissue before implantation and intravenously to the patients for 3 days thereafter. During the second postoperative year, the mean daily L-dopa dose was reduced by 54% and the UPDRS (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale) motor score in 'off' phase was reduced by a mean of 40%. At 10-23 months after grafting, PET showed a mean 61% increase of 6-L-[(18)F]fluorodopa uptake in the putamen, and 24% increase in the caudate nucleus, compared with preoperative values. No obvious differences in the pattern of motor recovery were observed between these and other previously studied cases with putamen grafts alone. The amount of mesencephalic tissue implanted in each putamen and caudate nucleus was 42 and 50% lower, respectively, compared with previously transplanted patients from our centre. Despite this reduction in grafted tissue, the magnitudes of symptomatic relief and graft survival were very similar. These findings suggest that tirilazad mesylate may improve survival of grafted dopamine neurons in patients, which is in agreement with observations in experimental animals.

  • 2.
    Hagell, Peter
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Schrag, A
    Piccini, P
    Jahanshahi, M
    Brown, R
    Rehncrona, S
    Widner, H
    Brundin, P
    Rothwell, J C
    Odin, P
    Wenning, G K
    Morrish, P
    Gustavii, B
    Björklund, A
    Brooks, D J
    Marsden, C D
    Quinn, N P
    Lindvall, O
    Sequential bilateral transplantation in Parkinson's disease: effects of the second graft1999In: Brain, ISSN 0006-8950, E-ISSN 1460-2156, Vol. 122, no 6, 1121-1132 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Five parkinsonian patients who had received implants of human embryonic mesencephalic tissue unilaterally in the striatum 10-56 months earlier were grafted with tissue from four to eight donors into the putamen (four patients) or the putamen plus the caudate nucleus (one patient) on the other side, and were followed for 18-24 months. After 12-18 months, PET showed a mean 85% increase in 6-L-[18F]fluorodopa uptake in the putamen with the second graft, whereas there was no significant further change in the previously transplanted putamen. Two patients exhibited marked additional improvements after their second graft: 'on-off' fluctuations virtually disappeared, movement speed increased, and L-dopa could be withdrawn in one patient and reduced by 70% in the other. The improvement in one patient was moderate. Two patients with atypical features, who responded poorly to the first graft, worsened following the second transplantation. These findings indicate that sequential transplantation in patients does not compromise the survival and function of either the first or the second graft. Moreover, putamen grafts that restore fluorodopa uptake to normal levels can give improvements of major therapeutic value.

  • 3.
    Piccini, Paola
    et al.
    MRC Clinical Sciences Centre and Division of Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital.
    Pavese, Nicola
    MRC Clinical Sciences Centre and Division of Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital.
    Hagell, Peter
    of Restorative Neurology, University Hospital, Lund.
    Reimer, Jan
    of Restorative Neurology, University Hospital, Lund.
    Björklund, Anders
    Division of Neurobiology, Lund University.
    Oertel, Wolfgang H
    Quinn, Niall P
    6Department of Neurology, University of Marburg.
    Brooks, David J.
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, London.
    Lindvall, Olle
    Section of Restorative Neurology, University Hospital, Lund.
    Factors affecting the clinical outcome after neural transplantation in Parkinson's disease2005In: Brain, ISSN 0006-8950, E-ISSN 1460-2156, Vol. 128, no 12, 2977-2986 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intrastriatal grafts of embryonic mesencephalic tissue can survive in the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease, but the degree of symptomatic relief is highly variable and some cases develop troublesome dyskinesias. Here we explored, using clinical assessment and 18F-dopa and 11C-raclopride PET, factors which may influence the functional outcome after transplantation. We observed increased 18F-dopa uptake in the grafted putamen, signifying continued survival of the transplanted dopaminergic neurons, in parallel with a progressive reduction of 18F-dopa uptake in non-grafted regions for the whole patient group. The patients with the best functional outcome after transplantation exhibited no dopaminergic denervation in areas outside the grafted areas either preoperatively or at 1 or 2 years post-operatively. In contrast, patients with no or modest clinical benefit showed reduction of 18F-dopa in ventral striatum prior to or following transplantation, which may have limited graft-induced improvement. We obtained no evidence that dyskinesias were caused by abnormal dopamine (DA) release from the grafts. As has been observed for intrinsic dopaminergic neurons, there was a significant correlation between 18F-dopa uptake and methamphetamine-induced change of 11C-raclopride binding (as a measure of DA release) in the putamen containing the graft. Furthermore, we observed no correlation between 11C-raclopride binding in anterior, posterior or entire putamen under basal conditions or after methamphetamine, and dyskinesia severity scores in the contralateral side of the body. Withdrawal of immunosuppression at 29 months after transplantation caused no reduction of 18F-dopa uptake or worsening of UPDRS motor score, indicating continued survival and function of the graft. However, patients showed increased dyskinesia scores, which might have been caused either by growth of the graft or worsening of a low-grade inflammation around the graft. These findings indicate that poor outcome after transplantation is associated with progressive dopaminergic denervation in areas outside the grafts, a process which may have started already before surgery. Also, that the development of dyskinesias after transplantation is not associated with excessive DA release from the grafts. Finally, our data provide evidence that long-term immunosuppression can be withdrawn without interfering with graft survival or the motor recovery induced by transplantation.

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