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  • 1.
    Dessborn, Lisa
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Nummi, Petri
    Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki.
    Pöysä, Hannu
    Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Joensuu Game and Fisheries Research.
    Sjöberg, Kjell
    Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Hatching in dabbling ducks and emergence in chironomids: a case of predator-prey synchrony?2009In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 636, no 1, p. 319-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been hypothesized that dabbling ducks (Anas spp.) time breeding to coincide with annual regional peaks in emerging dipterans, especially Chironomidae, which are important prey for newly hatched ducklings. However, this hypothesis has never been evaluated in a replicated lake-level study, including year effects in emergence patterns. We collected duck and invertebrate data from 12 lakes during the nesting seasons 1989-1994 in a watershed in southern Finland. The oligotrophic study lakes are typical of the boreal Holarctic, as are the three focal duck species: mallard Anas platyrhynchos L., widgeon Anas penelope L and teal Anas crecca L. Hatching of ducklings showed a clear peak in relation to ambient phenology (annual ice-out date of lakes), whereas chironomid emergence was more erratic and showed no clear peak at the lake level, although total watershed-level emergence was somewhat higher before and long after the duck hatching peak. Thus, we find no evidence that ducklings hatch in synchrony with abundance peaks of emerging chironomids. There was large within-year temporal variation in chironomid emergence among lakes, but this was not correlated with ambient temperature. The rank of individual lakes with respect to the abundance of emerging chironomids was consistent among as well as within years, a predictability that ought to make adaptive lake choice by ducks possible. On the lake level, there was a positive correlation between the total amount of emerging chironomids and brood use. We argue that emergence patterns of chironomids on typical boreal lakes are neither compressed nor predictable enough to be a major selective force on the timing of egg-laying and hatching in dabbling ducks. Despite spatial (among-lake) patterns of abundance of emerging chironomids being predictable within and among years, the observed pattern of brood use suggests that other factors, e.g. habitat structure, also affect lake choice.

  • 2.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Dessborn, Lisa
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Englund, Göran
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    Presence of fish affects lake use and breeding success in ducks2010In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 641, no 1, p. 215-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several previous studies indicate that presence of fish has negative effects on waterbirds breeding on lakes, owing either to competition for common invertebrate prey or fish predation on ducklings/chicks. However, others have reported results to the contrary and it remains unresolved what factors trigger, inhibit, and modulate fish-waterbird interactions. The present study was designed to test the effect of fish presence per se, with a minimum of variation in possibly confounding environmental variables. Thus, after stratifying for area, depth, altitude, pH, and total phosphorus we compared 13 lakes with and 12 without fish (mainly pike Esox lucius and perch Perca fluviatilis) with respect to (i) general species richness of waterbirds, (ii) species-specific utilization and breeding success of two dabbling ducks (mallard Anas platyrhynchos and teal Anas crecca) and a diving duck (goldeneye Bucephala clangula). General species richness of waterbirds was higher on fishless lakes. Overall use (bird days) and brood number of teal and goldeneye were higher on fishless lakes. The latter also had more benthic and free-swimming prey invertebrates compared to lakes with fish. Mallard use, mallard brood number, and abundance of emerging insects did not differ between lake groups. Generalized linear models including fish presence as factor and considering seven environmental variables as covariates, confirmed that all waterbird variables except mallard days and broods were negatively correlated to fish presence. There was also a residual positive relationship of lake area on general species richness, teal days, and teal broods. Our data demonstrate a stronger effect of fish presence on diving ducks and small surface feeding ducks than on large surface-feeding ducks. We argue that observed patterns were caused by fish predation on ducks rather than by fish-duck competition for common prey.

  • 3.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Wildlife Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Nummi, Petri
    Department of Applied Ecology, University of Helsinki.
    Pöysä, Hannu
    Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Evo Game Research Station.
    Sjöberg, Kjell
    Department of Wildlife Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Do intruding predators and trap position affect the reliability of catches in activity traps?1992In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 239, no 3, p. 187-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forty lakes in Sweden and Finland were sampled in 1990 with activity traps to evaluate the effects of trapped predators on invertebrate catch. Vertebrate (fish, newts) and invertebrate (leeches, dragonflies, water beetles, backswimmers and water scorpions) predators were considered separately. Invertebrate predators affected neither the abundance nor the taxonomic diversity of the catches. Vertebrate predators had no effect on the abundance but reduced the taxonomic diversity of the catches significantly. Thus, vertebrate predators are a possible source of bias in activity trap catches, but oily concerning taxonomic diversity. Within the depth gradient studied (0.25-0.75 m), trap position (suspended in mid-water versus on the bottom) did not affect the percentages of nektonic and benthic invertebrates in the catches. The relative abundance of all taxa was similar in the catches from different trap positions, but the relative abundance of the most numerous taxa as well as the diversity of the catches differed between trap positions. We conclude that both mid-water and bottom traps are suitable for monitoring aquatic invertebrates, and that bottom traps may be preferred for practical reasons.

  • 4.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Animal Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Sjöberg, Kjell
    Department of Animal Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Nummi, Petri
    Department of Applied Zoology, University of Helsinki.
    Pöysä, Hannu
    Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Evo Game Research Station.
    Patterns of lake acidity and waterfowl communities1994In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 279-280, no 1, p. 201-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Breeding waterfowl communities were studied in 28 lakes in three areas in North Europe, along gradients of acid precipitation and alkalinity that result in lake conditions ranging from unaffected to strongly acidified. Acidic lakes had generally sparser and less complex vegetation, and fewer invertebrates were caught in activity traps. There was neither correlation between pH and waterfowl species richness (genus Anas, family Anatidae, and waterfowl sensu latu tested separately), nor between pH and waterfowl diversity (Simpson's index). Further, pH and waterfowl population density (genus Anas, family Anatidae, and waterfowl sensu latu) were not correlated, but when functional rather than taxonomic groups were considered, pH and relative abundance of fish-eating species (Gaviidae and Podicipedidae) were correlated. However, the relative abundance of Bucephala clangula, a diving duck that may compete with fish for food, was not correlated with pH. Although individual species may be affected, community level responses of waterfowl to acidity are either absent or hard to detect at our sites.

  • 5.
    Nummi, Petri
    et al.
    Department of Applied Zoology, University of Helsinki.
    Pöysä, Hannu
    Evo Game Research Station, Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Department of Animal Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Sjöberg, Kjell
    Department of Animal Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Habitat distribution of the mallard in relation to vegetation structure, food, and population density1994In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 280, no 1, p. 247-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus) is a generalist feeder, breeding in a wide range of habitats, yet showing considerable between site differences in density. Variations in density and habitat use may result from inter- and intra-specific competition, habitat structure or food. We studied habitat selection of the mallard in four regions of Finland and Sweden. In each region, ten lakes were chosen ranging from oligotrophic to eutrophic. Habitat distribution of the mallard did not differ between regions despite variation in the density of the species and congenerics. Mallard density did not correlate with vegetation structure, but increased with food abundance and the number and density of congenerics although there were regional differences in mallard response.

  • 6.
    Pöysä, Hannu
    et al.
    Finland.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Holopainen, Sari
    Finland.
    Nummi, Petri
    Finland.
    Sjöberg, Kjell
    SLU, Uppsala.
    Habitat associations and habitat change: seeking explanation for population decline in breeding Eurasian wigeon Anas penelope2017In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 785, no 1, p. 207-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explored whether the recent large-scale population decline of Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope) in Europe may be linked to long-term vegetation changes in their boreal breeding wetlands. First, we assessed the importance of Equisetum, Phragmites, and Carex stands in lake selection by pairs and in foraging habitat selection by broods. Second, in 2013–2014 we revisited 58 lakes in Sweden and Finland studied in 1990–1991, to examine if there had been any long-term change in the abundance of habitat types preferred by wigeon. Finally, using continuous long-term data on breeding numbers of wigeon in 18 of the lakes studied in 1990–1991, we examined if wigeon numbers had changed at lakes where the habitat also had changed. We found that lake occupation of nesting wigeon pairs and foraging habitat use of broods were associated with the extent of Equisetum stands. The presence and abundance of this preferred habitat declined dramatically from 1990–1991 to 2013–2014 in the lakes from which the presence–absence data of wigeon emanate. Breeding numbers of wigeon showed a long-term declining trend in lakes where Equisetum has decreased. Our results imply that the recent population decline of wigeon in Europe may be linked to decrease of Equisetum habitat.

  • 7. Wendt-Rasch, L
    et al.
    Vought, Lena B. M.
    Lunds universitet.
    Woin, P
    Effects of fenvalerate on the net-spinning behaviour of Hydropsyche siltalai (Dohler) (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae)1998In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 382, no 1-3, p. 53-61Article in journal (Refereed)
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