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  • 1.
    Bergström, Staffan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Svensson, Britt-Marie
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Mårtensson, Lennart
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Mathiasson, Lennart
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Lund University.
    Development and application of an analytical protocol for evaluation of treatment processes for landfill leachates: I. Development of an analytical protocol for handling organic compounds in complex leachate samples2007In: International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0306-7319, E-ISSN 1029-0397, Vol. 87, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A strategy is presented for evaluation of treatment procedures for landfill leachate with emphasis on organic pollutants. An analytical scheme, the LAQUA protocol, was developed as a guide for the analytical work. The protocol includes organic as well as metals,. inorganic ions, water-quality parameters, and toxicity. The proposed strategy considers the behaviour of both polar and non-polar organic substances at trace levels. For polar substances, phenols were chosen as markers and determined with an automated supported liquid membrane extraction device, coupled on-line to HPLC with a diode-array detector. For non-polar substances, PCBs and 10 unidentified compounds were chosen as markers and analysed by solid-phase extraction combined with supercritical fluid extraction with GC analysis. The chosen measurement strategy, based on the use of marker substances, difference measurements, and versatile data-handling procedures, provided essential information about complex systems at relatively low cost.

  • 2.
    Hallgren, Pär
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Mårtensson, Lennart
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Mathiasson, Lennart
    Division of Analytical Chemistry, Lund University.
    A new spectrophotometric method for improved indirect measurement of low levels of vitellogenin using malachite green2012In: International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0306-7319, E-ISSN 1029-0397, Vol. 92, no 7, p. 894-908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vitellogenin (VTG) is a well-known biomarker for endocrine disruption and the measurement of alkali-labile protein bound phosphate (ALP) has been used as an indirect quantification method for VTG in fish, clam and mussel. One limitation of the ALP method has been the insufficient detection limit but with the method presented here this obstacle has been overcome, enabling measurement in fish species with very low background levels and hence a wider usage of ALP measurements in the future. In a previous publication, relying on spectrophotometric measurement with molybdate, we presented an improved protocol for ALP measurement in fish plasma. The sample preparation in that paper has here been combined with an improved spectrophotometric determination using malachite green as colour reagent. The spectrophotometric measurement was optimised with respect to acidity and reagent concentration. The validated method has a detection limit of 0.3?µg? ?ml?1 plasma, which is 10 times lower than previous spectrophotometric methods using molybdate reagent, and an intra-assay variation of 7%. The new method was used for screening of endocrine effects by placing juvenile rainbow trout at three locations along the Vallkärra brook, Lund Sweden, which receives leachate water from a nearby covered landfill. In comparison with reference fish, ALP was significantly higher (66%) at the 99% confidence level in fish placed close to the landfill. ALP was also significantly higher (33%) at the 95% confidence level in fish from the group placed further downstream. Fish placed in a brook branch not receiving leachate were unaffected. The low levels of ALP in reference fish (5.5?±?0.7 SD ?µg/ml plasma) could not have been quantified with such precision with another method for ALP measurement. The indirect quantification of VTG as ALP is a more economic alternative compared to quantification with immunological methods.

  • 3.
    Hallgren, Pär
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    Mårtensson, Lennart
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    Mathiasson, Lennart
    Division of Analytical Chemistry, Lund University.
    Improved spectrophotometric vitellogenin determination via alkali-labile phosphate in fish plasma: a cost effective approach for assessment of endocrine2009In: International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0306-7319, E-ISSN 1029-0397, Vol. 89, no 14, p. 1023-1042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vitellogenin (VTG) is a well known protein biomarker for exposure to environmental estrogens and possible endocrine disruption in fish. VTG is very dominant in plasma after the onset of vitellogenesis and the protein is heavily phosphorylated. This enables indirect quantification through measurement of alkali-labile protein bound phosphate (ALP) as an alternative to the more expensive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Good correlation has previously been shown between ALP and actual VTG levels but little effort has been made to investigate the method in an analytical way e.g., to assure the origin of the measured phosphate. During this method development care has been taken to rule out non-VTG sources of phosphate such as phospholipids and free phosphate in the blood plasma. Sample preparation has been simplified and unnecessary steps have been omitted. The common spectrophotometric measurement for ALP involves measurement at two wavelengths and calculation of corrected absorbance values. With a quick phase separation step the spectrophotometric phosphate determination using molybdic acid and ascorbic acid has been improved and all matrix interference has been eliminated. The final ALP method presented here has a detection limit of 3.2 µg PO43-/ml plasma which is six times lower than similar methods and it also has less variability. A high sample throughput in comparison to previous ALP methods is possible after scaling down sample and reagent volumes to fit in a 96 well microtiter plate. The cost for buying all chemicals and plastic consumer goods for setting up the indirect protocol for the analysis of 1000 samples is only circa 350 euro. This is only 1% of the material cost for buying commercially available test kit for direct quantification of VTG in the same number of samples. The ALP method should thus be of interest also for applied scientists outside advanced research laboratories.

  • 4.
    Mårtensson, Lennart
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Bergström, Staffan
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Svensson, Britt-Marie
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Mathiasson, Lennart
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Lund University.
    Development and application of an analytical protocol for evaluation of treatment processes for landfill leachates: II. Evaluation of leachate treatment efficiency of different steps in a constructed pilot plant2007In: International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0306-7319, E-ISSN 1029-0397, Vol. 87, no 1, p. 17-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different methods for treatment of leachate from a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill were tested in a pilot plant. Raw leachate was pre-treated with aeration and sedimentation, followed by several parallel individual steps such as bioremediation, chemical oxidation, ozonation, and geo-bed filters. The efficiency of different treatment steps was evaluated according to one previously developed protocol, which includes measurements of several parameters such as conductivity, pH, nutrients, chloride, metals, organic compounds, and acute toxicity before and after a treatment step. The treatment steps which showed the highest efficiency towards organic pollutants in leachate were ozone treatment and chemical oxidation. The use of an adsorption filter, a geo-bed with a mixture of peat and bottom ash with ca 10% remaining carbon, also had good effects. A combination of pre-treatment and a geo-bed filter with peat and carbon ash gave the best overall treatment results when water-quality parameters such as total organic carbon and ammonia-nitrogen were also considered.

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