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  • 1.
    Andersson, J.
    et al.
    Norge.
    Hulander, E.
    Norge.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Iversen, P. Ole
    Norge.
    Effect on body weight, quality of life and appetite following individualized, nutritional counselling to home-living elderly after rehabilitation: an open randomized trial2017In: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 811-818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: We examined if individually-adapted nutritional counselling could prevent > 5% weight loss among elderly patients 3 months after discharge from a rehabilitation institution. In addition we assessed quality of life (QoL) and appetite. Design: An open, randomized trial. Setting: Godthaab Health and Rehabilitation Institution in Bærum, Norway. Participants: Patients identified as being undernourished or at risk of disease-related malnutrition using the Nutritional Risk Screening tool NRS-2002. Intervention: Shortly before discharge, patients in the intervention group received an individually-tailored nutrition plan. During the subsequent 3 months these patients were contacted 3 times via telephone calls and they received one visit at their homes, for nutrition counselling. Focus on this counselling was on optimizing meal environment, improving appetite, increasing food intake, advice on food preparation, and motivation and support. Measurements: In addition to weight, QoL and appetite were assessed using the EQ-5D questionnaire and a modified version of the Disease-Related Appetite Questionnaire, respectively. Results: Among 115 considered eligible for the study, 100 were enrolled (72 women and 28 men), with a mean age of 75 years and a mean body mass index of 20 kg/m2. Two in the intervention group (n = 52) and 5 in the control group (n = 48) lost > 5% of their body weight, giving an odds ratio of 0.34 (95% CI: 0.064 – 1.86; p = 0.22). We did not detect any significant differences in the QoL- or appetite scores between the two study groups after three months. Conclusion: An individually-adapted nutritional counselling did not improve body mass among elderly patients 3 months after discharge from a rehabilitation institution. Neither quality of life nor appetite measures were improved. Possibly, nutritional counselling should be accompanied with nutritional supplementation to be effective in this vulnerable group of elderly. The trial is registered in Clinical Trials (ID: NCT01632072).

  • 2. Cabrera, C.
    et al.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Eriksson, B. G.
    Wedel, H.
    Eiben, G.
    Steen, B.
    Lissner, L.
    Socio-economic gradient in food selection and diet quality among 70-year olds2007In: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 466-473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess social disparities in food choices and diet quality in a population of 70-year old Swedes.

    Design: Cross-sectional study among participants in the 2000 Gerontological and Geriatric Population Studies in Goteborg.

    Participants: A representative population of men (n=233) and women (n=321) from Goteborg, a city on the south western coast of Sweden.

    Methods: One hour diet history interviews were performed and 35 specific foods and food groups were identified; in addition a diet quality index (DQI) was calculated. Differences in food choices and diet quality scores were tested across educational and socio-economic index categories (SEI).

    Results: Men with higher education and SEI had higher diet quality scores than those with lower socio-economic status, while no differences in DQI were noted in women. Further analysis of women based on their husband's occupational group also yielded no differences in diet quality. When studying individual foods, socio-economic differences were observed in women and men.

    Conclusions: Selection of food varies by education and occupational status in both sexes although socio-economic disparities in diet quality were observed in men only.

  • 3.
    Westergren, Albert
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE.
    Hagell, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Sjödahl Hammarlund, Catharina
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Malnutrition and risk of falling among elderly without home-help service: a cross sectional study2014In: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 18, no 10, p. 905-911Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to explore the frequency of malnutrition risk and associated risk of falling, social and mental factors among elderly without home-help service. The aim was also to explore factors associated with risk of falling.

    Design

    A cross-sectional design was used.

    Setting

    Elderly persons own homes.

    Participants

    Data were collected during preventive home visits to 565 elderly (age range 73–90 years) without home-help service. Those with complete SCREEN II forms were included in the study (n=465).

    Measurements

    Measurements included rating scales regarding malnutrition risk (SCREEN II) and risk of falling (Downton). In addition, single-items: general health, satisfaction with life, tiredness, low-spiritedness, worries/anxiety and sleeping were used.

    Results

    According to the SCREEN II, 35% of the sample had no malnutrition risk, 35% had moderate risk and 30% had high malnutrition risk. In an ordinal regression analysis, increased malnutrition risk was associated with being a woman living alone (OR 4.63), male living alone (OR 6.23), lower age (OR 0.86), poorer general health (OR 2.03–5.01), often/always feeling tired (OR 2.38), and an increased risk of falling (OR 1.21). In a linear regression analysis, risk of falling was associated with higher age (B 0.020), not shopping independently (B 0.162), and low meat consumption (B 0.138).

    Conclusion

    There are complex associations between malnutrition risk and the gender-cohabitation interaction, age, general health, tiredness, and risk of falling. In clinical practice comprehensive assessments to identify those at risk of malnutrition including associated factors are needed. These have to be followed by individual nutritional interventions using a holistic perspective which may also contribute to reducing the risk of falling.

  • 4.
    Westergren, Albert
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lindholm, Christina
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Axelsson, Carolina
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ulander, Kerstin
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Prevalence of eating difficulties and malnutrition among persons within hospital care and special accommodations2008In: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 39-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of eating difficulties and malnutrition among persons in hospital care and in special accommodations. DESIGN: The cross-sectional observational study was performed in Nov. 2005. SETTING: Hospitals and special accommodations. PARTICIPANTS: Out of 2,945 persons, 2,600 (88%) agreed to participate (1,726 from special accommodations and 874 from hospitals). In total all special accommodations in six municipalities and six hospitals were involved. MEASUREMENTS: Risk of undernutrition was estimated as at least two of: body mass index below recommendation, weight loss and/or eating difficulties. Overweight was graded based on body mass index (if 69 years or younger: 25 or above: if 70 years or older: 27 or above). RESULTS: The mean age of those living in hospitals was 69 years and 53% were women, while the corresponding figures for those in special accommodations were 85 years and 69% women. In hospitals and special accommodations, eating difficulties were common (49% and 56% respectively) and about one quarter had a body mass index (BMI) below the limits (20% and 30% respectively) and one-third above the limit (39% and 30% respectively) thus only about 40% had a BMI within the limits. Both in hospitals and in special accommodations 27% were considered to have a moderate or high risk of undernutrition. CONCLUSION: Only about 40% in special accommodations and hospital care have a BMI within the recommended limits. As both low and high BMI are frequent in both settings, the focus of care should not only be on undernutrition but also on overweight. Using the Swedish criteria for defining risk of undernutrition seems to give a slightly lower prevalence than has been shown in previous Swedish studies, but this can be due to an underestimation of the occurrence of eating difficulties.

  • 5.
    Westergren, Albert
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Lindholm, Christina
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Matsson, Anna
    Stroke Unit, Central Hospital Kristianstad.
    Ulander, Kerstin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Minimal Eating Observation Form: reliability and validity2009In: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 6-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Eating difficulties are common for patients in hospitals (82% have one or more). Eating difficulties predict undernourishment, need for assistance when eating, length of hospital stay and level of care after hospital stay. Eating difficulties have through factor analysis (FA) been found to belong to three dimensions (ingestion, deglutition and energy). The present study investigates inter-observer reliability. Other questions at issue are if the findings from the previous FA can be confirmed, if adjustments need to be done and if the Minimal Eating Form (MEOF) can serve as an assessment model for identification of eating difficulties. Previously found associations between eating difficulties and outcomes as well as measures taken to improve oral intake were also investigated. Design: Inter-observer study and cross-sectional observational study. Settings: Hospitals and special accommodations (SAs). Participants and measurements: Inter-observer study: Observers made standardized assessments of eating, independently and at the same time, on a sample of 50 patients with stroke. Survey study: 2600 (88%) out of 2945 persons agreed to participate in a survey of eating and nutrition. All SAs within six municipalities and six hospitals were involved. Nursing students, clinical tutors and staff performed the assessments, supported by the researchers. Results: The average agreement between observers of eating difficulties was 89% (Kappa coefficient 0.70). In the survey study, the mean age of persons (n=1726) living in SAs was 85 years (SD 8) and 69% were women, while the corresponding figures for patients (n=874) in hospitals were 69 years (SD 18) and 53% women. Low Body Mass Index (BMI) was found in 27%, unintentional weight loss in 23% and need of eating assistance in 38% of the persons. Protein- and energy- (PE-) enriched food was given to 4%, adapted consistency of food to 23% and food supplements to 16% of the persons. The new FA confirmed the previous one and minor adjustments of the model were made. Having ingestion difficulties was the strongest predictor of need for eating assistance (OR 14.5). Deglutition difficulties strongly predicted serving of adapted consistency of food (OR 7.3). Poor energy levels and reduced appetite predicted weight loss (OR 6.0), BMI below limits (OR 2.5), supplements (OR 5.3) and PE-enriched food (OR 3.4). Conclusions: The MEOF has satisfying validity and reliability. The earlier model of eating difficulties was confirmed (MEOF-I), and the model was slightly adjusted to a new model, MEOF-II. Providing eating assistance seems effective in preventing malnutrition (weight loss and BMI below limits), and is mainly provided to persons with ingestion difficulties. Difficulties with energy intake and appetite are not associated with eating assistance; indicating that those persons might need support of some other kind. This support can include providing PE-enriched food and supplements, but seems however insufficiently or inadequately delivered, as low energy and appetite problems are also associated with both weight loss and low BMI. Findings from other studies are confirmed.

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