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  • 1.
    Arnarsson, Arsaell
    et al.
    Iceland.
    Nygren, Jens
    Halmstad University.
    Nyholm, Maria
    Halmstad University.
    Torsheim, Torbjorn
    Norway.
    Augustine, Lilly
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Bjereld, Ylva
    University of Gothenburg.
    Markkanen, Ilona
    Finland.
    Schnohr, Christina W
    Denmark.
    Rasmussen, Mette
    Denmark.
    Nielsen, Line
    Denmark.
    Bendtsen, Pernille
    Denmark.
    Cyberbullying and traditional bullying among Nordic adolescents and their impact on life satisfaction2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cybervictimization in the six Nordic countries and to assess its overlap with traditional bullying. A further aim was to examine potential associations between life satisfaction, on the one hand, and traditional bullying and cyberbullying on the other.

    METHODS: Analyses were based on data from the 2013⁄2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. It included 32,210 boys and girls, aged 11, 13, and 15, living in the six Nordic countries.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of cyberbullying by both pictures and by messages was around 2% in all the Nordic countries except Greenland. There it was considerably higher. The prevalence of being bullied in a traditional manner varied widely by country. For boys, this type of bullying was most frequent in the youngest age group and then decreased steadily in the older age groups. Girls were on average more likely to be cyberbullied. Cyberbullying was more common among 13- and 15-year-olds than 11-year-olds. Higher family affluence was unrelated to the risk of cyberbullying. However, it was related to traditional bullying and combined forms of bullying. Compared with intact families, cybervictimization was commoner among single-parent families and stepfamilies. Adjusting for age, gender, family affluence, and family structure, those subjected to cyberbullying had lower life satisfaction than those who were not bullied.

    CONCLUSIONS: We found relatively little overlap between cyberbullying and traditional bullying, indicating that the two may be separate phenomena stemming from different mechanisms, at least in the Nordic context.

  • 2.
    Bringsén, Åsa
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Samhällsvetenskap. Lund University.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Development and quality analysis of the Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale (SHIS)2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 13-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Current health measurement instruments tend to measureaspects of ill-health rather than health in general. There isa need for a salutogenic perspective when describing healthand developing a health measurement instrument. The aim of thisarticle is to present the development process and quality assessmentof a salutogenic health indicator scale. Methods: A descriptionof health, emanating from the concept of health, positive healthand well-being, was used as a basis for the construction ofthe scale. The scale is a semantic differential consisting of12 indicator items covering nine heath-related dimensions. Aprincipal component analysis was performed, and three healthindicator indexes were constructed. Correlation with self-ratedhealth questions was investigated, weighted kappa values werecalculated, and Cronbach's alpha (CA) was used to check internalconsistency. Results: The analysis resulted in a two-factormodel, and the indexes were named intrapersonal characteristics(CA= 0.90) and interactive function (CA= 0.84), summarised intohealth complete (CA= 0.92). Kappa values ranged from 0.44 to0.67, and correlations with self-rated health status were strongerthan those with self-rated sick-leave. Conclusions: Our healthdescription was characterized by complexity, but the instrumentis a short salutogenic health indicator scale. The shortnessincreases the usability. The instrument seems to be able tooffset the current problem of there being a lack of salutogenichealth measurement instruments. The results indicate that furthertesting is justified.

  • 3.
    Clausson, Eva K.
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Köhler, Lennart
    Nordic School of Public Health, Göteborg.
    Berg, Agneta
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Schoolchildren's health as judged by Swedish school nurses: a national survey2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 690-697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: To use school nurses' knowledge and experience for a better understanding of schoolchildren's health problems and their association to socioeconomic background and gender. METHODS: Mail questionnaires were sent to a nationally representative, random sample of Swedish school nurses (n=129). The questionnaire included structured and open-ended questions asking for school nurses' judgement of schoolchildren's health status; changes over the previous two years; estimation of schoolchildren's most common reasons for consulting the school nurse; and estimation of factors influencing schoolchildren's health. RESULTS: Swedish school nurses judged schoolchildren's mental health to have deteriorated during the previous two years with increasing health complaints, especially among girls and in disadvantaged housing areas. Disturbed family relations were considered as one important explanatory factor. Girls were more inclined to consult school nurses with subjective health complaints. Boys more often consulted the nurses with physical injuries. CONCLUSIONS: School nurses work closely with the children and meet them continuously during the school age period. They have a genuine knowledge of schoolchildren's health, which should be used even more, both in research and practice. The results may be applicable in other countries with similarly organized school health systems.

  • 4.
    Garmy, Pernilla
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna. Lund University.
    Berg, Agneta
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Clausson, Eva
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Hagell, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Jakobsson, Ulf
    Lund University.
    Psychometric analysis of the Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale (SHIS) in adolescents2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 253-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale (SHIS) in an adolescent population. Methods: The investigation was performed among Swedish students aged 13–15 years (n = 817; 58% girls). The SHIS was assessed for respondent acceptability, and its psychometric properties were evaluated according to classical test theory (regarding unidimensionality, targeting, reliability, and external construct validity). Results: The adolescents found it easy to complete the questionnaire, which was completed in an average of 4 minutes. Exploratory factor analysis, which is based on polychoric correlations, identified one factor, supporting the instrument’s unidimensionality. Floor/ceiling effects were ⩽ 3.3%. Reliability estimates yielded a Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.93; the test–retest reliability (n = 50; 2-week interval) coefficients were 0.89 for the total SHIS score and 0.52–0.79 for item scores. Spearman correlations with other variables were based on a priori expectations (self-rated general health, 0.595; depressive symptoms, −0.773; anxiety, −0.577; and sleep problems, 0.519). Conclusions: Our observations support both the acceptability and the psychometric properties of the SHIS as a brief, unidimensional assessment tool for salutogenic health in adolescents. Further studies using modern test theory are needed to better understand the measurement properties of the SHIS, including the functioning of its response categories and its comparability between adolescents and adults.

  • 5.
    Garmy, Pernilla
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO).
    Clausson, Eva
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna.
    Berg, Agneta
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Steen Carlsson, Katarina
    Lund University.
    Jakobsson, Ulf
    Lund University.
    Evaluation of a school-based cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 182-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and cost-utility of a school-based cognitive-behavioral (CB) depression prevention program.

    METHODS: A quasi-experimental trial with an intervention group and a control group, with follow-up measurements obtained at three and 12 months after baseline, was conducted. The setting was six Swedish municipalities. The participants were students in grade 8 (median age: 14). A total of 462 students (79% girls) were allocated to the school-based CB prevention program, and 486 students (46% girls) were allocated to the control group. The school-based CB prevention program, Depression in Swedish Adolescents (DISA), was presented by school health service staff and teachers once per week for 10 weeks.

    RESULTS: The main outcome measures were self-reported depressive symptoms and self-rated health; the secondary outcome measures were adherence and cost-utility. The intervention group decreased their self-reported depressive symptoms (as measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) and improved their self-rated health (as measured by the visual analog scale) at the 12-month follow-up more than the control group ( p < .05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Given the challenges of conducting a study in a complex, everyday school setting with baseline differences between the intervention and control group, it is difficult to make accurate interpretations of the effectiveness of the intervention. However, with these limitations in mind, the results indicate that the DISA program is a feasible school-based prevention program.

  • 6. Muharemovic, Kanita
    et al.
    Taboul, Nicole
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Home cooking trends and dietary illness: nutritional compliance ofrecipes in a Swedish food magazine 1970–20102016In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 195-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To investigate the trends in nutritional compliance of recipes from a Swedish food magazine to offer a perspective on the effects of home cooking on public health. Methods: The nutritional content of 654 recipes from magazine issues published in 1970, 1980, 2000, and 2010 were collected. The recipes were analyzed for macronutrient energy contribution, sodium content, and composition. Results: The recipes were in poor agreement with nutritional recommendations (excessive fat, protein, and sodium and insufficient carbohydrate and fiber content). Significant changes between 1970 and 2010 were the increased calorific contribution of fat (from 38 to 46%) and the reduced contribution of proteins (from 27 to 21%). The calorific contribution from spreads, cheese, bread, and fruit and vegetables have increased significantly, whereas the contribution from meat has decreased significantly. Conclusions: The poor nutritional compliance identified in this work indicates that consumers using the recipes as norms for home cooking risk following an unhealthy diet. This might have adverse effects on public health. However, the recipes have not become less compliant over time and therefore the data do not show an adverse trend in these norms.

  • 7.
    Persson, Roger
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Österberg, Kai
    Lund University.
    Viborg, Njördur
    Lund University.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Psykologi.
    Tenenbaum, Artur
    Gothenburg University.
    Two Swedish screening instruments for exhaustion disorder: cross-sectional associations with burnout, work stress, private life stress, and personality traits2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 381-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: To examine the relationships of two screening instruments recently developed for assessment of exhaustion disorder (ED) with some other well-known inventories intended to assess ED-related concepts and self-reports of job demands, job control, job support, private life stressors, and personality factors.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional population sample ( n = 1355) completed: the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), Self-reported Exhaustion Disorder Scale (s-ED), Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ), Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), Big Five Inventory (BFI), and items concerning family-to-work interference and stress in private life.

    RESULTS: Compared to participants without any indication of ED, participants classified as having ED on KEDS or s-ED had higher scores on all four SMBQ subscales, lower scores on the UWES-9 subscales vigor and dedication, higher JCQ job demands scores, lower JCQ job support scores, higher degrees of family-to-work interference and stress in private life, and higher BFI neuroticism and openness scores. In addition, participants classified as having ED on KEDS had lower scores on the UWES-9 absorption subscale, the JCQ job control scale, and lower BFI extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness scores, compared to the subgroup not classified as having ED.

    CONCLUSIONS: As expected, we observed an overall pattern of associations between the ED screening inventories KEDS and s-ED and measures of burnout, work engagement, job demands-control-support, stress in private life, family-to-work interference, and personality factors. The results suggest that instruments designed to assess burnout, work engagement, and ED share common ground, despite their conceptual differences.

  • 8.
    Sollerhed, Ann-Christin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Apitzsch, Erwin
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Predictors of strong sense of coherence and positive attitudes to physical education in adolescents2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 334-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to find variables related to positive attitudes to physical education (PE) and strong sense of coherence (SOC) among adolescents. METHODS: The study included three parts: seven physical tests; a questionnaire which included ways of living, attitudes to PE, and subjective health, the 13-question version of SOC; and information on every student's grades. The study group comprised 301 teenagers (131 girls and 170 boys, aged 16-19 years) attending upper secondary school. Positive odds ratio was used in the logistic regression analyses with SOC and attitudes to PE as dependent variables. RESULTS: Variables related to positive attitudes to PE were strong SOC, high physical capacity, high leisure-time physical activity (PA), high grades in PE, and little time spent watching TV. Variables related to strong SOC were positive attitudes to PE, high grades in PE, very good subjective health, and feeling comfortable in school. Highest physical capacity, highest mean grades, and highest grades in PE were found among adolescents who reported exercise four times or more per week. CONCLUSIONS: An interrelation between attitudes to PE and SOC was shown. The relation between positive attitudes to PE and high scores in SOC indicated that past experiences of PA and PE could contribute to the development of SOC, and actual levels of SOC could influence the persistent attitudes to PE and be important for lifelong PA. One means of identification of favourable or unfavourable health behaviour among young people might be through PA patterns, and relations between attitudes to PE and SOC.

  • 9.
    Theander, Eva
    et al.
    Hässleholm Hospital.
    Edberg, Anna-Karin
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Preventive home visits to older people in Southern Sweden2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 392-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: It seems urgent to further develop and modify models of preventive measures in order to prolong a healthy functional and social situation for older people, as this population is increasing globally. The aim of the study was to describe a Swedish model of preventive home visits for persons aged 78 years with the focus on the effect on physical and social well-being, and the participants' and the visitors' experience of the home visits.

    METHOD: Three annual visits were performed and included 150 persons, 78 years old at the first visit. Data were collected in the form of a structured interview with the persons who received the visits and as a questionnaire for their visitors.

    RESULTS: Differences over time could be seen for the participants' physical and social activity, indicating that there was a deterioration between year one and two that was not seen in year three. The results further showed that the participants felt more secure and well informed as a result of the visits. The visitors said that they had gained a new, more positive view of older people and increased job satisfaction as a result of the visits and emphasized the impact on their own professional development.

    CONCLUSION: As no control group was used, the interpretation of effects concerning health factors has to be interpreted with caution. The visits did, however, have a positive impact on the participants and the visitors.

  • 10.
    Werntoft, Elisabet
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Division of Nursing, Lund University.
    Edberg, Anna-Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society. Kristianstad University, Forskningsplattformen Hälsa i samverkan.
    Lack of support structures in prioritization decision making concerning patients and resources: interviews with Swedish physicians2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 627-633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate physicians' experiences in relation to prioritization and financing in health care in order to gain a deeper understanding of the reasons behind their standpoints. Methods: Eighteen physicians, seven women and eleven men, aged 30 to 69 years were interviewed and the text was analyzed using an inductive approach, also described as conventional qualitative content analysis. Results: Experience of setting healthcare priorities and difficult decision making differed widely among the physicians and seemed to be related to the number of years in professional practice. Their view of how resources should be allocated between disciplines/patients showed that they wanted politicians to make the decisions, with support from medical professions. The overwhelming impression of their reasoning showed that they lacked support structures for their decision making and could be understood under the following categories: Prioritisation, easier in theory than in practice, and Increasing costs threaten the Swedish welfare model. Conclusions: The findings of this study highlight the importance of practical national guidelines concerning vertical prioritization, also as an important measure to make prioritization more distinct and transparent. The physicians further had a need for tools to increase patients' awareness of their health. The findings of this study also showed that an awareness of the actual costs involved might increase the responsibility among both physicians and patients. The physicians' lack of support structures implies an urgent need for practical national guidelines, especially concerning vertical prioritization. This will also make prioritization appear clear and transparent for citizens.

  • 11.
    Westergren, Albert
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE.
    Khalaf, Atika
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE.
    Hagell, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE.
    A Swedish version of the SCREEN II for malnutrition assessment among community-dwelling elderly2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 667-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The Seniors in the Community: Risk Evaluation for Eating and Nutrition II (SCREEN II) Questionnaire assesses nutritional risk among elderly people living at home. Our aim was to produce a Swedish language version of the SCREEN II and to examine response patterns, data completeness and the relationship between malnutrition and general health.

    METHODS: The SCREEN II was translated into Swedish using dual panel methodology, and then followed up with field test interviews of 24 seniors (median age, 83 years). We used the survey data (n = 565) to assess item and score distribution, missing responses, and the relationship to the subject's general and nutritional health.

    RESULTS: The Swedish SCREEN II was considered easy to understand, respond to, and relevant (n = 21; 88% of subjects found it so in all three respects) and its median completion time was 5 minutes. The level of survey item data completeness was 94-99%, and 82% of surveys had computable total scores. Of those subjects with completed forms, 35% had no nutritional risk; 35% had moderate risk; and 30% were at high risk. The malnutrition risk increased with poorer perceived health.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study results are similar to those using previous SCREEN II versions, indicating that the scale adaptation was successful and providing initial support for use of the Swedish SCREEN II questionnaire.

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