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  • 1.
    Axelsson, Lars
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Håkansson, Anders
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Family Medicine, Lund University.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Work ethics and general work attitudes in adolescents are related to quality of life, sense of coherence and subjective health: a Swedish questionnaire study2005In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 5, p. 103-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Working life is an important arena in most people's lives, and the working line concept is important for the development of welfare in a society. For young people, the period before permanent establishment in working life has become longer during the last two decades. Knowledge about attitudes towards work can help us to understand young people's transition to the labour market. Adolescents are the future workforce, so it seems especially important to notice their attitudes towards work, including attitudes towards the welfare system. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse upper secondary school students' work attitudes, and to explore factors related to these attitudes. METHODS: The sample consisted of 606 upper secondary school students. They all received a questionnaire including questions about quality of life (QOL), sense of coherence (SOC), subjective health and attitudes towards work. The response rate was 91%. A factor analysis established two dimensions of work attitudes. Multivariate analyses were carried out by means of logistic regression models. RESULTS: Work ethics (WE) and general work attitudes (GWA) were found to be two separate dimensions of attitudes towards work. Concerning WE the picture was similar regardless of gender or study programme. Males in theoretical programmes appeared to have more unfavourable GWA than others. Multivariate analyses revealed that good QOL, high SOC and good health were significantly related to positive WE, and high SOC was positively related to GWA. Being female was positively connected to WE and GWA, while studying on a practical programme was positively related to GWA only. Among those who received good parental support, GWA seemed more favourable. CONCLUSION: Assuming that attitudes towards work are important to the working line concept, this study points out positive factors of importance for the future welfare of the society. Individual factors such as female gender, good QOL, high SOC and good health as well as support from both parents, positive experience of school and work contacts related positively to attitudes towards work. Further planning and supportive work have to take these factors into account.

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  • 2.
    Behm, Lina
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Ivanoff, Synneve Dahlin
    Zidén, Lena
    Preventive home visits and health: experiences among very old people.2013In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: As more people reach older age, there is a growing interest in improving old person's health, activity, independence and social participation, thereby adding quality to the extended years. Preventive home visits (PHV) programs for old people have received much attention in recent decades. A large body of research shows mixed effects, and argues that a home visit is a complex social process influenced by numerous factors. To evaluate the impact of PHV, as well as making decisions on whether, how, and to whom the service should be provided, requires a deeper understanding of PHV than we have now. Consequently, the aim of the study was to describe the variations in older people's (80+) experiences of a single preventive home visit and its consequences for health.

    METHODS: Seventeen participants between 80 and 92 years of age who had all received a structured PHV were interviewed in their own homes. The interviews were analyzed using the phenomenographic method, looking at the variations in the participants' experiences.

    RESULTS: The interviews revealed four categories: "The PHV made me visible and proved my human value"; "The PHV brought a feeling of security"; "The PHV gave an incentive to action"; and "The PHV was not for me".

    CONCLUSIONS: The experiences of a PHV were twofold. On one hand, the positive experiences indicate that one structured PHV was able to empower the participants and strengthen their self-esteem, making them feel in control over their situation and more aware of the importance of keeping several steps ahead. Together this could motivate them to take measures and engage in health-promoting activities. On the other hand, the PHV was experienced as being of no value by a few. These findings may partly explain the positive results from PHV interventions and emphasize that one challenge for health care professionals is to motivate older people who are healthy and independent to engage in health-promoting and disease-preventive activities.

  • 3.
    Edvardsson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Family medicine, Lund University.
    Troein, Margareta
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Family medicine, Lund University.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Lendahls, Lena
    Unit for Research and Development, Kronoberg County Council.
    Snus user identity and addiction: a Swedish focus group study on adolescents2012In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 975-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:The teenage years are the years when adolescents seek their identity, and part of this involves experimenting with tobacco. The use of tobacco as such, and norms among their friends, is more important to the adolescents than the norms of parents when it comes to using tobacco or not. The aim was to explore the significance of using snus for adolescents, and attitudes to snus, as well as the reasons why they began using snus and what maintained and facilitated the use of snus.METHODS:Adolescents who use snus were interviewed in focus groups. The material was analysed using content analysis.RESULTS:Four groups of boys and one group of girls were interviewed, a total of 27 students from the upper secondary vocational program. Three themes related to the students' opinions on and experiences of using snus were found: Circumstances pertaining to snus debut indicate what makes them start using snus. Upholding, which focuses on the problem of becoming addicted and development of identity, and approach, where the adolescents reflect on their snus habits in relation to those around them. A number of factors were described as relevant to behaviour and norm building for the development into becoming a snus user. Attitudes and actions from adults and friends as well as - for the boys - development of an identity as a man and a craftsman influenced behaviour.CONCLUSIONS:The results showed that development of identity was of major importance when adolescents start using snus. The adolescents were initially unable to interpret the early symptoms of abstinence problems, but subsequently became well aware of being addicted. Once they were stuck in addiction and in the creation of an image and identity, it was difficult to stop using snus. These factors are important when considering interventions of normative changes and tobacco prevention in schools as well as among parents.

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  • 4.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Forskningsmiljön Man - Health - Society (MHS).
    Edén, Lena
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Leden, Ido
    Centralsjukhuset, Kristianstad.
    Predictors of positive health in disability pensioners: a population-based questionnaire study using Positive Odds Ratio2002In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 2, p. 20-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Determinants of ill-health have been studied far more than determinants of good and improving health. Health promotion measures are important even among individuals with chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to find predictors of positive subjective health among disability pensioners (DPs) with musculoskeletal disorders. METHODS: Two questionnaire surveys were performed among 352 DPs with musculoskeletal disorders. Two groups were defined: DPs with positive health and negative health, respectively. In consequence with the health perspective in this study the conception Positive Odds Ratio was defined and used in the logistic regression analyses instead of the commonly used odds ratio. RESULTS: Positive health was associated with age > or = 55 years, not being an immigrant, not having fibromyalgia as the main diagnosis for granting an early retirement, no regular use of analgesics, a high ADL capacity, a positive subjective health preceding the study period, and good quality of life. CONCLUSION: Positive odds ratio is a concept well adapted to theories of health promotion. It can be used in relation to positive outcomes instead of risks. Suggested health promotion and secondary prevention efforts among individuals with musculoskeletal disorders are 1) to avoid a disability pension for individuals <55 years of age; if necessary, to make sure rehabilitation actions continue, 2) to increase efforts to support immigrants to adjust to circumstances connected to ill-health and retirement, 3) to pay special attention to individuals with fibromyalgia and other general pain disorders, and 4) to strengthen ADL activities to support an independent active life among disability pensioners.

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  • 5.
    Garmy, Pernilla
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II.
    Berg, Agneta
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Clausson, Eva
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II.
    A qualitative study exploring adolescents’ experiences with a school-based mental health program2015In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, article id 1074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Supporting positive mental health development in adolescents is a major public health concern worldwide. Although several school-based programs aimed at preventing depression have been launched, it is crucial to evaluate these programs and to obtain feedback from participating adolescents. This study aimed to explore adolescents’ experiences with a School-based cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program. Methods: Eighty-nine adolescents aged 13–15 years were divided into 12 focus groups. The focus group interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results: Three categories and eight subcategories were found to be related to the experience of the school-based program. The first category, intrapersonal strategies, consisted of the subcategories of directed thinking, improved self-confidence, stress management, and positive activities. The second category, interpersonal awareness, consisted of the subcategories of trusting the group and considering others. The third category, structural constraints, consisted of the subcategories of negative framing and emphasis on performance. Conclusions: The school-based mental health program was perceived as beneficial and meaningful on both individual and group levels, but students expressed a desire for a more health-promoting approach.

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  • 6.
    Karlson, Björn
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Osterberg, Kai
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Long-term stability of return to work after a workplace-oriented intervention for patients on sick leave for burnout2014In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, p. 821-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The period from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s saw a rapid increase in long-term sick leave in Sweden, primarily due to mental illness and often related to job burnout. This led to an urge for effective treatment programs that could prevent the often long sick leaves. In 2010 we presented a newly developed work-place intervention method, showing that 89% of the intervention group had returned to work at a 1.5 year follow-up, compared to 73% of the control group. The main aim of this study was to assess the long-term stability of these promising results.

    METHODS: Sick leave registry data from the Regional Social Insurance Office were analyzed for an additional year (50 weeks) beyond the original 1.5 year period (80 weeks). Data from 68 matched pairs of intervention participants (IP) and controls were available. The proportions of participants being on full-time sick leave versus having returned to work to any extent were computed for every 10th week. Generalized estimating equations were used with GROUP (IP versus controls) as between-subjects factor, WEEKS and AGE as covariates, and return-to-work (RTW) as dependent variable. Significant differences (Wald χ2 with α ≤ .05) was followed up with polynomial contrasts. Individual relapses to higher degrees of sick leave (e.g. from 50% to 100%) and whether partial RTW led to later full-time RTW, were also analyzed.

    RESULTS: The omnibus test over all 130 weeks showed a GROUP*WEEKS interaction effect (p = .02), indicating differential group developments in RTW, though similarly high at week 130 in both groups with 82.4% of the IP and 77.9% of the controls having RTW (p = .22; χ2-test). A significant interaction with age led to separate analyses of the younger and older subgroups, indicating a stable pattern of superior RTW only among younger IP (week 130: 88.6% vs. 69.7%, p = .054; χ2-test). There was no group difference in relapses into increased degree of sick leave. Part-time sick leave did not predict a later stable full-time RTW.

    CONCLUSIONS: The previously reported improvement in RTW with the newly developed workplace-oriented intervention showed a long-term stability only among younger participants.

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  • 7.
    Karlson, Björn
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Lund University.
    Pålsson, Birgitta
    Lund University.
    Abjörnsson, Gunnel
    Lund University.
    Malmberg, Birgitta
    Lund University.
    Larsson, Britt
    Linköping University.
    Osterberg, Kai
    Lund University.
    Return to work after a workplace-oriented intervention for patients on sick-leave for burnout: a prospective controlled study2010In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 10, article id 301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In the present study the effect of a workplace-oriented intervention for persons on long-term sick leave for clinical burnout, aimed at facilitating return to work (RTW) by job-person match through patient-supervisor communication, was evaluated. We hypothesised that the intervention group would show a more successful RTW than a control group.

    METHODS: In a prospective controlled study, subjects were identified by the regional social insurance office 2-6 months after the first day on sick leave. The intervention group (n = 74) was compared to a control group who had declined participation, being matched by length of sick leave (n = 74). The RTW was followed up, using sick-listing register data, until 1.5 years after the time of intervention.

    RESULTS: There was a linear increase of RTW in the intervention group during the 1.5-year follow-up period, and 89% of subjects had returned to work to some extent at the end of the follow-up period. The increase in RTW in the control group came to a halt after six months, and only 73% had returned to work to some extent at the end of the 1.5-year follow-up.

    CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the present study demonstrated an improvement of long-term RTW after a workplace-oriented intervention for patients on long-term sick leave due to burnout.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials NCT01039168.

  • 8.
    Karlson, Björn
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Österberg, Kai
    Lund University.
    Long-term stability of return to work after a workplace-oriented intervention for patients on sick leave for burnout2014In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, article id 821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    The period from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s saw a rapid increase in long-term sick leave in Sweden, primarily due to mental illness and often related to job burnout. This led to an urge for effective treatment programs that could prevent the often long sick leaves. In 2010 we presented a newly developed work-place intervention method, showing that 89% of the intervention group had returned to work at a 1.5 year follow-up, compared to 73% of the control group. The main aim of this study was to assess the long-term stability of these promising results.

    METHODS:

    Sick leave registry data from the Regional Social Insurance Office were analyzed for an additional year (50 weeks) beyond the original 1.5 year period (80 weeks). Data from 68 matched pairs of intervention participants (IP) and controls were available. The proportions of participants being on full-time sick leave versus having returned to work to any extent were computed for every 10th week. Generalized estimating equations were used with GROUP (IP versus controls) as between-subjects factor, WEEKS and AGE as covariates, and return-to-work (RTW) as dependent variable. Significant differences (Wald χ2 with α ≤ .05) was followed up with polynomial contrasts. Individual relapses to higher degrees of sick leave (e.g. from 50% to 100%) and whether partial RTW led to later full-time RTW, were also analyzed.

    RESULTS:

    The omnibus test over all 130 weeks showed a GROUP*WEEKS interaction effect (p = .02), indicating differential group developments in RTW, though similarly high at week 130 in both groups with 82.4% of the IP and 77.9% of the controls having RTW (p = .22; χ2-test). A significant interaction with age led to separate analyses of the younger and older subgroups, indicating a stable pattern of superior RTW only among younger IP (week 130: 88.6% vs. 69.7%, p = .054; χ2-test). There was no group difference in relapses into increased degree of sick leave. Part-time sick leave did not predict a later stable full-time RTW.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The previously reported improvement in RTW with the newly developed workplace-oriented intervention showed a long-term stability only among younger participants.

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  • 9.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Lunds universitet.
    When is work a cause of early retirement and are there any effective organizational measures to combat this?: a population-based study of perceived work environment and work-related disorders among employees in Sweden2020In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 20, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The ageing workforce has an impact on public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate work-related disorders, work tasks and measures associated with the possibility of working beyond 65 years of age or not.

    METHOD: The data comprised two sample surveys based on the Swedish population: the Survey of National Work-Related Health Disorders, and the National Work Environment Survey.

    RESULTS: A logistic regression analysis showed that an active systematic work environmental management in the workplace was a statistically significant association with whether individuals could work in their current occupation until 65 years of age (OR 1.7). The final multivariate model stated that whether individuals could work until 65 years was associated with bodily exhaustion after work, frequent feeling of the own work effort being insufficient at the end of the day, experience of the work as restricted and with a lack of freedom, working alone and at risk of unsafe or threatening situations, and generally feeling dissatisfied with the work tasks. Women-dominated workplaces were more highly associated with both male and female employees not being able to work until age 65 (OR 1.6).

    CONCLUSION: Deficiencies in the working environment seems to be a threat to the public health. An active systematic work environmental management in the workplace increases the possibility to extend the working life. Tools for managers, like the swAge-model, to easily perform active systematic work environmental controls could therefore be a possible way to decrease the risk of work injury as well as increase the possibility for a sustainable extended working life.

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  • 10.
    Nivestam, Anna
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science. Lunds universitet.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap. Lunds universitet.
    Peterson, Pia
    Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap.
    Haak, Maria
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Factors associated with good health among older persons who received a preventive home visit: a cross-sectional study2020In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 20, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The ageing population is increasing worldwide, and this trend is bringing challenges both for the older person and for society. In order to meet the challenges a comprehensive approach is needed involving both health promotion and risk prevention. The preventive home visit is a public health intervention used around the world with the purpose of promoting health and preventing risk among older persons. However, most preventive home visits are focused on questions asking about risks. In order to strengthen the health promotion perspective during the preventive home visits, factors associated with good health need to be identified. The aim of this study was therefore to determine which factors were associated with good self-rated health among older persons who received preventive home visit.

    METHODS: This was a register study with a cross-sectional design, including older persons (≥75 years old), living in their own homes, and that had received preventive home visit. Data were collected during a period of 9 months, in two municipalities in the south of Sweden. A questionnaire covered mental, physical and lifestyle factors were used at home visit. Binary logistic regression was used to analyse the data.

    RESULTS: In total, 619 older persons were included in the study; 55.4% were women, and the mean age was 80.6 years (standard deviation 2.2 years). The following items were significantly associated with good health (after adjustment for age and gender): being able to do things that make one feel valuable, having no physical problems affecting participation in social activities, not feeling sad, not having reduced energy, and not having impaired endurance.

    CONCLUSIONS: The main conclusion of this study is that questions focusing on risks could be seen from a health promotion perspective and could thus be turned into assets with a positive impact on older persons' health. Furthermore, the mental and physical factors identified in the results as associated with good health have implications for the person's ability to feel valuable and participate in social activities. The results suggest that issues regarding both health promotion as well as risk prevention must be brought up during the preventive home visit.

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  • 11.
    Osterberg, Kai
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Persson, Roger
    Lund University.
    Viborg, Njordur
    Lund University.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Psykologi.
    Tenenbaum, Artur
    Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde.
    The Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion: a prospective validation of the onset of sustained stress and exhaustion warnings2016In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 16, article id 1025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The need for instruments that can assist in detecting the prodromal stages of stress-related exhaustion has been acknowledged. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion (LUCIE) could accurately and prospectively detect the onset of incipient exhaustion and to what extent work stressor exposure and private burdens were associated with increasing LUCIE scores. Methods: Using surveys, 1355 employees were followed for 11 quarters. Participants with prospectively elevated LUCIE scores were targeted by three algorithms entailing 4 quarters: (1) abrupt onset to a sustained Stress Warning (n = 18), (2) gradual onset to a sustained Stress Warning (n = 42), and (3) sustained Exhaustion Warning (n = 36). The targeted participants' survey reports on changes in work situation and private life during the fulfillment of any algorithm criteria were analyzed, together with the interview data. Participants untargeted by the algorithms constituted a control group (n = 745). Results: Eighty-seven percent of participants fulfilling any LUCIE algorithm criteria (LUCIE indication cases) rated a negative change in their work situation during the 4 quarters, compared to 48 % of controls. Ratings of negative changes in private life were also more common in the LUCIE indication groups than among controls (58 % vs. 29 %), but free-text commentaries revealed that almost half of the ratings in the LUCIE indication groups were due to work-to-family conflicts and health problems caused by excessive workload, assigned more properly to work-related negative changes. When excluding the themes related to work-stress-related private life compromises, negative private life changes in the LUCIE indication groups dropped from 58 to 32 %, while only a negligible drop from 29 to 26 % was observed among controls. In retrospective interviews, 79 % of the LUCIE indication participants confirmed exclusively/predominantly work stressors, while 6 % described a predominance of private life stressors. Conclusions: Negative changes in the work situation were the most prominent change related to a sustained increase in LUCIE scores. The findings seem to confirm that LUCIE is a potentially useful tool for clinical screening of incipient work-related exhaustion.

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  • 12.
    Persson, Roger
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Leo, Ulf
    Umeå universitet.
    Arvidsson, Inger
    Lunds universitet.
    Håkansson, Carita
    Lunds universitet.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Department of Public Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Forskningsmiljön Man - Health - Society (MHS). Lunds universitet.
    Österberg, Kai
    Lunds universitet.
    Prevalence of exhaustion symptoms and associations with school level, length of work experience and gender: a nationwide cross-sectional study of Swedish principals2021In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 1-13, article id 331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: While poor mental health and psychiatric disorders attributed to stressful work conditions are a public health concern in many countries, the health consequences of the occupational stress experienced by school principals is an understudied issue. Although current data is lacking, some research suggests that principals have a stressful work situation that eventually may lead to burnout and exhaustion disorder, thus negatively affecting the ability of principals to function as leaders. To gauge the situation in Sweden, and as a basis for future preventive actions, we examined to what extent principals displayed signs of exhaustion and whether the prevalence rates of exhaustion differed across school levels, length of work experience as a principal, and gender.

    Methods: Principals (N = 2219; mean age 49 years [SD 7 years]; 78% women) working at least 50% in pre-schools, compulsory schools, upper secondary schools or adult education completed a cross-sectional web survey entailing two validated inventories: The Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS) and the Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion (LUCIE). Data was analysed using traditional non-parametric methods. Gender stratification achieved covariate balance when analysing school level and length of work experience.

    Results: Altogether, 29.0% of the principals met the exhaustion criteria in KEDS. The prevalence rates for the four LUCIE-steps of increasing signs of exhaustion were: no signs of stress, 48.8%; weak signs of stress, 25.6%; clear signs of stress but no exhaustion, 15.4%; possible exhaustion disorder, 10.2%. Compared with male principals, female principals reported more signs of possible exhaustion disorder in both LUCIE and KEDS. School level was not associated with reports of exhaustion symptoms in neither LUCIE nor KEDS. Among male principals, length of work experience was associated with exhaustion symptoms in KEDS.

    Conclusions: A large group of Swedish principals working in pre-schools, compulsory schools, upper secondary schools or adult education displayed a symptomatology of signs of exhaustion that if sustained might lead to poor health. This observation suggests that education authorities, or other relevant stakeholders, ought to take some form of preventive action. However, effective combinations of individual, group, organisational, and/or societal preventive activities remain to be identified and tested.

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  • 13.
    Persson, Roger
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Österberg, Kai
    Lund University.
    Viborg, Njördur
    Lund University.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Tenenbaum, Artur
    Skaraborg Hospital.
    The Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion: a cross-sectional comparison of a new instrument with similar contemporary tools2016In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Stress-related health problems (e.g., work-related exhaustion) are a societal concern in many postindustrial countries. Experience suggests that early detection and intervention are crucial in preventing long-term negative consequences. In the present study, we benchmark a new tool for early identification of work-related exhaustion-the Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion (LUCIE)-against other contextually relevant inventories and two contemporary Swedish screening scales.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional population sample (n = 1355) completed: LUCIE, Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), Self-reported Exhaustion Disorder Scale (s-ED), Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ), Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), Big Five Inventory (BFI), and items concerning work-family interference and stress in private life.

    RESULTS: Increasing signs of exhaustion on LUCIE were positively associated with signs of exhaustion on KEDS and s-ED. The prevalence rates were 13.4, 13.8 and 7.8 %, respectively (3.8 % were identified by all three instruments). Increasing signs of exhaustion on LUCIE were also positively associated with reports of burnout, job demands, stress in private life, family-to-work interference and neuroticism as well as negatively associated with reports of job control, job support and work engagement.

    CONCLUSIONS: LUCIE, which is intended to detect pre-stages of ED, exhibits logical and coherent positive relations with KEDS and s-ED as well as other conceptually similar inventories. The results suggest that LUCIE has the potential to detect mild states of exhaustion (possibly representing pre-stages to ED) that if not brought to the attention of the healthcare system and treated, may develop in to ED. The prospective validity remains to be evaluated.

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