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  • 1.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    et al.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Solyakov, Alexey
    Skog, Kerstin
    Lundström, Kerstin
    Jägerstad, Margaretha
    Natural variations of precursors in pig meat affect the yield of heterocyclic amines: effects of RN genotype, feeding regime, and sex2002In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 50, no 10, p. 2962-2969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pig meat shows natural variations in the concentrations of precursors of heterocyclic amines (HCAs), which may affect formation of HCAs in cooked pig meat. To study this, 26 pigs with an inherent genetic variation (carriers and noncarriers of the RN(-) allele) were subjected to different feeding regimes (conventional feed compared with feed composed according to organic standards). In addition, the effect of sex (castrated males or females) was considered when assessing chemical and technological meat quality parameters. Concentrations of precursors of HCAs, i.e., creatine, residual glycogen, dipeptides, and free amino acids, were analyzed in the raw meat, and the levels of some HCAs (4,8-DiMeIQx, MeIQx, PhIP, harman, and norharman) were then determined in fried meat patties prepared from these pigs. The RN genotype most affected technological meat quality parameters and the level of precursors of HCAs, especially the level of residual glycogen, where carriers of the RN(-) allele showed levels four times as high as those of noncarriers (75.3 +/- 2.6 compared with 17.2 +/- 2.4 micromol/g meat, least-squares means +/- SE). The increased level of residual glycogen resulted in about 50% lower amounts of total mutagenic HCAs in cooked meat compared with cooked meat from normal pigs. Fried meat from carriers of the RN(-) allele obtained darker crust color than meat from noncarriers. Feeding regime and sex did not significantly affect the chemical composition of the meat or the formation of HCAs.

  • 2. Undeland, I
    et al.
    Hall, G
    Wendin, Karin
    SIK, Swedish Inst. Food & Biotechnol. Flavour & Sensory, Gothenburg.
    Gangby, I
    Rutgersson, A
    Preventing lipid oxidation during recovery of functional proteins from herring (Clupea harengus) fillets by an acid solubilization process2005In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 53, no 14, p. 5625-5634Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has previously been found that a process based on solubilization at pH 2.7 gives high yields of herring muscle proteins with good functionality. In this study, the development of lipid oxidation during acid processing of herring mince was studied. It was tested how modifications of the process conditions and/or additions of antioxidants could prevent lipid oxidation during the actual process and then during ice storage of the protein isolates. Processing parameters evaluated were prewash of the mince, exposure time to pH 2.7, inclusion or exclusion of a high-speed centrifugation, and addition of antioxidants. Antioxidants tested were erythorbate (0.2%, 9.3 mM), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP; 0.2%, 5.4 mM), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA; 0.044%, 1.5 mM), and milk proteins (4%). The first three antioxidants were added in the prewash or during the homogenization step, whereas milk proteins were added to the final precipitate. At time 0, all isolates were analyzed for pH, moisture content, and thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS). Selected isolates were also analyzed for lipid and protein content. Stability during ice storage was followed in terms of odor, TBARS, and color (a*/b* values). Extensive lipid oxidation took place using the "control" process without high-speed centrifugation. This was not significantly (p <= 0.05) affected by a prewash or varied exposure time to pH 2.7. Including high-speed centrifugation (20 min, 10000g) significantly (p <= 0.05) reduced TBARS values, total lipids, a* values and b* values. Erythorbate alone, or in combination with STPP/EDTA, significantly (p <= 0.05) reduced lipid oxidation during processing if added in the prewash or homogenization step. During ice storage, better stability was gained when antioxidants were added in both of these steps and when EDTA was used instead of STPP.

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