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  • 1. Lacoursière, Jean O.
    et al.
    Charpentier, G
    Laboratory study of the influence of water temperature and pH on Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis efficacy against black fly larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae)1988In: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, ISSN 8756-971X, E-ISSN 1943-6270, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 64-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis was used in the laboratory to assess the influence of water temperature and pH on the relationship between concentration, duration of exposure, and mortality of the northern black fly species Simulium decorum and Prosimulium mixtum/fuscum group. Mortality increases in both species with increases in duration of exposure, concentration, temperature and pH. Onset of death is shortened by increase in concentration and temperature. As temperature rises, the concentration of B. t. i required to induce mortality decreases; the sharpest decline occurring between 12 and 18 degree C for S. decorum , and between 4 and 8 degree C for P. mixtum/fuscum larvae. Lower pH induces a loss of efficacy of the B. t. i. formulation on S. decorum larvae at 4 and 12 degree C.

  • 2. Lacoursière, Jean O.
    et al.
    Dahl, C
    Widahl, L E
    Use of the continuity principle to evaluate water processing rate of suspension-feeding mosquito larvae1999In: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, ISSN 8756-971X, E-ISSN 1943-6270, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 228-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water processing rates of active suspension-feeding larvae of Culiseta morsitans and Cities quinquefasciatus 2nd and 4th instars were estimated through video image analysis of the conical jet flow driving the large recirculation patterns surrounding the organisms. In accordance with the principle of continuity, individual processing rates (PRs) were assessed by averaging a series of consecutive flow rates (Q(x)) defined as the product of the water velocity (U-x) and the associated cross-sectional area (A(x)) along a transect passing through the center of the delineated jet flow. Results clearly show very tight adherence to the principle of continuity. They also demonstrate that, although extreme care must be taken when streamtube delineation is performed, the methodology used can generate reliable assessment of individual processing rates regardless of the instars or species studied. The small coefficient of variation observed in assessing PR at the larval level further underlines the consistency of the method. Significant differences in water processing rates were observed for different species and instars. These could partially be related to body size, head width, and the length of the lateral palatal brushes (LPBs, which are the structures involved in the production of the water jet. Assessment of the jet velocity at the feeding groove level suggests the keg role of LPB beating frequency in the jet intensity, and consequently the magnitude of the processing rate. Analysis of data further indicates that obligate suspension feeders such as Cs. morsitans must sustain a larger flow pattern around the larvae to ensure sufficient particle entrapment than facultative suspension feeders (or even brushers) such as Cs. quinquefasciatus.

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