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  • 1.
    Champagnon, Jocelyn
    et al.
    Frankrike.
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    Frankrike.
    Gauthier-Clerc, Michel
    Frankrike.
    Lebreton, Jean-Dominique
    Frankrike.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Consequences of massive bird releases for hunting purposes: mallard Anas platyrhynchos in the Camargue, Southern France2009In: Wildfowl, ISSN 0954-6324, E-ISSN 2052-6458, no Special issue 2, p. 184-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The release of captive-reared fish and game animals into the wild is a common management practice in Europe and North America. In Europe, millions of reared birds are released each year yet the consequences of these release programmes have received little attention. This paper describes the massive introduction of Mallard Anas platyrhynchos, a native migrant species released into the wild to increase the size of hunted populations. It provides the rationale for current and forthcoming experiments aimed at determining the effects of the augmentation of Mallard stocks on wild population genotype and survival rates.

  • 2.
    Eichholz, Michael W.
    et al.
    USA.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Nest site selection by Holarctic waterfowl: a multi-level review2014In: Wildfowl, ISSN 0954-6324, E-ISSN 2052-6458, no Special Issue 4, p. 86-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because of birds’ mobility, behaviour and many species’ migratory nature, they select repeatedly and spatially among habitats and have been central figures in studies of avian breeding habitat selection during the 20th and 21st centuries. The scientific literature on habitat use by breeding waterfowl has origins dating back to the writings of Charles Darwin in The Voyage of the Beagle, wherein he described the distribution and habitat differences of two species of geese on the Falkland Islands. Since that time, waterfowl ecologists have gone from descriptive studies of nest site characteristics used for planning waterfowl conservation and management to comparing nest site use in relation to potential habitat availability and determining selection for a wide array of ecological correlates. Waterfowl ecologists most recently have been investigating the adaptive significance of nest site selection by associating the latter with individual fitness and demographic measurements to assess the birds’ adaptability under environmental conditions at multiple scales of selection. While little direct assessment of 1st and 2nd order nest site selection has occurred (sensu Johnson 1980), available information is most consistent with the hypothesis that selection at these scales is driven by food availability. At the 3rd and 4th order of selection, data are consistent with hypotheses that both food availability and predator avoidance drive nest site selection, depending on the species and type of nesting aggregation. We also identify understudied areas of nest site selection important for the conservation and management of waterfowl and suggest that the large-scale influence of current anthropogenic and natural effects on the environment indicates that greater emphasis should be directed toward understanding waterfowl nest site selection at the 1st and 2nd orders of selection and how nesting habitat selection interfaces with community ecology of sympatric breeding waterfowl. Moreover, because habitat selection of prefledging waterfowl is inherently linked to breeding habitat selection, we suggest an updated review of brood habitat selection should ensue from our synthesis here.

  • 3.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Are dabbling ducks major players or merely noise in freshwater ecosystems?: a European perspective, with references to population limitation and density dependence2009In: Wildfowl, ISSN 0954-6324, E-ISSN 2052-6458, no Special issue 2, p. 9-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waterfowl ecologists consider ducks important players in patterns and processes of freshwater ecosystems. Limnologists and fish biologists, on the other hand, historically have “a bottom-up” view of the same systems, often regarding waterbirds as “background noise” compared to other biotic influences. Evidence for and against these largely opposing views is reviewed, focussing on European dabbling duck studies. In oligo- and mesotrophic wetlands at low breeding density, their role is likely to be overshadowed by biotic interactions between fish, invertebrates and plants. Conversely, many other freshwater systems may be affected by dabbling ducks in various ways, acting as dispersers of invertebrates and plants, as predators, and as eutrophicators. It is concluded that dabbling ducks affect freshwater systems more profoundly than has hitherto been acknowledged. In their turn, freshwater ecosystems affect the ducks’ population ecology. In a less comprehensive treatment, the evidence for the major paradigms addressing population limitation in dabbling ducks is discussed briefly from a European perspective. It is concluded that top-down (predation) as well as bottom-up (food limitation) processes may both affect population size, but evidence for either is correlative, necessitating more experimental studies based on explicit predictions from pattern-oriented studies. In a discussion of the prospects for adopting a more adaptive management approach for European dabbling ducks, it is argued that a lack of information about annual variation in recruitment and harvest rates are major obstacles to understanding population change and for adopting a more adaptive management. A compilation of European studies about density dependence in Mallard Anas platyrhynchos indicates that population regulation may be a common phenomenon in this species, with possible important ramifications for research as well as management programmes.

  • 4.
    Kaminski, Richard M.
    et al.
    Mississippi State University.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    An introduction to habitat use and selection by waterfowl in the northern hemisphere2014In: Wildfowl, ISSN 0954-6324, E-ISSN 2052-6458, no Special Issue 4, p. 9-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This introductory article aims to provide a theoretical framework to the topics of habitat use and selection by waterfowl (i.e. family Anatidae) in the northern hemisphere during the four stages of their annual cycle: autumn migration and winter, spring migration and pre-breeding, nesting and brood rearing, and postbreeding and moulting. Papers addressing each of these seasonal sectors of the annual cycle, which follow this introduction, were presented at the 6th North American Duck Symposium, “Ecology and Conservation of North American Waterfowl” in Memphis, Tennessee in January 2013. Here, we consider the theory and selected empirical evidence relevant to waterfowl habitat and resource use and selection that may affect individual survival and fitness of waterfowl in Nearctic and Palearctic ecozones. Additionally, where possible, a comparative taxonomic approach is attempted in the following papers to identify and generalise patterns in habitat and resource use and selection across waterfowl taxa that may influence biological outcomes for individuals, populations and species through space and time. Each of the subsequent papers use accumulated science-based information to recommend future opportunities and strategies for research and for habitat and population conservation. Collectively, our goals in synthesising information on waterfowl are to help sustain harvestable populations of waterfowl and to protect rare species amid worldwide changes in climate, landscape, economics, socio-politics and growth of human populations.

  • 5.
    Koons, D. N.
    et al.
    Utah State University.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Schmutz, J. A.
    Alaska Science Center.
    Rotella, J. J.
    Montana State University.
    Drivers of waterfowl population dynamics: from teal to swans2014In: Wildfowl, ISSN 0954-6324, E-ISSN 2052-6458, no Special Issue 4, p. 169-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waterfowl are among the best studied and most extensively monitored species in the world. Given their global importance for sport and subsistence hunting, viewing and ecosystem functioning, great effort has been devoted since the middle part of the 20th century to understanding both the environmental and demographic mechanisms that influence waterfowl population and community dynamics. Here we use comparative approaches to summarise and contrast our understanding of waterfowl population dynamics across species as short-lived as the teal Anas discors and A. crecca to those such as the swans Cygnus sp. which have long life-spans. Specifically, we focuson population responses to vital rate perturbations across life history strategies, discuss bottom-up and top-down responses of waterfowl populations to global change, and summarise our current understanding of density dependence across waterfowl species. We close by identifying research needs and highlight ways to overcome the challenges of sustainably managing waterfowl populations in the 21st century.

  • 6.
    Stafford, Joshua D.
    et al.
    South Dakota State University.
    Janke, Adam K.
    South Dakota State University.
    Anteau, Michael J.
    South Dakota State University.
    Pearse, Aaron T.
    South Dakota State University.
    Fox, Anthony D.
    Aarhus University.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Straub, Jacob N.
    State University of New York-Plattsburgh.
    Eichholz, Michael W.
    Southern Illinois University Carbondale.
    Arzel, Céline
    University of Turku.
    Spring migration of waterfowl in the northern hemisphere: a conservation perspective2014In: Wildfowl, ISSN 0954-6324, E-ISSN 2052-6458, no Special Issue 4, p. 70-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Spring migration is a key part of the annual cycle for waterfowl populations in the northern hemisphere, due to its temporal proximity to the breeding season and because resources may be limited at one or more staging sites. Research based on field observations during spring lags behind other periods of the year, despite the potential for fitness consequences through diminished survival or cross-seasonal effects of conditions experienced during migration. Consequently, conservation strategies for waterfowl on spring migration are often only refined versions of practices used during autumn and winter. Here we discuss the current state of knowledge of habitat requirements for waterfowl at their spring migratory sites and the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that lead to variability in those requirements. The provision of plant foods has become the main conservation strategy during spring because of the birds’ energy requirements at this time, not only to fuel migration but to facilitate early clutch formation on arrival at the breeding grounds. Although energy sources are important to migrants, there is little evidence on the extent to which the availability of carbohydrate-based food is limiting for many migratory waterfowl populations. Such limitation is relatively unlikely among populations that exploit agricultural grain during migration (e.g. arctic-nesting geese), suggesting that conservation strategies for these populations may be misplaced. In general, however, we found few cases in which an ecological understanding of spring-migrating waterfowl was sufficient to indicate true resource limitation during migration, and still fewer cases where conservation efforts ameliorated these limitations. We propose a framework that aims to address knowledge gaps and apply empirical research results to conservation strategies based on documented limitations and associated fitness impacts on migrating waterfowl. Such a strategy would improve allocation of scarce conservation resources during spring migration and greatly improve ecological understanding of migratory waterfowl and their habitats in the northern hemisphere.

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