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  • 1.
    Anderson, Lotta
    et al.
    Malmö University.
    Östlund, Daniel
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Forskningsmiljön Forskning Relationell Pedagogik (FoRP).
    Assessments for learning in grades 1-9 in a special school for students with intellectual disability in Sweden2017In: Problems of Education in the 21st Century, ISSN 1822-7864, E-ISSN 2538-7111, Vol. 75, no 6, p. 508-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research is to analyze teachers’ and paraprofessionals’ work and reflections on assessments for learning in a Swedish compulsory special school. Research has shown that assessment for learning is a powerful tool to improve student achievement. The theoretical perspectives discuss concepts such as situated learning and collaboration. The research adopted a participatory design; the researchers followed four teams, totally 20 teachers and paraprofessionals’ work through video observation, discussions, feedback and lectures on assessment. The teams documented classroom teaching and assessment of students' abilities in different subject. The data in this study are based on teams’ written texts. The texts are analyzed using a qualitative content analysis and contribute to research on formative assessment by including teachers as well as paraprofessionals. Results show, that professions have developed their educational philosophy and their ability to give children feedback, which will help their learning. The results also highlight the discussion between learning and caring, regarding the duties of teachers and paraprofessionals. A challenge for the teams is to unite the children’s care needs with the curriculum knowledge requirements and ensure them to learn within a holistic perspective. Teaching and assessing students with extensive learning difficulties and in need of alternative communication is another challenge for the teams as well as awareness that change processes take time. 

  • 2.
    Holmqvist, Mona
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Learning Design (LeaD).
    Björkman, Karmen
    Ohlin, Malin
    Differences between learning facts and complex phenomena: a learningstudy in history based on the variation theory2010In: Problems of Education in the 21st Century, ISSN 1822-7864, E-ISSN 2538-7111, no 20, p. 80-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study has been carried out as part of a project entitled “The Pedagogy of Learning” (Holmqvist, 2002) whose objective is to use theory and practice to extend our knowledge of learning and teaching. The study was implemented at the upper secondary school level and involved students in the first year of the social science programme. Two classes were evenly divided into three groups. The “learning study” model (Holmqvist, 2006) was employed and three research lessons in history were the focus of the study. The aim was to describe what students could potentially learn, and then compare this with what they actually learned with regard to critical aspects of historical knowledge of the learning object. The learning object was exemplified by the period when Skåne, the southern part of the present country of Sweden, became Swedish after a period of Danish rule. By examining different aspects of the learning object, the aspects necessary to bring about learning were clarified. The lessons themselves were analysed in accordance with Variation Theory (Holmqvist, Gustavsson & Wernberg, 2008; Holmqvist & Mattisson, 2008), according to the constituent concepts of discernment, simultaneity, and variation. What varies and what is invariant in a learning situation are important in determining what can be learned (Marton & Booth, 1997). Changes were implemented in how certain critical aspects of the subject were presented to students with the goal of improving the student learning outcomes. The results confirmed that the nature of what was taught resulted in different learning possibilities. One such element was the ability to identify with those who lived during the period studied. Creating a kind of compassion for one or more fictitious persons enabled students to discern more easily the critical aspects. One conclusion of this study was that an effective learning strategy for students is hard to develop because they try to focus both on understanding the learning object itself, and on gathering hints from the teacher about what will be on the upcoming examination (which constitutes a second implicit learning object). This is amounts to a ‘Guess what he is thinking’ game with the teacher, rather than developing a real understanding of the learning object itself. Another conclusion underscored the important role played by the developed understanding of the learning object in producing long-term or so-called ‘generative learning’. Our study demonstrated that there is a difference in the long term between decreased learning of isolated facts and increased comprehension of overall historical phenomena.

  • 3.
    Holmqvist, Mona
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Learning Design (LeaD).
    Holmquist, Per-Ola
    Cheung, Way Ming
    The same lesson in two different cultures - what differs and what is the same?: a Learning Study on reading comprehension in Sweden and Hong Kong2010In: Problems of Education in the 21st Century, ISSN 1822-7864, E-ISSN 2538-7111, no 21, p. 71-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This project is about the relationship between what happens in the classroom and what the students learn from reading. We have found that what the students learn may differ in different classes radically even if the school resources are the same, learning is organized in the same way, even if the students are equally capable and motivated and even if the teachers are equally well educated and experienced. We have found that radical differences in what the students learn frequently originate from differences in how the content of learning is handled, structured in the interaction between teachers and students. Such differences have to do with what is made possible for the students to discern, to notice, to become aware of, through what is said, what is exemplified, what commonalities and what differences are brought out by means of discernment, simultaneity and the systematic use of variation. The study is a comparison between how reading comprehension is taught in two different cultures, Sweden and Hong Kong. The same lesson, developed and designed in Hong Kong, and content is given to three school year four-classes in Sweden and one school year-four class in Hong Kong, in the learning study model. The results show the similarities and differences between the learning outcomes, but also the similarities and differences in how the teachers offer the students to experience the object of learning and what implications this have on the student‘s results. The results show how powerful the design of the lessons is independent of the different cultural settings.

  • 4.
    Holmqvist, Mona
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Learning Design (LeaD).
    Lindgren, Gunilla
    Kristianstad University.
    Students learning English as second language: an applied linguistics learning study2009In: Problems of Education in the 21st Century, ISSN 1822-7864, E-ISSN 2538-7111, no 18, p. 86-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study involved students from a teacher training programme and classroom teachers during in-service training. These students and teachers were introduced to variation theory and carried out a learn-ing study on English as a Second Language (ESL) that incorporated five research lessons taught in paral-lel, rather than in a cycle. The participants in the study were five classes from grade level five to upper secondary school, five university students, and two researchers. The aim was to put learning study to test in describing in what ways students (from fifth graders to upper secondary school students) discerned the letter s at the end of a word, and secondly what kind of knowledge about this learning object they were able to develop during instruction. When an s appears as a terminal letter in English, it can be inter-preted in at least five different ways: contraction, plural, third person singular, genitive or possessive pronoun. It can also be the final letter of a monomorphemic word (bass) or suffix (-ness). Our study dem-onstrated how learning study was used to describe how students of different ages interpret the suffix s. A pattern emerged indicating the way knowledge of a phenomenon develops as a consequence of teaching. This pattern was analysed in terms of the structure of the students’ native language. The outcome showed how students tried to comprehend a second language by means of the structure of the first. A good exam-ple is the pronoun your (dependent possessive form) and yours (independent possessive form). As there is no variation in Swedish between dependent and independent possessives, students associate the two forms with the differences between d- and t- gender. This distinction is made in Swedish (din/ditt) but not in modern English.

  • 5.
    Holmqvist, Mona
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Learning Design (LeaD).
    Lindgren, Gunilla
    Mattisson, Jane
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Svarvell, Teresa
    Instruction built on learners' previous knowledge by using the variation theory2008In: Problems of Education in the 21st Century, ISSN 1822-7864, E-ISSN 2538-7111, no 6, p. 86-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses teaching based upon pupils’ previous knowledge. As the world becomes more and more globalised, it is harder and harder for a teacher to form a picture of the pupils’ knowledge when planning instruction. However, without this information about pupils, it is impossible to know if the created learning situations are conducive to learning or if the pupils had already acquired knowledge about the learning object before the learning situation. In this study pupils’ previous knowledge is investigated in relation to how English as a Second Language is learnt when pupils have different mother tongues. In a phenomenographic study we found that pupils with three different mother tongues, when placed in the same learning situation, made errors which could be traced back to the structure of their mother tongue. This observation led to a learning study, in which variation theory was the theoretical point of departure, and in which three different research lessons with three different groups of pupils were carried out. The learning object was dependent possessives, and the pupils’ mother tongue was Swedish. As there is no differentiation between independent and dependent possessives in Swedish, the pupils could not discern the difference between these two forms. As Swedish has a differentiation between t- and n-gender, the puils wrongly assumed that the difference between my and mine was not connected to dependent and independent possessives but to gender. The results of our study show how teachers who are familiar with the pupils’ previous knowledge (mother tongue) can become aware of what mistakes they might make as ESL learners; this knowledge has a profound effect on instruction. In this way, teachers can also predict and plan what information is needed to develop learning situations which provide maximum opportunity to learn. They also understand what kinds of critical aspects are necessary to enable pupils to discern. As a result, teachers are more effective, which is reflected in better pupil results in the classroom.

  • 6.
    Holmqvist, Mona
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Learning Design (LeaD).
    Mattisson, Jane
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Contrasting cases and their impact on learning: a replication of a learning study corfirming the impact of contrasts2009In: Problems of Education in the 21st Century, ISSN 1822-7864, E-ISSN 2538-7111, no 10, p. 38-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article describes how Swedish pupils in class 4 (nine to eleven years old) learn English as a second language. The study replicates a learning study carried out within the framework of a more ex-tensive project known as “The Pedagogy of Learning”. The present study is aiming to find out if the re-sults from one original learning study can be generalised to other teachers and pupils. The pupils partici-pating in the presented study learn how to use “to have”. The original Learning Study Cycle (LSC) con-sisted of three lessons per cycle, each lesson carried out in different groups of pupils. The teachers fo-cused on the critical aspects, i.e. the features which must be distinguished in order to understand a phe-nomenon. This process entailed investigating the contrasts between the specified learning outcome(s), i.e. the ability or knowledge targeted. The lessons were planned from a variation theory perspective. The LSC demonstrated that the use of contrast – applied in only one of the three lessons – between “to be” and “to have” had a positive effect on pupils’ generative learning, i.e. continued learning outside the classroom. In order to establish if the results of the present study are coincidental or repeatable the LSC was repli-cated. The first replicated study was conducted by a group of teachers with a good knowledge of variation theory. These teachers had previously applied the theory in mathematics lessons. A second replication was initiated by a group of teachers with no knowledge of variation theory. The results demonstrated that contrast is important for generative learning provided that teachers are able to focus on critical aspects and thereby elucidate contrast. In the group familiar with variation theory the results were similar to those of the original study, i.e. generative learning was promoted, while contrast had little effect on the pupils generative learning in the group of teachers who had no knowledge of variation theory. The study demonstrates that generative learning is dependent on teachers’ knowledge of how the critical aspects of the target knowledge should be presented to pupils. Such knowledge enables teachers to apply contrast as a means of developing pupils’ ability to distinguish qualitative differences. In this way, pupils continue to develop their knowledge beyond the classroom.

  • 7.
    Holmqvist, Mona
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Learning Design (LeaD).
    Mattisson, Jane
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Variation theory: a tool to analyse and develop learning at schoool2008In: Problems of Education in the 21st Century, ISSN 1822-7864, E-ISSN 2538-7111, no 7, p. 31-38Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Ljung-Djärf, Agneta
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Learning Design (LeaD).
    Tullgren, Charlotte
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Arbete i skolan (AiS).
    Doing pre-school: knowledge utilization and discursive patterns during pre-school planning meetings2010In: Problems of Education in the 21st Century, ISSN 1822-7864, E-ISSN 2538-7111, no 25, p. 77-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research is to study knowledge utilization and discursive patterns during pre-school planning meetings fronstage. The study is designed as a qualitative case study based on tape recordings of five planning meetings and three video documented activities. Three pre-school teachers and three researchers participated. In the analysis, Foucault’s work on discursive practices is used as theoretical framework. The study highlights knowledge used and cited in the local negotiations. The conclusions are that the knowledge used is based on both professional knowledge related to children's learning and development, and local knowledge of children and their abilities, conditions and personalities. The professional knowledge appears as rather implicit and it is primarily the local knowledge of children and their individual needs and circumstances that is most clearly expressed. Dominant discursive patterns are formulated as the staff make themselves responsible for making the pre-school activity not school-like for the maturing child. On the front stage arena the teachers' tasks primarily appears as a desire to maintain the pre-school content in accordance with pre-school ideology that also controls how they see the children’s learning in pre-school in another perspective than student learning in a school context

  • 9.
    Mattisson, Jane
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Schamp-Bjerede, Teri
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Learning through technology: a report on the implementation of a "new" e-learning tool2010In: Problems of Education in the 21st Century, ISSN 1822-7864, E-ISSN 2538-7111, no 23, p. 146-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses an on-going pilot project for improving essay writing at Kristianstad University, Sweden. It presents a so-called boilerplate which has been designed for Master’s-level English students. This e-learning tool is used as a cognitive tool that facilitates learning with as opposed to learning through technology. The boilerplate is part of a joint learning system (Kim & Reeves, 2007) in which there are three equal participants in the learning process: the tool, learner, and activity.

    As technology is increasingly implemented in education, there is a need to understand pedagogical processes that not only take into consideration the student, but how the technology is used by the student. Our paper discusses the e-learning tool created at Kristianstad University, and looks at the first, preliminary results of its use in connection with pedagogical issues, usability, and interaction.

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