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  • 1. Holm, Karin
    et al.
    Wendin, Karin
    SIK, The Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology AB.
    Hermansson, Anne-Marie
    Sweetness and texture perceptions in structured gelatin gels with embedded sugar rich domains2009In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 2388-2393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Layered and homogeneous gelatin gels with controlled theological properties were compared for their sensory characteristics, specifically sweetness, hardness, breakdown behaviour and frothing. All gels and layers had a gelatin/water concentration of 5%. The total sugar concentration was 9% in the layered samples and 0, 9,15 or 22.5% in the homogeneous samples. These concentrations corresponded to the concentrations in the single layers. A seven-layered sample with different sugar concentrations in the layers gave a higher early sweetness intensity than a homogeneous gel with the same mean total sugar concentration. All layered gels were similar in hardness, breakdown behaviour and frothing; for the homogenous samples, sensory hardness was decreased in samples with much sugar. These gels also fell into smaller pieces than the sugarless sample. This study shows that it is possible by controlling the sugar distribution within a sample to produce sweeter gels while the sugar content is maintained.

  • 2.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Trägårdh, Christian
    Bergenståhl, Björn
    Studying the effects of adsorption, recoalescence and fragmentation in a high pressure homogenizer using a dynamic simulation model2009In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 23, p. 1177-1183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emulsification in a high pressure homogenizer was studied using a dynamic simulation model based on the population balance equation. The model includes fragmentation, recoalescence and adsorption of macromolecular emulsifier and uses a simple flow model in order to link the hydrodynamics in the homogenizer to the three physical processes mentioned above.

    A computer model offers an interesting opportunity to study the effect of model assumptions on the overall outcome of the process. The computer model is also an interesting complement to experiments in this case since internal measurements in the active region of homogenization are very hard to carry out, due to small scales and high forces, and information on the spatial position of the different processes is of great importance in design.

    Based on a set of assumptions, mainly that the turbulent jet responsible for break-up can be described by a one dimensional model and that the macromolecular emulsifiers hindrance of recoalescence can be described by a wall like repulsion, it is shown that the active region of homogenization can be divided into two zones; a narrow zone with fast fragmentation and nearly no recoalescence in the most intense part of the region followed by a recoalescence zone as drop–drop interactions starts to dominate with decreasing turbulence intensity. The effect of operating parameters is seen to be close to the ones found from experiment.

    The results are discussed in relation to a flow field obtained by a simplistic CFD and assumptions made about hydrodynamics and emulsifier behavior.

  • 3.
    Wendin, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Department of Domestic Sciences.
    Aaby, K
    Edris, A
    Ellekjaer, M R
    Albin, R
    Bergenstahl, B
    Johansson, L
    Willers, E P
    Solheim, R
    Low-fat mayonnaise: Influences of fat content, aroma compounds and thickeners1997In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 87-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of fat content and thickeners, propylene glycol alginate (PGA; 1.40%) and guar gum (1.55%), on sensory and instrumental quality descriptors on reduced fat mayonnaises (15 and 30% fat) with and without added aroma compounds, citral (semi-polar) and pyroligneous acid (polar), were investigated. One mayonnaise, 82% fat, without added thickener or aroma compounds was used as reference. Sensory evaluation (quantitative descriptive analysis; QDA), rheological analysis (yield stress, maximum viscosity, G' and G''), measurements of particle size and headspace CC-MS analyses were carried out. Correlations between the results were developed Perceived and instrumental texture, and perceived smell and flavour, changed differently in magnitude and direction due to fat content and type of thickener.

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