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  • 1.
    Bodin, Hristina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Daneshvar, Atlasi
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Gros, Meritxell
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Hultberg, Malin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Effects of biopellets composed of microalgae and fungi on pharmaceuticals present at environmentally relevant levels in water2016In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 91, p. 169-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Removal of seven pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen, carbamazepine, diclofenac, metoprolol, naproxen, ranitidine and sulfamethoxazole) from water was investigated using three different microbial treatments with: (1) the microalga Chlorella vulgaris, (2) the fungus Aspergillus niger and (3) biopellets composed of both microorganisms. The three-day experiment was performed under laboratory conditions and pharmaceuticals were spiked at the environmentally relevant concentration of 10 mu g L-1. The biopellets and fungal treatments resulted in significantly lower ranitidine concentration compared with the initial value. Also, treatment with biopellets resulted in significantly lower final ranitidine concentrations compared to those found after control and microalgal treatments. Low removal rates were obtained for other substances, possibly because the amount of microbial biomass used was 16-500-fold lower than that normally used in activated sludge processes in wastewater treatments plants. Thus, the pharmaceutical removal potential, elimination potential and performance of biopellets should be further investigated at higher biomass concentrations. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 2.
    Bodin, Hristina
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Mietto, Anna
    Italien.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Halmstad University.
    Persson, Jesper
    SLU, Alnarp.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    Halmstad University.
    Tracer behaviour and analysis of hydraulics in experimental free water surface wetlands2012In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 49, p. 201-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of inlet design and vegetation type on tracer dynamics and hydraulic performance were investigated using lithium chloride in 18 experimental free water surface wetlands. The wetlands received similar water flow but had different vegetation types: 6 emergent vegetation wetlands (EVWs), 6 submerged vegetation wetlands (SVWs) and 6 free development wetlands (FDWs). Two types of inlet designs were applied: half of each wetland vegetation type had a barrier near the inlet to help distribute incoming tracer solution, while the rest had no barrier. Residence time distribution (RTD) functions were calculated from tracer data using two techniques: method of moments and a novel Gauss modelling approach. RTD functions were used to quantify hydraulic parameters: active wetland volume (e-value), water dispersion (N-value) and hydraulic efficiency (-value). For wetlands without barrier, significantly lower tracer mass recoveries were found from EVWs compared to FDWs and SVWs, signifying a risk of tracer methodological problems in small densely vegetated wetlands. These problems were minimized in wetlands with an inflow construction promoting distribution of incoming tracer solution. Compared to the method of moments, Gauss modelling seemed to produce more reliable -values but less reliable N-values. Data for precise hydraulic quantification were lost by Gauss modelling, as indicated by overall lower variance in these data sets and lower mass recoveries. However, Gauss modelling may minimize uncertainties associated with lithium immobilization/mobilization. Parameters were significantly affected by the RTD data analysis method, showing that the choice of method could affect evaluation of wetland hydraulics. The experimental wetlands in this study exhibited relatively high e-values and low N-values. This was probably caused by the small size of the wetlands and low water flow velocities, emphasizing that hydraulic parameter values obtained in small experimental wetlands may not be applicable to hydraulics in larger wetlands. The method of moments revealed lower e-values from EVWs compared to SVWs and FDWs. It was indicated that lower e-values were mainly caused by vegetation volumes. This highlighted a need for regular maintenance to secure efficient treatment volume in wetlands with dense vegetation.

  • 3.
    Bojcevska, Hristina
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University.
    Impact of loads, season, and plant species on the performance of a tropical constructed wetland polishing effluent from sugar factory stabilization ponds2007In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 66-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of wastewater loading rates and two macrophyte species on treatment of sugar factory stabilization pond effluent were investigated in a pilot-scale free water surface constructed wetland (FWS CW) system in western Kenya. For 12 months, four CWs were operated at a hydraulic loading rate of 75 mm day−1 and four at 225 mm day−1. Half the CWs were planted with Cyperus papyrus and half with Echinochloa pyramidalis. Water samples were taken at the inlets and outlets and analyzed for TP, TDP, NH4-N, and TSS. Mass removal rates of the selected water quality parameters were compared during three periods designated the short rain (period 1), dry (period 2), and long rain (period 3) seasons. There was a significant linear relationship between the mass removal rate of TP, NH4-N, and TSS and the mass load, and season had a significant effect on the mass removal rate of TSS, NH4-N, and TDP. Mass loading rates for TDP were about 78% of those for TP, whereas TDP comprised 78–99% of TP mass outflow rates, indicating a release of dissolved P within the CWs. The only significant difference between the two macrophyte species was associated with mass removal of NH4-N, with more efficient removal in CWs planted with C. papyrus than those with E. pyramidalis. TP mass removal rates were 50–80% higher when a mean water loss for CWs 6–8 during periods 1 and 2 was assumed to represent evapotranspiration for all CWs in period 3 instead of pan evaporation data. This illustrated the importance of accurate estimations of evapotranspiration for pollutant mass removal rates in CWs in tropical climates.

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