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  • 1.
    Collin, Betty
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Lindmark, Barbro
    Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå University.
    Pal, Amit
    National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata, India.
    Wai, Sun N.
    Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå University.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    The origin of Vibrio cholerae influences uptake and persistence in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis2012In: Journal of Shellfish Research, ISSN 0730-8000, E-ISSN 1943-6319, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 87-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vibrio cholerae may cause diarrheal diseases and wound infections, both of which have the potential to be fatal. Transmission to humans is often linked to consumption of contaminated shellfish/drinking water or dermal exposure to water (e.g. when swimming). In this study, we investigated whether different isolates of Vibrio cholerae differ in terms of accumulation, persistence, and viability when encountering blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). Mussel uptake and elimination of three different V. cholerae strains were compared: one fatal clinical non-O1/O139 isolate, one highly potent El Tor biotype, and one marine strain isolated from blue mussels. The results showed that the uptake of the marine strain was significantly higher than the clinical strain, but the elimination process of the marine strain was also more efficient. The El Tor strain was not at all ingested by the mussels. In addition, the survival of bacteria when incubated together with M. edulis hemocytes was tested in vitro. The viability of clinical strains was unaffected by the presence of hemocytes, and the marine strains were even more resistant and able to multiply. We conclude that the highly virulent El Tor biotype was not taken up by the mussels and could thereby escape the mussels' elimination process. The potentially fatal non-O1/O139 V. cholerae strain may accumulate in low numbers, but could be very persistent in mussels.

  • 2.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    et al.
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Larsson, A
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Edebo, L
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Influence on uptake, distribution and elimination of Salmonella typhimurium in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, by the cell surface properties of the bacteria2000In: Journal of Shellfish Research, ISSN 0730-8000, E-ISSN 1943-6319, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 167-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was carried out to investigate whether the cell surface charge of Salmonella typhimurium could influence the kinetics of uptake, distribution, and elimination in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. The bacteria (1 mu m) were labeled with Tc-99(m) in the presence of stannous fluoride. Two different concentrations of stannous fluoride were used to produce differences in the cell surface charges of the bacteria. A set of mussels in the investigation were also given Sn-113-labeled microspheres (15 mu m) together with bacteria to compare the impact between particle size and cell surface properties on the distribution kinetics. The distribution of radiolabeled particles in the mussel was followed and analyzed with a computer-aided gamma camera that can detect two isotopes simultaneously. Finally. the mussels were dissected and the radioactivity in the fractions was measured with a well-shielded NaI(Tl) detector. The reduced cell surface charge of S. typhimurium enhanced the preingestive selection on the gills or labial palps as well as the postingestive selection in the digestive glands in such a way that it became similar to the microspheres, despite the size differences. The uptake of the bacteria labeled in the presence of less stannous fluoride was significantly lower. However, the subsequent absorption of these bacteria in the digestive gland was greater, because the recovery of radioactivity outside the digestive tract was higher than for the more manipulated bacteria and the microspheres. Likewise, the elimination of the more manipulated bacteria was similar to that of the microspheres and significantly higher than that of the less affected bacteria. It is concluded that the cell surface properties of bacteria, possibly the charge, influence the uptake, distribution, and elimination in M. edulis and that this factor could have the same influence as size on the uptake capacity.

  • 3.
    Svensson, Susanne
    et al.
    Department of Zoophysiology, Göteborg University.
    André, Carl
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Clinical Bacteriology, Göteborg University.
    Hansson, Jonas
    Tjärno Marine Biological Laboratory, Strömstad.
    A case of consistent spatial differences in content of diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DST) among three bivalve species: Mytilus edulis, Ostrea edulis and Cerastoderma edule2000In: Journal of Shellfish Research, ISSN 0730-8000, E-ISSN 1943-6319, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 1017-1020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Content of diarrhetic .shellfi.sh toxins (DST) was compared among mussels (Mytilus edulis), oysters (Ostrea edulis). and cockles (Cercuioderma edule) at two spatial scales: regions (100 km apart) and locations within regions (5 km apart). Samples were analysed for DST using protein phosphatase inhibiton assay in individual digestive glands. Concentrations of DST in all oysters and cockles were below the detection limit in the assay, whereas mussels from both regions and all locations contained mean levels of DST above the regulation limit for harvest and marketing. Thus interspecific differences in content of DST were found along the Swedish west coast. Some behavioral and physiological phenomena are proposed to explain the differences among species. These include differential uptake and processing of toxic algae, biotransformation of toxins, and reduced filtration at low temperatures. These findings may have some implications for harvest and cultivation of bivalves and suggest a possibility that cockles and oysters could be marketed for human consumption during periods of elevated levels of DST in mussels.

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