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  • 1.
    Holmqvist, Mona
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Learning Design (LeaD).
    Teachers' learning in a learning study2011In: Instructional science, ISSN 0020-4277, E-ISSN 1573-1952, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 497-511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The point of departure in this study is the question: do teachers who develop theoretical knowledge of the variation theory change the way(s) they offer their pupils the object of learning due to the theoretical framework. The aim of the study is to describe this development, i.e. to find if and how teachers developed theoretical knowledge when planning instruction, and in what way(s) this has an impact on the pupils' learning outcome when using contrasts in the instruction. The theoretical framework is strongly content related, and by analysing the learning object's critical aspects the teachers are guided to focus on the content in this particular way. The question "what does it take to develop knowledge about the object of learning?" has to be answered by the teachers before choice of teaching method is made. The research method used is Learning Study, a fusion between lesson study and design experiment. The teachers (6) have carried out nine research lessons in three Learning Study cycles (containing three lessons each). The pupils belong to three different classes and are between 9 and 11 years old. The result shows how the teachers gradually use the variation theory when planning instruction and how the learning outcomes shown by the pupils improve. The developed theoretical insight seems to affect the teachers' ways of seeing the object of learning, such as subtle changes of how to organize the critical features of the learning object, are discerned. In every learning study cycle contrasts are used in one lesson, and in the analysis of the effect of the contrasts, the two remaining lessons are used as control groups. The results show the impact of contrasts in the pupils' learning outcomes. The need to complement a lesson study with a theoretical perspective on learning is that the teachers are then given the opportunity to make use of the theory when planning instruction individually, not only in a lesson study. There again, the Learning Study model seems to be a powerful model with which to develop teachers' understanding of the theoretical framework.

  • 2.
    Kullenberg, Tina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Forskning Relationell Pedagogik (FoRP). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Pedagogik.
    Pramling, Niklas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Learning and knowing songs: a study of children as music teachers2016In: Instructional science, ISSN 0020-4277, E-ISSN 1573-1952, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we analyze how learners constitute what it means to learn and know a song. This is investigated in the context of four 9- to 10-year-old children in dyads teaching each other to sing a song of their own choosing. How the children take on this task is studied in terms of how they dialogically co-construct pedagogical and musical values throughout the collaborative tasks. The empirical data consist of video observations of the children engaged in dyads. Informed by a sociocultural perspective, with an emphasis on mediational means, scaffolding and appropriation, the study seeks to examine how young people’s instructional methods are facilitated and constrained by communicative resources of different kinds. The empirical data is analyzed as interactively unfolding activity. The study shows that the children make a distinction between learning and knowing a song, in terms of tool use. In teaching, learning is communicated as supported by mediational means in the form of external visualization tools, while knowing the song, from the participants’ point of view means to be able to sing the song without any such mediational means. From a sociocultural theoretical perspective, this difference is conceptualized as the gradual learning process of moving from a materialized practice, based on external artifacts, to an embodied practice, that is, a change in mediational means rather than developing musical knowing without tools.

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