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  • 1.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Conceptual and perceptual factors in the picture superiority effect2006In: European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0954-1446, E-ISSN 1464-0635, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 813-847Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The picture superiority effect, i.e. better memory for pictures than for corresponding words, has been variously ascribed to a conceptual or a perceptual processing advantage. The present study aimed to disentangle perceptual and conceptual contributions. Pictures and words were tested for recognition in both their original formats and translated into participants´ second language. Multinomial Processing Tree (Batchelder & Riefer, 1999) and MINERVA (Hintzman, 1984) models were fitted to the data, and parameters corresponding to perceptual and conceptual recognition were estimated. Over three experiments, orienting tasks were varied, with neutral (Exp 1), semantic (Exp. 2), and perceptual (Exp. 3) instructions, and the encoding manipulations were used to validate the parameters. Results indicate that there is picture superiority in both conceptual and perceptual memory, but conceptual processing makes a stronger contribution to the advantage of pictures over words in recognition.

  • 2.
    Stenberg, Georg
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Hellman, Johan
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Johansson, Mikael
    Lund University.
    The memorability of names and the divergent effects of prior experience2008In: European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0954-1446, E-ISSN 1464-0635, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 312-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pre-experimental familiarity can have paradoxical effects on episodic memory Knowledge of the stimulus domain usually enhances memory, but word frequency-a presumed correlate of prior experience-is negatively related to recognition accuracy The present study examined episodic recognition of names and its relation to two measures of pre-experimental knowledge, name frequency, and fame. Frequency was operationalised as the number of hits in a national telephone directory, and fame as hits on national mass media websites. Recognition accuracy was increased by fame, but diminished by frequency. Four experiments confirmed the findings, using yes/no recognition, ROC curves, and remember-know paradigms. Hit rates were consistently more strongly influenced by fame than by frequency, whereas the reverse was true for false alarm rates. These dissociations suggest that two different forms of semantic memory, specific and nonspecific knowledge, interact with episodic memory in separate ways.

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