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  • 1.
    Adriaens, Laurence M
    et al.
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Alessandri, Regina
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Spörri, Stefan
    State Hospital of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland.
    Lang, Niklaus P
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Washington.
    Does pregnancy have an impact on the subgingival microbiota?2009In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 80, no 1, p. 72-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: We investigated clinical and subgingival microbiologic changes during pregnancy in 20 consecutive pregnant women > or =18 years not receiving dental care.

    METHODS: Bacterial samples from weeks 12, 28, and 36 of pregnancy and at 4 to 6 weeks postpartum were processed for 37 species by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Clinical periodontal data were collected at week 12 and at 4 to 6 weeks postpartum, and bleeding on probing (BOP) was recorded at sites sampled at the four time points.

    RESULTS: The mean BOP at week 12 and postpartum was 40.1% +/- 18.2% and 27.4% +/- 12.5%, respectively. The corresponding mean BOP at microbiologic test sites was 15% (week 12) and 21% (postpartum; not statistically significant). Total bacterial counts decreased between week 12 and postpartum (P <0.01). Increased bacterial counts over time were found for Neisseria mucosa (P <0.001). Lower counts (P <0.001) were found for Capnocytophaga ochracea, Capnocytophaga sputigena, Eubacterium saburreum, Fusobacterium nucleatum naviforme, Fusobacterium nucleatum polymorphum, Leptotrichia buccalis, Parvimonas micra (previously Peptostreptococcus micros or Micromonas micros), Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella melaninogenica, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguinis, Selenomonas noxia, and Veillonella parvula. No changes occurred between weeks 12 and 28 of pregnancy. Counts of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (previously Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans), Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia (previously T. forsythensis), and Treponema denticola did not change. Counts of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia at week 12 were associated with gingivitis (P <0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: Subgingival levels of bacteria associated with periodontitis did not change. P. gingivalis and T. forsythia counts were associated with BOP at week 12. A decrease was found in 17 of 37 species from week 12 to postpartum. Only counts of N. mucosa increased.

  • 2. Agerbaek, Mette R
    et al.
    Lang, Niklaus P
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Microbiological composition associated with interleukin-1 gene polymorphism in subjects undergoing supportive periodontal therapy.2006In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 77, no 8, p. 1397-1402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Interleukin-1 gene polymorphism (IL-1 gene) has been associated with periodontitis. The present study examined the subgingival microbiota by IL-1 gene status in subjects undergoing supportive periodontal therapy (SPT).

    METHODS: A total of 151 subjects with known IL-1 gene status (IL-1A +4845/IL-1B -3954) (IL-1 gene) were included in this study. Clinical data and subgingival plaque samples (40 taxa) were collected. These taxa were determined by the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method.

    RESULTS: Gender, smoking habits (n-par tests), age, and clinical periodontal conditions did not differ by IL-1 gene status. IL-1 gene-negative subjects had a higher total bacterial load (mean difference, 480.4 x 10(5); 95% confidence interval [CI], 77 to 884 x 10(5); P <0.02). The levels of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (mean difference, 30.7 x 10(5); 95% CI, 2.2 to 59.5 x 10(5); P <0.05), Eubacterium nodatum (mean difference, 4.2 x 10(5); 95% CI, 0.6 to 7.8 x 10(5); P <0.02), Porphyromonas gingivalis (mean difference, 17.9 x 10(5); 95% CI, 1.2 to 34.5 x 10(5); P <0.05), and Streptococcus anginosus (mean difference, 4.0 x 10(5); 95% CI, 0.2 to 7.2 x 10(5); P <0.05) were higher in IL-1 gene-negative subjects, an observation specifically found at sites with probing depths <5.0 mm.

    CONCLUSIONS: Bleeding on probing did not differ by IL gene status, reflecting clinical SPT efficacy. IL-1 gene-negative subjects had higher levels of periodontal pathogens. This may suggest that among subjects undergoing SPT, a lower bacterial load is required in IL-1 gene-positive subjects to develop the same level of periodontitis as in IL-1 gene-negative subjects.

  • 3.
    Baumgartner, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Imfeld, Thomas
    University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Schicht, Olivier
    University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Rath, Christian
    University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Persson, Rigmor E
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Washington.
    Persson, G Rutger
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Washington.
    The impact of the stone age diet on gingival conditions in the absence of oral hygiene.2009In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 80, no 5, p. 759-768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess the oral microbiota and clinical data in subjects without access to traditional oral hygiene methods and who ate a diet available in the Stone Age.

    METHODS: Ten subjects living in an environment replicating the Stone Age for 4 weeks were enrolled in this study. Bleeding on probing (BOP), gingival and plaque indices, and probing depth (PD) were assessed at baseline and at 4 weeks. Microbiologic samples were collected at the mesio-buccal subgingival aspects of all teeth and from the dorsum of the tongue and were processed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization methods.

    RESULTS: No subject had periodontitis. Mean BOP decreased from 34.8% to 12.6% (P <0.001). Mean gingival index scores changed from 0.38 to 0.43 (not statistically significant) and mean plaque scores increased from 0.68 to 1.47 (P <0.001). PD at sites of subgingival sampling decreased (mean difference: 0.2 mm; P <0.001). At week 4, the total bacterial count was higher (P <0.001) for 24 of 74 species, including Bacteroides ureolyticus, Eikenella corrodens, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Capnocytophaga ochracea, Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium nucleatum naviforme, Haemophilus influenzae, Helicobacter pylori, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Staphylococcus aureus (two strains), Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus anginosis, and Streptococcus mitis. Bacterial counts from tongue samples were higher at baseline (P <0.001) for 20 species, including Tannerella forsythia (previously T. forsythensis), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (previously Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans; serotype a), and Streptococcus spp.

    CONCLUSIONS: The experimental gingivitis protocol is not applicable if the diet (e.g., Stone Age) does not include refined sugars. Although plaque levels increased, BOP and PD decreased. Subgingival bacterial counts increased for several species not linked to periodontitis, whereas tongue bacterial samples decreased during the study period.

  • 4.
    Bornstein, Michael M
    et al.
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Hakimi, Basir
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
    Microbiological findings in subjects with asymptomatic oral lichen planus: a cross-sectional comparative study.2008In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 79, no 12, p. 2347-2355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The bacterial colonization of the oral mucosa was evaluated in patients with asymptomatic oral lichen planus (OLP) and compared to the microbiologic status in mucosally healthy subjects.

    METHODS: Bacteria from patients with clinically and histopathologically diagnosed OLP from the Stomatology Service, Department of Oral Surgery and Stomatology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, were collected with a non-invasive swab system. Samples were taken from OLP lesions on the gingiva and from non-affected sites on the contralateral side of the mouth. The control population did not have OLP and was recruited from the student clinic. All samples were processed with the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method using well-defined bacterial species for the analysis.

    RESULTS: Significantly higher bacterial counts of Bacteroides ureolyticus (P = 0.001), Dialister species (sp.) (P = 0.006), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (P = 0.007), and Streptococcus agalactiae (P = 0.006) were found in samples taken from OLP lesions compared to sites with no clinical evidence of OLP. Significantly higher bacterial counts were found for Capnocytophaga sputigena, Eikenella corrodens, Lactobacillus crispatus, Mobiluncus curtisii, Neisseria mucosa, Prevotella bivia, Prevotella intermedia, and S. agalactiae at sites with lesions in subjects with OLP compared to sites in control subjects (P <0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: Microbiologic differences were found between sites with OLP and sites in subjects without a diagnosis of OLP. Specifically, higher counts of staphylococci and S. agalactiae were found in OLP lesions.

  • 5.
    Fardal, Øystein
    et al.
    Private practice, Egersund.
    Fardal, Patrick
    Dublin Dental University Hospital, Dublin.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet.
    Periodontal and general health in long-term periodontal maintenance patients treated in a Norwegian private practice: a descriptive report from a compliant and partially compliant survivor population2013In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 84, no 10, p. 1374-1381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background There is weak evidence to support the benefit of periodontal maintenance therapy in preventing tooth loss. In addition, the effects of long-term periodontal treatment on general health are unclear.

    Materials/Methods Compliant and partially compliant patients (15-25 years follow-up) in private practice were observed for oral and systemic health changes.

    Results 219 compliant patients (128 females, 91 males) were observed for 19.1 years (range 15-25, SD ± 2.8). Age at reassessment was 64.6 years (range 39-84 SD ±9.0). 145 patients were stable (0-3 teeth lost), 54 were downhill (4-6 teeth lost) and 21 patients extreme downhill (>6 teeth lost). 16 patients developed hypertension, 13 developed diabetes II, and 15 suffered myocardial infarcts (MI). A minority developed other systemic diseases. Risk factors for MI included overweight (OR 9.04,95% CI:2.9-27.8, p=0.000), family history with cardiovascular disease (OR 3.10, 95 % CI:1.07-8.94, p=0.029), diabetes I at baseline (p=0.02) and developing diabetes II (O.R. 7.9, 95 % CI: 2.09-29.65, p=0.000). 25 partially compliant patients (8 females, 17 males) were observed for 19 years. This group had a higher proportion of downhill and extreme downhill cases and MI.

    Conclusion Patients who left the maintenance program in a periodontal specialist practice in Norway had a higher rate of tooth loss than compliant patients. Compliant maintenance patients in specialist practice in Norway have a similar risk of developing diabetes type II as the general population. A rate of 0.0037 myocardial infarcts per patient per year was recorded for this group. Due to the lack of external data, it is difficult to assess how this compares with untreated periodontal patients.

  • 6.
    Figuero, Elena
    et al.
    University Complutense, Madrid.
    Lindahl, Christel
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet.
    Marín, María José
    University Complutense, Madrid.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet.
    Herrera, David
    University Complutense, Madrid.
    Ohlsson, Ola
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet.
    Wetterling, Thomas
    Central Hospital Kristianstad.
    Sanz, Mariano
    University Complutense, Madrid.
    Quantification of periodontal pathogens in vascular, blood and subgingival samples from patients with peripheral arterial disease or abdominal aortic aneurysms2014In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 85, no 9, p. 1182-1193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this investigation was to quantify periodontal pathogens (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Campylobacter rectus and Tannerella forsythia) in vascular, blood and subgingival samples. As secondary objective, two molecular bacterial identification methods [nested-polimerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR)] were compared.

    Methods: Seventy consecutive patients provided a vascular lesion, a blood sample, and 36 subgingival samples. Bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted and qPCR was used to determine the prevalence and amounts of the target pathogens in each sample. Nested-PCR was only performed in the samples from vascular lesions. Periodontal examination was performed in 42 patients. U-Mann-Whitney or Chi-squared tests were used to compare microbiological results according to periodontal diagnosis.

    Results: All targeted periodontal pathogens (A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia or C. rectus) were detected in subgingival samples with a prevalence rate of 72.2%, 47.2%, 74.3% and 82.9%, respectively. In 7.1% and 11.4% of vascular and blood samples, bacterial DNA was detected. One patient was positive for A. actinomycetemcomitans in the three types of samples. No differences were found in the levels of targeted bacteria when comparing periodontitis and non-periodontitis patients. Prevalence rates obtained with nested PCR were significantly higher than those obtained by qPCR.

    Conclusions: The presence of of A. actinomycetemcomitans was demonstrated in vascular, blood and subgingival samples in one out of 36 patients. These results, although with a very low frequency, may support the hypothesis of a translocation of periodontal pathogens from subgingival microbiota to the blood stream and then to atheromatous plaques in carotid or other peripheral arteries. Nested-PCR is not an adequate method for identifying DNA of periodontal pathogens in low quantities, due to the high number of false negative results.

  • 7.
    Fischer, Carolin C
    et al.
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Persson, Rigmor E
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Washington.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
    Influence of the menstrual cycle on the oral microbial flora in women: a case-control study including men as control subjects.2008In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 79, no 10, p. 1966-1973Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    UNLABELLED: Changes in the levels of female sex hormones during the menstrual cycle may cause cyclic differences in subgingival bacterial colonization patterns. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that hormonal changes in the menstrual cycle cause changes in the oral microbiota.

    METHODS: Bacterial plaque samples were collected in 20 systemically and periodontally healthy women using no hormonal contraceptives (test group) over a period of 6 weeks. Twenty age-matched systemically and periodontally healthy men were assigned to the control group. Samples were processed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization assay, and 74 species were analyzed.

    RESULTS: No cyclic pattern of bacterial colonization was identified for any of the 74 species studied in women not using hormonal contraceptives. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (previously Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans) (Y4) was common at the beginning of menstruation (mean: 32%) and increased during the following 2 weeks (36%) in women (P <0.05). No cyclic differences in bacterial presence were found among the men (P values varied between 0.14 and 0.98). Men presented with significantly higher bacterial counts for 40 of 74 species (P <0.001), including Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa but not Porphyromonas gingivalis (P = 0.15) or Tannerella forsythia (previously T. forsythensis) (P = 0.42).

    CONCLUSIONS: During a menstruation period, cyclic variation in the subgingival microbiota of periodontally healthy women of child-bearing age who were not using oral hormonal contraceptives could not be confirmed. Male control subjects presented with higher levels of many species but also without a cyclic pattern.

  • 8. Leonhardt, Asa
    et al.
    Dahlén, Gunnar
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Five-year clinical, microbiological, and radiological outcome following treatment of peri-implantitis in man2003In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 74, no 10, p. 1415-1422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of a combined surgical and antimicrobial treatment of peri-implantitis lesions in humans.

    METHODS: Nine partially dentate individuals with titanium implants demonstrating a marginal bone loss of > or = three threads as compared to baseline measurements made from 1-year intra-oral radiographs, bleeding on probing, and/or suppuration from the peri-implant sulci were included in the study. In each individual, subgingival bacterial samples were obtained and subjected to microbiological analysis by culture. Surgical exposure of the lesions and cleaning of the implants using hydrogen peroxide were performed. The patients were given systemic antibiotics according to a susceptibility test of target bacteria. The treatment was evaluated clinically, microbiologically, and radiograpically at 6 months, 1 year, and 5 years.

    RESULTS: Seven out of 26 implants with peri-implantitis at baseline were lost during the 5-year follow-up period despite a significant reduction in the presence of plaque and gingival bleeding. Four implants continued to lose bone, 9 had an unchanged bone level, and 6 gained bone. Five of the patients were treated with antibiotics directed against putative periodontopathogens, i.e., A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. intermedia, or P. gingivalis; three patients were treated for presence of enterics (E. coli and E. cloace); and, in one patient, treatment was directed against S. aureus.

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite treatment and retreatment, seven implants were lost. However, the applied surgical and antimicrobial treatment strategy for advanced peri-implantitis lesions was successful in 58% of the implants treated during the 5-year follow-up period. Smoking seemed to be a negative risk factor for treatment success.

  • 9.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    et al.
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Hitti, Jane
    Paul, Katie
    Hirschi, Regula
    Weibel, Marianne
    Rothen, Marilynn
    Persson, Rigmor E.
    Tannerella forsythia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in subgingival bacterial samples from parous women.2008In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 79, no 3, p. 508-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Information on the subgingival microbiota in parous women is limited. The present study assessed 74 bacterial species at periodontal sites.

    METHODS: Subgingival bacterial plaque was collected from women > or =6 months after delivery. Bacteria were assessed by the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method. Gingivitis was defined as > or =20% of sites with bleeding on probing (BOP), and periodontitis was defined as radiographic evidence of bone loss and probing depths > or =5.0 mm.

    RESULTS: A total of 197 women (mean age: 29.4 +/- 6.8 years; range: 18 to 46 years) were included in the study. Gingivitis was identified in 82 of 138 subjects without evidence of periodontitis (59.4%). Periodontitis was found in 59 women (32%). Higher bacterial levels in subjects with gingivitis compared to those without evidence of gingivitis were observed for Actinomyces neuii, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Corynebacterium pseudogenitalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Prevotella bivia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P <0.001 for each). Higher bacterial levels in subjects with periodontitis compared to those without periodontitis (BOP not accounted for) were found for 32 of 79 species (P <0.001) including Lactobacillus iners, Haemophilus influenzae, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia (previously T. forsythensis), Prevotella bivia, P. aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. Binary univariate logistic regression analysis identified that P. aeruginosa (P <0.001) and T. forsythia (P <0.05) were independently predictive of periodontal status. The odds ratio of having P. aeruginosa at levels > or =1 x 10(5) in the sample and periodontitis was 3.1 (95% confidence interval: 1.6 to 5.9; P <0.001).

    CONCLUSION: In addition to P. gingivalis and T. forsythia, a diverse microbiota, including P. aeruginosa, P. endodontalis, P. bivia, and S. aureus, can be found in subgingival plaque samples from women of child-bearing age with periodontitis.

  • 10.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    et al.
    Department of Periodontics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
    Persson, Rigmor E
    Department of Oral Medicine, University of Washington.
    Hollender, Lars G
    Department of Oral Medicine, University of Washington.
    Kiyak, H Asuman
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Washington.
    The impact of ethnicity, gender, and marital status on periodontal and systemic health of older subjects in the Trials to Enhance Elders' Teeth and Oral Health (TEETH).2004In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 75, no 6, p. 817-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the association between periodontitis risk, gender, and marital status in older adults. The purpose of this study was to assess if the oral health status of older subjects could be explained by differences in: 1) marital status; 2) gender; and 3) ethnicity.

    METHODS: Clinical and radiographic periodontal oral conditions were studied in 701 older subjects from the TEETH clinical trial. Medical conditions as well as ethnic and marital status and smoking habits were considered.

    RESULTS: A total of 89 married couples were identified; 40.7% of these were of European descent and 48.1% of Chinese descent. The mean age was 67.7 years (SD +/- 4.7). The men were older than the women (mean difference: 1.5 years, SD +/- 4.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5 to 2.5, P<0.01). No significant differences in periodontal conditions were found between spouses or by marital status. Chinese descent was associated with a higher risk for periodontitis, regardless of marital status (odds ratio: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.05 to 2.04, P<0.03).

    CONCLUSIONS: 1) Married couples have similar social habits, similar oral health perceptions, and similar patterns of periodontal disease. 2) Dental studies including married couples do not bias data for married subjects as such. 3) Marital status has a limited impact on periodontal health but may have a greater impact on several systemic conditions, especially in widowed, divorced, or never married women. 4) Older Chinese subjects perceive themselves as being at lower risk for periodontitis but have more objective signs of periodontitis than older subjects of European descent.

  • 11.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Roos-Jansåker, Ann-Marie
    Department of Periodontology, Public Dental Health Service, Kristianstad.
    Lindahl, Christel
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Microbiologic results after non-surgical erbium-doped yttrium, aluminum, and garnet laser or air-abrasive treatment of peri-implantitis2011In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 82, no 9, p. 1267-1278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The purpose of this study is to assess clinical and microbiologic effects of the non-surgical treatment of peri-implantitis lesions using either an erbium-doped: yttrium, aluminum, and garnet (Er:YAG) laser or an air-abrasive subgingival polishing method. Methods: In a 6-month clinical trial, 42 patients with peri-implantitis were treated at one time with an Er: YAG laser or an air-abrasive device. Routine clinical methods were used to monitor clinical conditions. Baseline and 6-month intraoral radiographs were assessed with a software program. The checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method was used to assess 74 bacterial species from the site with the deepest probing depth (PD) at the implant. Non-parametric tests were applied to microbiology data. Results: PD reductions (mean +/- SD) were 0.9 +/- 0.8 mm and 0.8 +/- 0.5 mm in the laser and air-abrasive groups, respectively (not significant). No baseline differences in bacterial counts between groups were found. In the air-abrasive group, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus anaerobius were found at lower counts at 1 month after therapy (P<0.001) and with lower counts in the laser group for Fusobacterium nucleatum naviforme (P=0.002), and Fusobacterium nucleatum nucleatum (P=0.002). Both treatments failed to reduce bacterial counts at 6 months. Porphyromonas gingivalis counts were higher in cases with progressive peri-implantitis (P<0.001). Conclusions: At 1 month, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and S. anaerobius were reduced in the air-abrasive group, and Fusobacterium spp. were reduced in the laser group. Six-month data demonstrated that both methods failed to reduce bacterial counts. Clinical improvements were limited.

  • 12.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    et al.
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Washington, Seattle, WA & University of Washington.
    Weibel, Marianne
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Hirschi, Regula
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Katsoulis, Joannis
    University of Bern.
    Similarities in the subgingival microbiota assessed by a curet sampling method at sites with chronic periodontitis.2008In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 79, no 12, p. 2290-2296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to determine whether site-specific differences in the subgingival microbiota could be detected by the checkerboard method in subjects with periodontitis.

    METHODS: Subjects with at least six periodontal pockets with a probing depth (PD) between 5 and 7 mm were enrolled in the study. Subgingival plaque samples were collected with sterile curets by a single-stroke procedure at six selected periodontal sites from 161 subjects (966 subgingival sites). Subgingival bacterial samples were assayed with the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method identifying 37 species.

    RESULTS: Probing depths of 5, 6, and 7 mm were found at 50% (n = 483), 34% (n = 328), and 16% (n = 155) of sites, respectively. Statistical analysis failed to demonstrate differences in the sum of bacterial counts by tooth type (P = 0.18) or specific location of the sample (P = 0.78). With the exceptions of Campylobacter gracilis (P <0.001) and Actinomyces naeslundii (P <0.001), analysis by general linear model multivariate regression failed to identify subject or sample location factors as explanatory to microbiologic results. A trend of difference in bacterial load by tooth type was found for Prevotella nigrescens (P <0.01). At a cutoff level of > or = 1.0 x 10(5), Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia (previously T. forsythensis) were present at 48.0% to 56.3% and 46.0% to 51.2% of sampled sites, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Given the similarities in the clinical evidence of periodontitis, the presence and levels of 37 species commonly studied in periodontitis are similar, with no differences between molar, premolar, and incisor/cuspid subgingival sites. This may facilitate microbiologic sampling strategies in subjects during periodontal therapy.

  • 13.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    et al.
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Yeates, Justin
    Persson, Rigmor E
    Hirschi-Imfeld, Regula
    Weibel, Marianne
    Kiyak, H Asuman
    The impact of a low-frequency chlorhexidine rinsing schedule on the subgingival microbiota (the TEETH clinical trial).2007In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 78, no 9, p. 1751-1758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Information on the efficacy of chlorhexidine (CHX) rinsing on the subgingival microbiota is limited. This study tested if intermittent CHX rinsing over 5 years had an impact on the subgingival microbiota.

    METHODS: Subgingival plaque samples were analyzed by the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method in a double-blind randomized CHX rinse study.

    RESULTS: A total of 210 subjects were included. The mean age of the subjects was 71.7 (+/- 4.1) years, and 56.2% were women. Evidence of alveolar bone loss was found in 39% of subjects. Bacterial loads were not correlated significantly with probing depth. At year 5, subjects in the CHX rinse group with no evidence of bone loss presented with lower total bacterial counts than control subjects with no bone loss. The levels of the following bacteria were significantly lower in the CHX group: Lactobacillus acidophilus (P <0.05), Eikenella corrodens (P <0.05), Fusobacterium nucleatum sp. nucleatum (P <0.01), Treponema denticola (P <0.05), Leptotrichia buccalis (P <0.05), and Eubacterium saburreum (P <0.05). No differences in bacterial loads were found between CHX and control rinse subjects with alveolar bone loss.

    CONCLUSIONS: Older subjects with or without periodontitis carry a large variety of bacteria associated with periodontitis. Intermittent rinsing with CHX may provide a preventive benefit in reducing levels of bacteria but only in subjects without alveolar bone loss.

  • 14.
    Renvert, Stefan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lessem, Jan
    Clinstrat, Newtown, PA USA.
    Dahlén, Gunnar
    University of Gothenburg.
    Renvert, Helena
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lindahl, Christel
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Mechanical and repeated antimicrobial therapy using a local drug delivery system in the treatment of peri-implantitis: a randomized clinical trial2008In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 79, no 5, p. 836-844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory process caused by microorganisms affecting the tissues around an osseointegrated implant in function, resulting in a loss of supporting bone. Limited data exist regarding the treatment of peri-implantitis. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and microbiologic outcome of repeated local administration of minocycline microspheres, 1 mg, in cases of peri-implantitis. METHODS: Thirty-two subjects with at least one implant with a probing depth > or =4 mm combined with bleeding and/or exudate on probing and the presence of putative pathogenic bacteria were included in the study. At baseline, subjects were randomly assigned to receive local minocycline microspheres (17 subjects and 57 implants) or chlorhexidine gel (15 subjects and 38 implants) following debridement. Treatments were performed on three occasions: baseline and days 30 and 90. Follow-up examinations were conducted at 10 days and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. RESULTS: The use of minocycline resulted in significant improvements in probing depths compared to chlorhexidine at days 30, 90, and 180 (P = 0.5, P = 0.01, and P = 0.04, respectively). For the deepest sites of the minocycline-treated implants, the mean probing depth reduction was 0.6 mm at 12 months. Regarding bleeding on probing, significant differences between groups, based on all four sites at the implants, were found at days 30, 90, 180, 270, and 360. Both treatments resulted in a marked reduction in the indicator bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: The use of a repeated local antibiotic as an adjunct to the mechanical treatment of peri-implantitis lesions demonstrated improvements in probing depths that were significantly different from controls and were sustained for 6 months. The adjunctive use of minocycline microspheres is beneficial in the treatment of peri-implant lesions, but the treatment may have to be repeated.

  • 15.
    Renvert, Stefan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Lindahl, Christel
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Roos-Jansaker, Ann-Marie
    Department of Periodontology, Public Dental Health Service, Kristianstad.
    Lessem, Jan
    CombinatoRx, USA.
    Short-term effects of an anti-inflammatory treatment on clinical parameters and serum levels of C-reactive protein and proinflammatory cytokines in subjects with periodontitis2009In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 80, no 6, p. 892-900Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Periodontal disease is the most common multifactorial disease, afflicting a very large proportion of the adult population. Periodontal disease secondarily causes increases in the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and other markers of inflammation. An increased level of CRP reflects an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. The aim of the current randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the short-term effect of a combination of dipyridamole and prednisolone (CRx-102) on the levels of high-sensitivity (hs)-CRP, proinflammatory markers in blood, and clinical signs of periodontal disease. Methods: Fifty-seven patients with >= 10 pockets with probing depths >= 5 mm were randomized into two groups in this masked single-center placebo-controlled study: CRx-102 (n = 28) and placebo (n = 29). hs-CRP levels, inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-6, -1 beta, -8, and -12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma [IFN-gamma]), bleeding on probing (BOP), and changes in probing depths were evaluated. The subjects received mechanical non-surgical therapy after 42 days, and the study was completed after 49 days. Results: At day 42, the differences in the hs-CRP, IFN-gamma, and IL-6 levels between the two groups were statistically significant (P<0.05), whereas no difference was found for the other inflammatory markers. There was no change in probing depth or BOP between the two groups. Conclusion: The administration of CRx-102 resulted in significant decreases in hs-CRP, IFN-gamma, and IL-6, but it did not significantly change BOP or probing depths.

  • 16.
    Renvert, Stefan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Ohlsson, Ola
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Pettersson, Thomas
    Department of Medicine, Kristianstad Central Hospital.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    Department of Periodontology, University of Bern.
    Periodontitis: a future risk of acute coronary syndrome?: A follow-up study over 3 years2010In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 81, no 7, p. 992-1000Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Periodontitis has been associated with cardiovascular disease. We assess if the recurrence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) could be predicted by preceding medical and periodontal conditions. Methods: A total of 165 consecutive subjects with ACS and 159 medically healthy, matched control subjects were examined and followed for 3 years. Periodontitis was defined by alveolar bone loss. Subgingival microbial samples were studied by the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method. Results: The recurrence of ACS was found in 66 of 165 (40.0%) subjects, and a first ACS event was found in seven of 159 (4.4%) subjects among baseline control subjects. Subjects who later had a second ACS event were older (P<0.001). Significantly higher serum levels of high-density lipoprotein (P <0.05), creatinine (P <0.01), and white blood cell (WBC) counts (P <0.001) were found in subjects with future ACS. Periodontitis was associated with a first event of ACS (crude odds ratio [OR]: 10.3:1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.1 to 17.4; P <0.001) and the recurrence of ACS (crude OR: 3.6:1; 95% CI: 2.0 to 6.6; P <0.001). General linear modeling multivariate analysis, controlling for age and the prediction of a future ACS event, identified that WBC counts (F = 20.6; P <0.001), periodontitis (F = 17.6; P <0.001), and serum creatinine counts (F = 4.5; P<0.05) were explanatory of a future ACS event. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that recurrent ACS events are predicted by serum WBC counts, serum creatinine levels, and a diagnosis of periodontitis. Significantly higher counts of putative pathogens are found in subjects with ACS, but these counts do not predict future ACS events.

  • 17.
    Renvert, Stefan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet.
    Persson, Rigmor E
    Departments of Oral Medicine and Periodontics, School of Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet.
    Tooth loss and periodontitis in older individuals: results from the Swedish national study on aging and care2013In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 84, no 8, p. 1134-1144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Due to the increasing number of older people, there is a need for studies focused on this population. The aims of the present study are to assess oral and systemic conditions in individuals aged 60 to 95 years with access to dental insurance. Methods: Probing depths (PDs), tooth loss, alveolar bone levels, and systemic health were studied among a representative cohort of older individuals. Results: A total of 1,147 individuals in young-old (aged 60 or 67 years), old (aged 72 or 78 years), and old-old (aged ≥81 years) age groups were enrolled, including 200 individuals who were edentulous, in this study. Annual dental care was received by 82% of dentate individuals. Systemic diseases were common (diabetes: 5.8%; cardiovascular diseases: 20.7%; obesity: 71.2%; elevated C-reactive protein [CRP]: 98.4%). Serum CRP values were unrelated to periodontal conditions. Rates of periodontitis, defined as ≥30% of sites with a distance from cemento-enamel junction to bone of ≥5 mm, were 11.2% in women in the young-old age group and 44.9% in men in the old-old age group. Individuals in older age groups had a higher likelihood of periodontitis defined by bone loss and cutoff levels of PD ≥5 mm (odds ratio: 1.8; 95% confidence interval: 1.2 to 2.5; P <0.01). A total of 7% of individuals in the old-old age group had ≥20 teeth and no periodontitis. Systemic diseases, dental use, or smoking were not explanatory, whereas age and sex were explanatory for periodontitis. Conclusions: The prevalence of periodontitis increased with age. Sex seems to be the dominant explanatory factor for periodontitis in older individuals. Despite frequent dental visits, overall oral health in the oldest age cohort was poor.

  • 18.
    Renvert, Stefan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Pettersson, Thomas
    Department of Medicine, Central Hospital, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, Ola
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Bacterial profile and burden of periodontal infection in subjects with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome.2006In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 77, no 7, p. 1110-1119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Periodontitis has been identified as a potential risk factor in cardiovascular diseases. It is possible that the stimulation of host responses to oral infections may result in vascular damage and the inducement of blood clotting. The aim of this study was to assess the role of periodontal infection and bacterial burden as an explanatory variable to the activation of the inflammatory process leading to acute coronary syndrome (ACS).

    METHODS: A total of 161 consecutive surviving cases admitted with a diagnosis of ACS and 161 control subjects, matched with cases according to their gender, socioeconomic level, and smoking status, were studied. Serum white blood cell (WBC) counts, high- and low-density lipoprotein (HDL/LDL) levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsC-rp) levels, and clinical periodontal routine parameters were studied. The subgingival pathogens were assayed by the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method.

    RESULTS: Total oral bacterial load was higher in the subjects with ACS (mean difference: 17.4x10(5); SD: 10.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.2 to 17.4; P<0.001), and significant for 26 of 40 species including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythensis, and Treponema denticola. Serum WBC counts, hsC-rp levels, Streptococcus intermedius, and Streptococcus sanguis, were explanatory factors to acute coronary syndrome status (Nagelkerke r2=0.49).

    CONCLUSION: The oral bacterial load of S. intermedius, S. sanguis, Streptococcus anginosus, T. forsythensis, T. denticola, and P. gingivalis may be concomitant risk factors in the development of ACS.

  • 19.
    Sofrata, Abier H.
    et al.
    Periodontology Department, Institute of Odontology, Karolinska Institute.
    Claesson, Rolf L.K.
    Division of Oral Microbiology, Department of Odontology, Umeå University.
    Lingström, Peter K.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Anders K.
    Periodontology Department, Institute of Odontology, Karolinska Institute.
    Strong antibacterial effect of miswak against oral microorganisms associated with periodontitis and caries2008In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 79, no 8, p. 1474-1479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The chewing stick (miswak) is used for oral hygiene in many parts of the world. In addition to the mechanical removal of plaque, an antibacterial effect has been postulated; however, tests of miswak extract from Salvadora persica (Arak) disclosed only low to moderate antibacterial effects. This may be attributable to the extraction process. Our aim was to test in vitro the antibacterial effect of miswak pieces, without extraction, on bacteria implicated in the etiology of periodontitis and caries. METHODS: Miswak pieces were standardized by size and weight (0.07 and 0.14 g) and tested against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (previously Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans), Porphyromonas gingivalis, and, as a reference, Haemophilus influenzae. The miswak pieces were tested in two ways: embedded in the agar plate or suspended above the agar plate. RESULTS: The inhibitory effect was most pronounced on P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and H. influenzae, less on S. mutans, and least on L. acidophilus. Suspended miswak had comparable or stronger effects than miswak embedded in agar. The 0.14-g suspended miswak exhibited significantly greater inhibition on A. actinomycetemcomitans and H. influenzae than the 0.14-g miswak embedded in agar (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Miswak embedded in agar or suspended above the agar plate had strong antibacterial effects against all bacteria tested. The antibacterial effect of suspended miswak pieces suggests the presence of volatile active antibacterial compounds.

  • 20. Swoboda, Jessica R
    et al.
    Kiyak, H Asuman
    Darveau, Richard
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Correlates of periodontal decline and biologic markers in older adults.2008In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 79, no 10, p. 1920-1926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There is limited information on infectious and host responses distinguishing older people with or without active periodontitis. This study measured bacterial and serum cytokine and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels in older persons.

    METHODS: Elders (mean age: 67 years), whose periodontal status had declined most or least (20% worst or 20% best) over 5 years, were enrolled. Two years later, they were classified as periodontally declining (active periodontitis [AP]), if they had at least five teeth with probing depth (PD) > or =5 mm, or stable (stable periodontally [SP]), if they did not. Groups were compared with respect to demographics, PD, clinical loss of attachment, subgingival bacteria, serum hsCRP, interleukin (IL)-1beta and -6, and chronic diseases.

    RESULTS: Ten AP and 24 SP subjects were identified; 13% of women and 44% of men from the original sample were in the AP group (P <0.05). Most Asians were SP; most whites and all African Americans were classified as having AP (P <0.01). More AP elders had osteoporosis (P <0.01), but the AP and SP groups did not differ with respect to IL-1beta and -6 or hsCRP. Bacterial counts were higher in the AP group for Parvimonas micra (previously Peptostreptococcus micros or Micromonas micros) (7.7 x 10(5) cells versus 3.8 x 10(5) cells; P <0.05), Prevotella intermedia (25.7 x 10(5) cells versus 9.8 x 10(5) cells; P <0.01), Tannerella forsythia (previously T. forsythensis) (16.2 x 10(5) cells versus 8.0 x 10(5) cells; P <0.05), and Streptococcus mutans (6.2 x 10(5) cells versus 2.0 x 10(5) cells; P <0.01). Three risk factors were most predictive of periodontal decline: PD, osteoporosis, and being white or African American.

    CONCLUSION: Periodontal decline was associated with osteoporosis, ethnicity, PD, gender, serum hsCRP, and levels of four bacterial species.

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