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  • 1.
    Ademovski, Seida Erovic
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL).
    Mårtensson, Carina
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL). Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL).
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL).
    The effect of periodontal therapy on intra-oral halitosis: a case series2016In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 43, no 5, 445-452 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of non-surgical periodontal therapy on intra-oral halitosis 3months after therapy. Material and methods: Sixty-eight adults with intra-oral halitosis were included in a case series. Intra-oral halitosis was evaluated at baseline, and at 3months after treatment using the organoleptic scores (OLS), Halimeter (R), and a gas chromatograph. Results: Significant reductions for OLS (p<0.01), total sum of volatile sulphur compounds (T-VSC) (p<0.01) and methyl mercaptan (MM) (p<0.05) values were found after treatment. Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) levels were not significantly reduced. The numbers of probing pockets 4mm, 5mm and 6mm were significantly reduced as a result of therapy (p<0.001). Bleeding on probing (BOP) and plaque indices were also significantly reduced (p<0.001). For the 34 individuals with successful periodontal treatment (BOP<20% and a 50% reduction of total pocket depth) reductions in OLS (p<0.01) and T-VSC scores (p<0.01) were found. Eleven individuals were considered effectively treated for intra-oral halitosis presenting with a T-VSC value <160ppb, a H2S value <112ppb and a MM value <26ppb. Conclusion: Non-surgical periodontal therapy resulted in reduction of OLS, MM and T-VSC values 3months after therapy. Few individuals were considered as effectively treated for intra-oral halitosis.

  • 2.
    Aghazadeh, Ahmad
    et al.
    Uppsala Käkkirurgiska Centrum.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    A single-center randomized controlled clinical trial on the adjunct treatment of intra-bony defects with autogenous bone or a xenograft: results after 12 months2012In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 39, no 7, 666-673 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Limited evidence exists on the efficacy of regenerative treatment of peri-implantitis Materials and methods Subjects receiving antibiotics and surgical debridement were randomly assigned to placement of autogenous bone (AB) or bovine derived xenograft (BDX) with placement of a collagen membrane. The primary outcome was: evidence of radiographic bone fill and the secondary outcomes included reductions of probing depth (PD) bleeding on probing (BOP) and suppuration. Results 22 subjects were included in the AB and 23 subjects in the BDX group. Statistical analysis failed to demonstrate differences for 38/39 variables assessed at baseline. At 12 months, significant better results were obtained in the BDX group for bone levels (p < 0.001), BOP (p = 0.004), PI (p = 0.003), and suppuration (p < 0.01). When adjusting for number of implants treated per subject, a successful treatment outcome PD≤ 5.0 mm, no pus, no bone loss and BOP at 1/4 sites the likelihood of defect fill was higher in the BDX group (LR: 3.2, 95 % CI: 1.0 to 10.6, p < 0.05). Conclusions Bovine xenograft provided more radiographic bone fill than autogenous bone. The success for both surgical regenerative procedures was limited. Decreases in PD, BOP, and suppuration were observed.

  • 3. Chung, Whasun O
    et al.
    Gabany, Joseph
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Roberts, Marilyn C
    Distribution of erm(F) and tet(Q) genes in 4 oral bacterial species and genotypic variation between resistant and susceptible isolates.2002In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 29, no 2, 152-158 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Bacteroides forsythus, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia are Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria that are currently considered potential periopathogens. Prevotella nigrescens has recently been separated from P. intermedia and its rôle in periodontitis is unknown. The erm(F) gene codes for an rRNA methylase, conferring resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramin B (MLSB), and the tet(Q) gene for a ribosomal protection protein, conferring resistance to tetracycline. The presence of these resistance genes could impair the use of antibiotics for therapy.

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the carriage of erm(F) and tet(Q), and genetic variability of 12 Porphyromonas gingivalis, 10 Prevotella intermedia, 25 Prevotella nigrescens and 17 Bacteroides forsythus isolates from 9 different patient samples.

    METHODS: We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting antibiotic resistance genes, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for detecting genetic variability among the isolates.

    RESULTS: Thirty-one (48%) isolates were resistant to both erythromycin and tetracycline and carried the erm(F) and tet(Q) genes, eight (13%) were tetracycline resistant and carried the tet(Q) gene, 9 (14%) were erythromycin resistant and carried the erm(F) gene, and 12 (19%) isolates did not carry antibiotic resistance genes. PFGE was used to compare isolates from the same patient and isolates from different patient samples digested with XbaI. No association was found between antibiotic resistance gene carriage and PFGE patterns in any species examined. All isolates of the same species from the same patient had highly related or identical PFGE patterns. Isolates of same species from different patients had unique PFGE pattern for each species tested.

    CONCLUSION: All isolates of the same species from any one patient were genetically related to each other but distinct from isolates from other patients, and 66% of the patients carried antibiotic resistant isolates, which could impair antibiotic therapy.

  • 4.
    Claffey, Noel
    et al.
    School of Dental Sciences, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.
    Clarke, Emily
    School of Dental Sciences, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.
    Polyzois, Ioannis
    School of Dental Sciences, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Surgical treatment of peri-implantitis2008In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 35, no 8 Suppl, 316-32 p.Article, review/survey (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To review the literature on surgical treatment of peri-implantitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A search of PubMed and as well as a hand search of articles were conducted. Publications and articles accepted for publication up to November 2007 were included. RESULTS: A total of 43 studies were selected for the review. Only 13 of these were studies in humans and only one study directly addressed disease resolution. Thus the available evidence for surgical treatment of peri-implantitis is extremely limited. ANIMAL STUDIES: Re-osseointegration can occur on previously contaminated surfaces. The surface characteristics are decisive for regeneration and re-osseointegration. No single surface decontamination method appears to be distinctly superior. Open debridement with surface decontamination can achieve resolution. HUMAN STUDIES: Access surgery has been investigated in one study demonstrating that resolution occurred in 58% of the lesions. No single method of surface decontamination (chemical agents, air abrasives and lasers) was found to be superior. The use of regenerative procedures such as bone graft techniques with or without the use of barrier membranes has been reported with various degrees of success. However, it must be stressed that such techniques do not address disease resolution but rather merely attempt to fill the osseous defect.

  • 5.
    Duncan, W J
    et al.
    University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Sims, T J
    University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Braham, P
    University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Pack, A R C
    University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Page, R C
    University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Ovine periodontitis as a potential model for periodontal studies. Cross-sectional analysis of clinical, microbiological, and serum immunological parameters.2003In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 30, no 1, 63-72 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: : To investigate infection and host immunity patterns in sheep with naturally occurring "broken-mouth" periodontitis.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: : Eight periodontally healthy (HS) and eight periodontally diseased ewes (PDS) were selected. Subgingival plaque and sera were collected and examined for evidence of human periodontitis-associated pathogens. Serum IgG titers were measured by ELISA to multiple strains of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteroides forsythus, Dichelobacter nodosus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum as well as several purified antigens (cysteine proteases, LPS, K, and fimbriae).

    RESULTS: : Neither the organism Aa nor antigens to Aa were found in any animal. Most animals were positive for Pg, Bf, and Pi, but DNA probes detected no difference between HS and PDS relative to amounts of pathogens in subgingival plaque. PDS had significantly higher serum IgG titers to all Pg strains, to 50% of Bf strains, to the Pi and Fn strains, and to fimbriae and the two cysteine proteases (p-values ranging from 0.05 to 0.001). Regression analysis demonstrated a significant association between number of teeth lost and serum IgG antibody titers to whole-cell sonicate antigens of P. gingivalis strains (p<0.01) and body weight (p<0.01).

    CONCLUSIONS: : The presence of pathogens associated with periodontitis was reflected in differences in serum IgG titers between healthy and diseased sheep. This may have influenced animal body weight and might have systemic health and economic consequences. The data suggest that susceptible and non-susceptible sheep can be identified for periodontal research.

  • 6.
    Duss, Christof
    et al.
    Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Berne.
    Lang, Niklaus P.
    Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Berne.
    Cosyn, Jan
    Department of Dentistry, University of Ghent.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    A randomized, controlled clinical trial on the clinical, microbiological, and staining effects of a novel 0.05% chlorhexidine/herbal extract and a 0.1% chlorhexidine mouthrinse adjunct to periodontal surgery2010In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 37, no 11, 988-997 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Chlorhexidine (CHX) rinsing after periodontal surgery is common. We assessed the clinical and microbiological effects of two CHX concentrations following periodontal surgery. Materials and methods In a randomized, controlled clinical trial, 45 subjects were assigned to 4 weeks rinsing with a 0.05 CHX/herbal extract combination (test) or a 0.1% CHX solution. Clinical and staining effects were studied. Subgingival bacteria were assessed using the DNA-DNA checkerboard. Statistics included parametric and non-parametric tests (p < 0001 to declare significance at 80% power). Results At weeks 4 and 12, more staining was found in the control group (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). A higher risk for staining was found in the control group (crude OR: 2.3:1, 95% CI: 1.3 to 4.4, p < 0.01). The absolute staining reduction in the test group was 21.1% (9 5% CI: 9.4-32.8%). Probing pocket depth (PPD) decreases were significant (p < 0.001) in both groups and similar (p=0.92). No rinse group differences in changes of bacterial counts for any species were found between baseline and week 12. Conclusions The test CHX rinse resulted in less tooth staining. At the study endpoint, similar and high counts of periodontal pathogens were found.

  • 7. Dörtbudak, Orhun
    et al.
    Eberhardt, Rita
    Ulm, Martin
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Bern, Switzerland & University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Periodontitis, a marker of risk in pregnancy for preterm birth.2005In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 32, no 1, 45-52 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Why chronic periodontitis may induce an inflammatory response with premature pregnancy termination is unclear.

    AIMS: (1) To assess if periodontitis predicts premature gestation; (2) to study amniotic fluid cytokines and periodontitis variables in early-stage pregnancy.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: A periodontal examination and collection of amniotic fluid was performed (weeks 15-20) of pregnancy in 36 women at risk for pregnancy complications. Amniotic fluid (bacteria), vaginal smears and intra-oral plaque samples were studied. Cytokine levels in amniotic fluid were studied in relation to other study variables.

    RESULTS: Periodontitis was diagnosed in 20% of normal and in 83% of preterm birth cases (p<0.01). Bacteria were never found in the amniotic fluids studied. Sub-gingival plaque samples including bacteria in the orange and red complexes were found in 18% of full-term 100% of preterm cases (p<0.001) and total colony-forming units (CFUs) were higher in preterm birth (p<0.01). Amniotic levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) were higher in preterm cases (p<0.001). Amniotic IL-6 (r=0.56, p<0.01) and PGE2 (r=0.50, p<0.01) cytokine levels were correlated with CFU from sub-gingival plaque samples (r2=0.44). The odds ratio of preterm delivery and having periodontitis was 20.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0-201.7, p<0.01). The odds of >60 CFU in sub-gingival plaque and preterm birth was 32.5:1 (95% CI: 3.0-335.1, p<01).

    CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women with findings of elevated amniotic fluid levels of PGE2, IL-6 and IL-8 in the 15-20 weeks of pregnancy and with periodontitis are at high risk for premature birth. The implication of this is that periodontitis can induce a primary host response in the chorioamnion leading to preterm birth.

  • 8.
    Hallström, Hadar
    et al.
    Department of Periodontology, Maxillofacial Unit, Hospital of Halland, Halmstad.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Lindgren, Susann
    Department of Periodontology, Maxillofacial Unit, Hospital of Halland, Halmstad.
    Olofsson, Maria
    Department of Periodontology, Maxillofacial Unit, Hospital of Halland, Halmstad.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Systemic antibiotics and debridement of peri-implant mucositis: a randomized clinical trial2012In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 39, no 6, 574-581 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background This RCT compared non-surgical treatment of peri-implant mucositis with or without systemic antibiotics. Materials and Methods Forty-eight subjects received non-surgical debridement with or without systemic Azithromax ® (4 days), and were followed during 6 months. The checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method was used to analyse the microbiological material. Results Five subjects were excluded due to antibiotic medication during follow-up. At baseline,1 and 3 months no group differences were found. Statistical analysis failed to demonstrate differences in probing pocket depths (PPD) values at 6 months (Mean diff PPD: 0.5 mm, SE: ±0.4 mm, 95% CI: −0.2, 1.3, p = 0.16). Mean% implant bleeding decreased between baseline and month 6 from 82.6% to 27.3% in the test, and from 80.0% to 47.5% in the control group (p < 0.02). Throughout the study, no study group differences in bacterial counts were found. Conclusion No short-term differences were found between study groups. The clinical improvements observed at 6 months may be attributed to improvements in oral hygiene. The present study does not provide evidence for the use of systemic antibiotics in treatment of peri-implant mucositis.

  • 9.
    Hallström, Hadar
    et al.
    Malmö University.
    Persson, Rutger G
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL).
    Lindgren, Susann
    Halland's hospital.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL).
    Open flap debridement of peri-implantitis with or without adjunctive systemic antibiotics: a randomized clinical trial.2017In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 44, no 12, 1285-1293 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: To investigate clinical, radiographic and microbiological outcome over 12 months following open flap debridement of peri-implantitis with or without antibiotics.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peri-implantitis was surgically treated with or without Zithromax(®) in 19 control and 20 test individuals. Probing pocket depth (PPD), gingival inflammation (BOP), intra-oral radiographs and microbial samples were studied. Per protocol, and intent to treat analyzes were performed.

    RESULTS: The mean difference (reduction) in PPD values between baseline and month 12 in the test and control groups were: 1.7 mm (SD ± 1.1, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.3, p < 0.001), and 1.6 mm (SD ± 1.5, 95% CI: 0.8, 2,4, p < 0.001), respectively. Data analysis failed to show study group differences for BOP, PPD, radiographic bone level, and microbial load. Succesful treatment (per protocol: PPD≤ 5 mm, no BOP, no suppuration and no bone loss ≥ 0.5 mm) at 12 months in test and control groups were 7/15 (46.7%), and 4/16 (25.0%). Bacterial load reduction was similar in study groups with a temporary reduction following treatment.

    CONCLUSIONS: Surgical treatment of peri-implantitis with adjunctive systemic azithromycin did not provide one-year clinical benefits in comparison to those only receiving open flap debridement. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Isehed, Catrine
    et al.
    Umeå university.
    Holmlund, Anders
    Uppsala university.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL).
    Svenson, Björn
    Örebro university.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå university.
    Lundberg, Pernilla
    Umeå university.
    Effectiveness of enamel matrix derivative on the clinical and microbiological outcomes following surgical regenerative treatment of peri-implantitis: a randomized controlled trial2016In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 43, no 10, 863-873 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: This randomized clinical trial aimed at comparing radiological, clinical and microbial effects of surgical treatment of peri-implantitis alone or in combination with enamel matrix derivative (EMD).

    METHODS: Twenty-six subjects were treated with open flap debridement and decontamination of the implant surfaces with gauze and saline preceding adjunctive EMD or no EMD. Bone level (BL) change was primary outcome and secondary outcomes were changes in pocket depth (PD), plaque, pus, bleeding and the microbiota of the peri-implant biofilm analyzed by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray over a time period of 12 months.

    RESULTS: In multivariate modelling, increased marginal BL at implant site was significantly associated with EMD, the number of osseous walls in the peri-implant bone defect and a Gram+/aerobic microbial flora, whereas reduced BL was associated with a Gram-/anaerobic microbial flora and presence of bleeding and pus, with a cross-validated predictive capacity (Q(2) ) of 36.4%. Similar, but statistically non-significant, trends were seen for BL, PD, plaque, pus and bleeding in univariate analysis.

    CONCLUSION: Adjunctive EMD to surgical treatment of peri-implantitis was associated with prevalence of Gram+/aerobic bacteria during the follow-up period and increased marginal BL 12 months after treatment.

  • 11.
    Jannesson, Lillemor
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Birkhed, Dowen
    Scherl, Dale
    Gaffar, Abdul
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Effect of oxybenzone on PGE2-production in vitro and on plaque and gingivitis in vivo2004In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 31, no 2, 91-94 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of oxybenzone on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in cell culture and to evaluate the effect of an oxybenzone-containing dentifrice on plaque and gingivitis in a 6-week clinical trial.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Human embryo palatal mesenchyme (HEPM) cells were used for testing the inhibition of IL-1beta-stimulated PGE2-production in vitro by different concentrations of oxybenzone. For the in vivo study, a total of 66 individuals with a Quigley & Hein plaque index of at least 1.5 and an Ainamo & Bay gingival index of at least 0.2 were included in a double-blind clinical trial with two cells and a parallel design. Two compositions of fluoride dentifrice were used, one with the addition of 0.5% oxybenzone, and one without. Plaque and gingival index were obtained at three time points: (1) at baseline, (2) after 3 weeks, and (3) after 6 weeks.

    RESULTS: A dose-dependent inhibition of PGE2-production was found in the HEPM cell culture following oxybenzone exposure. In the clinical trial, a 25% reduction of gingival index was observed in the oxybenzone group (p<0.001) after 6 weeks as compared with 2% for the placebo group.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that PGE2-production is reduced by oxybenzone in vitro and that the use of oxybenzone in a dentifrice reduces gingivitis in vivo.

  • 12.
    Johannsen, Annsofi
    et al.
    Division of Periodontology, Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön PRO-CARE.
    Johannsen, Gunnar
    Department of Periodontology, Dana-Clinic, Stockholm.
    Dental implants from the patients perspective: transition from tooth loss, through amputation to implants – negative and positive trajectories2012In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 39, no 7, 681-687 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim The aim of this study was to explore patients' expectations on and experiences from dental implant treatment through deep-interview technique. Material & Methods A qualitative study design was chosen and 17 patients were interviewed by open-ended questions. All patients in the study had a previous history of periodontal disease with, in most cases, many years of treatment. The interviews were transcribed; a coding process was used according to qualitative conventional content analysis. Results In the analysis, a core category was identified as “Transition from tooth loss, to ‘Amputation’, and to implants – negative and positive trajectories”. When the patients faced the fact that it was not possible to keep the teeth any longer, a period of fear, shame and denial, which also affected their social life negatively followed. After they received their implants and the chewing ability and appearance became better, it also improved their quality of life. Conclusion Treatment with dental implants improved function, enhanced self-esteem, social life and, thus quality of life. In clinical practice, information about dental implants and motivational strategies are needed during the period before getting dental implants. Follow-up is important thereafter, capturing both the pros and cons with implants.

  • 13.
    Kamma, J J
    et al.
    University of Athens, Greece.
    Nakou, M
    University of Athens, Greece.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
    Association of early onset periodontitis microbiota with aspartate aminotransferase activity in gingival crevicular fluid.2001In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 28, no 12, 1096-1105 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the activity of the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) using the colorimetric PerioGard (PTM) test and the subgingival microflora in early onset periodontitis lesions.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 25 otherwise healthy individuals exhibiting early onset periodontitis (EOP). In each patient four experimental sites were identified comprising one deep periodontal pocket (PD >5 mm) randomly chosen in each quadrant. Bacterial samples were obtained from the experimental sites, consecutively cultured anaerobically and in 10% CO(2) using selective and nonselective media. Isolates were characterized to species level by conventional biochemical tests and various identification kits. Clinical measurements as well as AST activity, assessed either as positive or negative using the PTM, were recorded at the same sites.

    RESULTS: Sixty-two sites exhibited AST positive and 38 AST negative activity. Analysis of bacterial counts using the ANOVA (Mann Whitney U-test) showed that Streptococcus intermedius, Peptostreptococcus micros, Campylobacter concisus, Bacteroides forsythus, Camplobacter gracilis, Campylobacter rectus and Selenomonas sputigena were significantly higher in sites with AST-positive activity. The odds ratio of having high prevalence of S. intermedius, P. micros, C. concisus, B. forsythus, C. gracilis, C. rectus and S. sputigena in the presence of a positive AST site was very high (range: 3.5-17.0). Streptococcus sanguis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Gemella morbillorum, Capnocytophaga gingivalis, Veillonella parvula, Fusobacterium varium, Eubacterium lentum and Prevotella oralis were detected in significantly higher proportions in sites with AST negative activity and manifested a negative odds ratio in the presence of AST positive sites. The logistic regression analysis revealed that smoking and bleeding upon probing showed a significant association with AST activity, while plaque and suppuration were not found to be significant predictors of AST activity. The co-infection of Porphyromonas gingivalis, B. forsythus and P. micros, or P. gingivalis, B. forsythus and C. rectus were found to be significantly associated with the AST activity (p<0.001). AST positive sites revealed significantly higher occurrence of co-infections by P. gingivalis, B. forsythus, S. sputigena or by P. gingivalis, B. forsythus, S. intermedius than AST negative sites (p<0.001). P. gingivalis, B. forsythus, A. naeslundii co-infection was found significantly higher in the AST negative sites (p<0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: The present study found a high level of agreement between the presence of putative periodontal pathogens and positive AST scores at periodontal sites that clinically were considered to be potentially disease active. Prospective studies should be performed to confirm the findings.

  • 14. Katsoulis, Joannis
    et al.
    Lang, Niklaus P
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Proportional distribution of the red complex and its individual pathogens after sample storage using the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique.2005In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 32, no 6, 628-633 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Information on the impact of sample storage prior to analysis by DNA methods is limited.

    AIMS: To investigate the effect of microbial sample storage on bacterial detection and proportional distribution of the red complex and its individual pathogens.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Subgingival plaque samples were analysed by (1) immediate processing, (2) after storage at +4 degrees C for 6 weeks, (3) after storage at -20 degrees C for 6 months or (4) after storage at -20 degrees C for 12 months using the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization.

    RESULTS: Proportional distribution of the red complex did not differ between the first three protocols. However, the total bacterial DNA for pathogens studied decreased significantly in protocols 3 and 4. Relative amounts of Tannerella forsythensis, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola remained stable in the second protocols and changed in an unpredictable way if stored for 6 or 12 months.

    CONCLUSIONS: Results from samples stored for maximum 6 months at -20 degrees C with high proportional amounts of the red complex and T. denticola may be used as an indicator of persistence. All bacterial samples for DNA extraction should be processed following a standardized storage protocol (i.e. samples stored at +4 degrees C for maximum 6 weeks) in order to get comparable qualitative and quantitative results for total DNA, bacterial complexes and individual pathogens. Most representative results are yielded if processing and hybridization could be performed immediately after sampling.

  • 15. Lang, Niklaus P
    et al.
    Berglundh, Tord
    Abrahamsson, Ingemar
    Claffey, Noel
    De Bruyn, Hugo
    Donos, Nikolaus
    Heitz-Mayfield, Lisa J.A.
    Klinge, Björn
    Mombelli, Andrea
    Palmer, Richard M.
    Quirynen, Marc
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet.
    Salvi, Giovanni E.
    Schwarz, Frank
    Sculean, Anton
    Vignoletti, Fabio
    Zitzmann, Nicola U.
    Periimplant diseases: where are we now?--Consensus of the Seventh European Workshop on Periodontology.2011In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 38, no Suppl 11, 178-81 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Peri-implant diseases present in two forms - peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The literature was systematically searched and critically reviewed. Four manuscripts were produced in specific topics identified as key areas to understand the microbial aetiology and the pathogenesis of peri-implant diseases and how the implant surface structure may affect pathogenesis.

    RESULTS: While peri-implant mucositis represents the host response of the peri-implant tissues to the bacterial challenge that is not fundamentally different from gingivitis representing the host response to the bacterial challenge in the gingiva, peri-implantitis may differ from periodontitis both in the extent and the composition of cells in the lesion as well as the progression rate. A self-limiting process with a "protective" connective tissue capsule developing appears to dominate the periodontitis lesion while such a process may occasionally be lacking in peri-implantitis lesions. Bacterial biofilm formation on implant surfaces does not differ from that on tooth surfaces, but may be influenced by surface roughness. Nevertheless there is no evidence that such differences may influence the development of peri-implantitis.

    CONCLUSION: It was agreed that clinical and radiographic data should routinely be obtained after prosthesis installation on implants in order to establish a baseline for the diagnosis of peri-implantitis during maintenance of implant patients.

  • 16.
    Lindhe, Jan
    et al.
    Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Odontology, The Sahlgrenslea Academy at Göteborg University.
    Meyle, Joerg
    Department of Periodontology, Zentrum für Zahn-Mund-und Kieferheilkunde, Justus-Liebig-Universitätt Giessen.
    Zitzmann, N.U.
    Berglundh, T.
    Heitz-Mayfield, L.J.A.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Roos-Jansåker, Anne-Marie
    Clarke, E.
    Polyzois, I.
    Peri-implant diseases: consensus report of the Sixth European Workshop on Periodontology.2008In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 35, no 8 Suppl, 282-285 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Issues related to peri-implant disease were discussed. It was observed that the most common lesions that occur, i.e. peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis are caused by bacteria. While the lesion of peri-implant mucositis resides in the soft tissues, peri-implantitis also affects the supporting bone. Peri-implant mucositis occurs in about 80% of subjects (50% of sites) restored with implants, and peri-implantitis in between 28% and 56% of subjects (12-40% of sites). A number of risk indicators were identified including (i) poor oral hygiene, (ii) a history of periodontitis, (iii) diabetes and (iv) smoking. It was concluded that the treatment of peri-implant disease must include anti-infective measures. With respect to peri-implant mucositis, it appeared that non-surgical mechanical therapy caused the reduction in inflammation (bleeding on probing) but also that the adjunctive use of antimicrobial mouthrinses had a positive effect. It was agreed that the outcome of non-surgical treatment of peri-implantitis was unpredictable. The primary objective of surgical treatment in peri-implantitis is to get access to the implant surface for debridement and decontamination in order to achieve resolution of the inflammatory lesion. There was limited evidence that such treatment with the adjunctive use of systemic antibiotics could resolve a number of peri-implantitis lesions. There was no evidence that so-called regenerative procedures had additional beneficial effects on treatment outcome.

  • 17.
    Lundgren, Tord
    et al.
    Loma Linda University, California, USA.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Periodontal treatment of patients with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome: a 3-year follow-up2004In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 31, no 11, 933-938 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Conventional mechanical periodontal treatment of Papillon-Lefevre syndrome (PLS) has often been reported to fail. This study describes the outcome of a non-surgical periodontal therapy including antimicrobial treatment of nine patients diagnosed with PLS. The patients originate from a total of 15 children and adolescents with PLS for which clinical characteristics are presented.

    METHODS: Clinical examination including conventional periodontal measurements. Initial treatment including oral hygiene instruction, scaling and root planing and systemic amoxicillin-metronidazole therapy for 6 weeks. After that the patients were enrolled in a 3-month recall maintenance program. In addition to this mechanical supportive maintenance treatment, tetracycline was prescribed and used continuously for 1.5 years.

    RESULTS/CONCLUSION: On five patients who were showing acceptable standard of oral hygiene and also compliance with the antibiotic medication, development of periodontitis on erupting teeth was prevented and disease activity on the previously periodontally involved teeth controlled during a 3-year period. Poor results of treatment were observed for three patients, all siblings. These patients failed to comply with the medication and also failed to improve their oral hygiene.

  • 18.
    Moser, Peter
    et al.
    University of Berne, Switzerland.
    Hammerle, Christoph H F
    University of Berne, Switzerland.
    Lang, Niklaus P
    University of Berne, Switzerland.
    Schlegel-Bregenzer, Bettina
    University of Berne, Switzerland.
    Persson, Rutger
    Department of Periodontics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Maintenance of periodontal attachment levels in prosthetically treated patients with gingivitis or moderate chronic periodontitis 5-17 years post therapy.2002In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 29, no 6, 531-539 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The present retrospective analysis was performed to evaluate the long-term results of initial periodontal and fixed prosthodontic treatment in patients with gingivitis or moderate chronic periodontitis during post-therapeutic irregular maintenance of 5-17 years.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-four patients participated in the study. Baseline data were taken from the patients' records when the periodontal and the prosthetic treatment was finished. A follow-up examination was performed in conjunction with the radiographic examination including assessment of plaque, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth, recession and probing attachment loss. Information regarding the oral hygiene habits of the subjects as well as the amount of dental and initial therapy received between the observation time was obtained from the patients' records.

    RESULTS: The results from the clinical trial revealed that during the mean examination period of 11 years only 31 teeth were lost. The remaining restored and non-restored teeth did not show any significant differences in attachment loss (from 2.9 mm to 3.0 mm) in spite of a higher plaque value at the follow-up examination (from 42% to 48%). The BoP remained stable in the same time period and scored 31% to 28%.

    CONCLUSIONS: The periodontal attachment levels were maintained during a prolonged period despite irregular maintenance care. This indicates that in a population of obviously decreased susceptibility to chronic periodontitis, it is possible that fixed reconstructions will not - even under suboptimal supportive care - jeopardize the periodontal status.

  • 19.
    Mäntylä, Päivi
    et al.
    Institute of Dentistry, University of Helsinki.
    Buhlin, Kåre
    Institute of Dentistry, University of Helsinki.
    Paju, Susanna
    Institute of Dentistry, University of Helsinki.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet.
    Nieminen, Markku S.
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University.
    Sinisalo, Juha
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University.
    Pussinen, Pirkko J.
    Institute of Dentistry, University of Helsinki.
    Subgingival Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans associates with the risk of coronary artery disease2013In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 40, no 6, 583-590 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim We investigated the association between angiographically verified coronary artery disease (CAD) and subgingival Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola. Materials and Methods The cross-sectional study population (n = 445) comprised 171 (38.4%) patients with Stable CAD, 158 (35.5%) with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and 116 (26.1%) with no significant CAD (No CAD). All patients participated in clinical and radiological oral health examinations. Pooled subgingival bacterial samples were analysed by checkerboard DNA–DNA hybridization assays. Results In all study groups, the presence of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and T. denticola indicated a significant (p ≤ 0.001) linear association with the extent of alveolar bone loss (ABL), but A. actinomycetemcomitans did not (p = 0.074). With a threshold level of bacterial cells 1 × 105 A. actinomycetemcomitans was significantly more prevalent in the Stable CAD group (42.1%) compared to the No CAD group (30.2%) (p = 0.040). In a multi-adjusted logistic regression analysis using this threshold, A. actinomycetemcomitans positivity associated with Stable CAD (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.00–3.35, p = 0.049), but its level or levels of other bacteria did not. Conclusions The presence of subgingival A. actinomycetemcomitans associates with an almost twofold risk of Stable CAD independently of alveolar bone loss.

  • 20.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    et al.
    University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Persson, R E
    University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    MacEntee, C I
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Wyatt, C C I I
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Hollender, L G
    University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Kiyak, H A
    University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Periodontitis and perceived risk for periodontitis in elders with evidence of depression.2003In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 30, no 8, 691-6 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Depression and periodontitis are common conditions in older adults. There is some evidence that these two conditions may be related.

    AIMS: To study a population of dentate elders and assess the prevalence of depression, self-assessment of risk for periodontitis and tooth loss, in relation to periodontal disease status.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were obtained from 701 older subjects (mean age 67.2 years (SD+/-4.6), of whom 59.5% were women. Self-reports of a diagnosis of depression, scores of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and self-assessment of risk for future tooth loss and periodontitis were compared with a diagnosis of periodontitis based on probing depth, and bone loss assessed from panoramic radiographs. Other systemic diseases and smoking habits were also determined and studied in relation to depression.

    RESULTS: A history of depression was reported by 20% of the subjects. GDS scores >/=8 were reported by 9.8% of the elders. Periodontitis was identified in 48.5% of the subjects. Depression was associated with heart attack (p<0.05), stroke (p<0.01), high blood pressure (p<0.02), all combined cardiovascular diseases (p<0.001), chronic pain (p<0.01), osteoarthritis (p<0.001), and osteoporosis (p< 0.001) but not with periodontitis (p=0.73). Subjects with depression had a higher self-reported risk score for future tooth loss (p<0.02). No group difference emerged for self-perceived risk for periodontitis. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that a past history of tooth loss (p<0.001), self-perceived risk for periodontitis (p<0.02), the number of years with a smoking habit (p<0.02), and male gender (p<0.02) were associated with a diagnosis of periodontitis but neither measure of depression could be included in an explanatory model for periodontitis.

    CONCLUSIONS: Evidence of depression (self-report or by GDS) is not associated with risk for periodontitis in older subjects but is associated with tooth loss and chronic conditions associated with pain.

  • 21.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    et al.
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Persson, Rigmor Elisabeth
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Cardiovascular disease and periodontitis: an update on the associations and risk2008In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 35, no 8 Suppl, 362-379 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases have been recognized.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: New literature since the last European Workshop on Periodontology has been reviewed.

    RESULTS: The lack of reliable epidemiological data on disease prevalence makes an assessment of the associations and risks between periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases difficult. Two recent meta-analysis reports have identified associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases (odds ratios: 1.1-2.2). Different surrogate markers for both disease entities, including serum biomarkers, have been investigated. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation, and carotid intima media thickness have in some studies been linked to periodontitis. Studies are needed to confirm early results of improvements of such surrogate markers following periodontal therapy. While intensive periodontal therapy may enhance inflammatory responses and impair vascular functions, studies are needed to assess the outcome of periodontal therapies in subjects with confirmed cardiovascular conditions. Tooth eradication may also reduce the systemic inflammatory burden of individuals with severe periodontitis. The role of confounders remain unclear.

    CONCLUSIONS: Periodontitis may contribute to cardiovascular disease and stroke in susceptible subjects. Properly powered longitudinal case-control and intervention trials are needed to identify how periodontitis and periodontal interventions may have an impact on cardiovascular diseases.

  • 22.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    et al.
    Departments of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA & Department of Periodontology and Fixed Prosthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Pettersson, Thomas
    Department of Medicine, Kristianstad Central Hospital, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, Ola
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Department of Medicine, Kristianstad Central Hospital, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    High-sensitivity serum C-reactive protein levels in subjects with or without myocardial infarction or periodontitis.2005In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 32, no 3, 219-224 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsC-rp) is a non-specific marker of inflammation. Elevated hsC-rp levels are found in subjects with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Periodontitis may influence hsC-rp levels.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess periodontal status and hsC-rp serum levels in consecutive subjects hospitalized and diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (n=85) and in a group of carefully matched subjects (gender, age social, ethnic, and smoking habits) without clinical evidence of CVD (n=63).

    METHODS: hsC-rp levels, other routine serum values, and clinical periodontal conditions were studied.

    RESULTS: Subjects with AMI had higher hsC-rp levels than control subjects (p<0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test). The odds that subjects in the control group with periodontitis (30% or more sites with>4.0 mm loss of alveolar bone) had serum hsC-rp>1.8 mg/l was 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1-7.3, p<0.05). Stepwise linear regression analysis failed to include periodontal parameters in an explanatory model to hsC-rp values. Only the serum leucocyte (white blood cell (WBC)) counts were explanatory to hsC-rp values (beta standard coefficient=0.45, t=3.2, p<0.001). Serum WBC counts were significantly higher in control subjects with periodontitis (p<0.03) but not in subjects in the AMI group (p<0.57).

    CONCLUSIONS: (1) As expected, elevated serum hsC-rp concentration and serum WBC counts are associated with acute coronary heart disease. (2) Elevated serum hsC-rp values are associated with radiographically defined periodontitis in subjects with no evidence of CVD. (3) Periodontal parameters are not explanatory to elevated serum hsC-rp values if serum WBC and low-density lipoprotein counts are included in the regression model.

  • 23.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    et al.
    Department of Periodontology, Clinical Dental Research Center, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern.
    Samuelsson, Emelie
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Lindahl, Christel
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Mechanical non-surgical treatment of peri-implantitis: a single-blinded randomized longitudinal clinical study. II. Microbiological results2010In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 37, no 6, 563-573 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    P>Background Peri-implantitis is common in patients with dental implants. We performed a single-blinded longitudinal randomized study to assess the effects of mechanical debridement on the peri-implant microbiota in peri-implantitis lesions. Materials and Methods An expanded checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization assay encompassing 79 different microorganisms was used to study bacterial counts before and during 6 months following mechanical treatment of peri-implantitis in 17 cases treated with curettes and 14 cases treated with an ultrasonic device. Statistics included non-parametric tests and GLM multivariate analysis with p < 0001 indicating significance and 80% power. Results At selected implant test sites, the most prevalent bacteria were: Fusobacterium nucleatum sp., Staphylococci sp., Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Helicobacter pylori, and Tannerella forsythia. 30 min. after treatment with curettes, A. actinomycetemcomitans (serotype a), Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus anginosus, and Veillonella parvula were found at lower counts (p < 0.001). No such differences were found for implants treated with the ultrasonic device. Inconsistent changes occurred following the first week. No microbiological differences between baseline and 6-month samples were found for any species or between treatment study methods in peri-implantitis. Conclusions Both methods failed to eliminate or reduce bacterial counts in peri-implantitis. No group differences were found in the ability to reduce the microbiota in peri-implantitis.

  • 24.
    Persson, Rigmor E
    et al.
    University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Hollender, L G
    University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    MacEntee, M I
    University of British Columbia. Vancouver B.C., Canada.
    Wyatt, C C L
    University of British Columbia. Vancouver B.C., Canada.
    Kiyak, H A
    University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Assessment of periodontal conditions and systemic disease in older subjects.: Focus on diabetes mellitus2003In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 30, no 3, 207-13 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: An increased risk for periodontitis has been associated both with type-1 or insulin dependent diabetes (IDDM) and with type-2 or non-insulin dependent diabetes (NIDDM).

    AIMS: 1) To describe and analyze periodontal conditions in older low-income ethnic diverse subjects with or without a diagnosis of diabetes. 2) To assess to what extent diabetes mellitus is associated with periodontal status, and 3) how periodontitis ranks as a coexisting disease among other diseases in subjects with diabetes mellitus.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Radiographic signs of alveolar bone loss were studied in 1101 older subjects 60-75 years old (mean age 67.6, SD+/-4.7). The number of periodontal sites and the proportions of teeth with probing depth (PD) > or =5 mm, clinical attachment levels (CAL) > or =4 mm were studied in a subset of 701 of the subjects.

    RESULTS: IDDM was reported by 2.9% and NIDDM by 9.2% of the subjects. The number of remaining teeth did not differ by diabetic status. The number of sites with PD > or =5 mm and the proportion of PD with > or =5 mm was significantly smaller in the non-diabetic group (chi2=46.8, p<0.01, and chi2=171.1, p<0.001, respectively). Statistical analysis failed to demonstrate group differences for the number and proportions of sites with CAL > or =4 mm and for radiographic findings of alveolar bone loss. Combining all periodontal parameters revealed that the Mantel-Haenszel common odds of having IDDM/NIDDM and periodontitis was 1.8 : 1 (95% CI: 1.1-3.1, p<0.03). The common odds ratio estimate of an association between heart disease and diabetes was 3.6 : 1 (95% CI: 2.1-2.6, p<0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: Probing depth differences between IDDM/NIDDM vs. non-diabetic subjects may reflect the presences of pseudo-pockets and not progressive periodontitis in many subjects with diabetes mellitus. Periodontitis is not a predominant coexisting disease in older subjects with diabetes mellitus.

  • 25. Persson, Rigmor E
    et al.
    Hollender, L G
    Powell, L V
    MacEntee, M I
    Wyatt, C C L
    Kiyak, H A
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Washington.
    Assessment of periodontal conditions and systemic disease in older subjects. I. Focus on osteoporosis.2002In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 29, no 9, 796-802 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis (OPOR) is a common chronic disease, especially in older women. Patients are often unaware of the condition until they experience bone fractures. Studies have suggested that OPOR and periodontitis are associated diseases and exaggerated by cytokine activity. Panoramic radiography (PMX) allows studies of mandibular cortical index (MCI), which is potentially diagnostic for OPOR.

    AIMS: i). To study the prevalence of self-reported history of OPOR in an older, ethnically diverse population, ii). to assess the agreement between PMX/MCI findings and self-reported OPOR, and iii). to assess the likelihood of having both a self-reported history of OPOR and a diagnosis of periodontitis.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: PMX and medical history were obtained from 1084 subjects aged 60-75 (mean age 67.6, SD +/- 4.7). Of the films, 90.3% were useful for analysis. PMXs were studied using MCI. The PMXs were used to grade subjects as not having periodontitis or with one of three grades of periodontitis severity.

    RESULTS: A positive MCI was found in 38.9% of the subjects, in contrast to 8.2% self-reported OPOR. The intraclass correlation between MCI and self-reported OPOR was 0.20 (P < 0.01). The likelihood of an association between OPOR and MCI was 2.6 (95%CI: 1.6, 4.1, P < 0.001). Subjects with self-reported OPOR and a positive MCI had worse periodontal conditions (P < 0.01). The Mantel-Haentzel odds ratio for OPOR and periodontitis was 1.8 (95%CI: 1.2, 2.5, P < 0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of positive MCI was high and consistent with epidemiological studies, but only partly consistent with a self-reported history of osteoporosis with a higher prevalence of positive MCI in Chinese women. Horizontal alveolar bone loss is associated with both positive self-reported OPOR and MCI.

  • 26.
    Persson, Rigmor E
    et al.
    University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA,.
    Hollender, L G
    University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA,.
    Powell, V L
    Private practice Ukia, CA, USA.
    MacEntee, M
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver B.C., Canada.
    Wyatt, C C L
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver B.C., Canada.
    Kiyak, H A
    University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA,.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA,.
    Assessment of periodontal conditions and systemic disease in older subjects. II. Focus on cardiovascular diseases.2002In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 29, no 9, 803-10 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Panoramic radiographs (PMX)s may provide information about systemic health conditions.

    AIMS: i). To study clinical periodontal conditions and collect self-reported health status in a cohort of 1084 older subjects; ii). to study signs of alveolar bone loss and carotid calcification from panoramic radiographs obtained from these subjects; and iii). to study associations between study parameters.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: PMXs from 1064 adults aged 60-75 (mean age 67.6, SD +/- 4.7) were studied. Signs of alveolar bone loss, vertical defects, and molar furcation radiolucencies defined periodontal status. Medical health histories were obtained via self-reports. Signs of carotid calcification were identified from panoramic radiographs.

    RESULTS: The PMX allowed assessment of 53% of the films (Seattle 64.5% and Vancouver 48.4%). A self-reported history of a stroke was reported by 8.1% of men in Seattle and 2.9% of men in Vancouver (P < 0.01). Heart attacks were reported by 12% of men in Seattle and 7.2% in Vancouver (N.S.). PMX evidence of periodontitis was found in 48.5% of the subjects, with carotid calcification in 18.6%. The intraclass correlation score for PMX findings of carotid calcification and stroke was 0.24 (95% CI: 0.10-0.35, P < 0.001). The odds ratio for PMX carotid calcification and periodontitis was 2.1 (95% CI: 1.3-3.2, P < 0.001), and for PMX carotid calcification and stroke 4.2 (95% CI: 1.9-9.1, P < 0.001). The associations disappeared when smoking was accounted for. A history of a heart attack was associated with stroke, gender, age, and PMX scores of alveolar bone loss.

    CONCLUSIONS: PMXs may provide valuable information about both oral conditions and signs of carotid calcification, data that are consistent with self-reported health conditions. Alveolar bone loss as assessed from PMXs is associated with cardiovascular diseases.

  • 27. Persson, Rigmor E
    et al.
    Kiyak, Asuman H
    Wyatt, Chris C I
    Macentee, Michael
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA & University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.
    Smoking, a weak predictor of periodontitis in older adults.2005In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 32, no 5, 512-517 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The impact of smoking habits on periodontal conditions in older subjects is poorly studied.

    AIMS: To assess if a history of smoking is associated with chronic periodontitis and medical history in older subjects.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: The medical and dental history was collected from 1084 subjects 60-75 years of age. Smoking history information was obtained from self-reports. Periodontal variables [clinical probing depth (PD)>/=5.0 mm, clinical attachment levels (CALs) >/=4.0 mm], and radiographic evidence of alveolar bone loss were assessed.

    RESULTS: 60.5% had never smoked (NS), 32.0% were former smokers (FS) (mean smoke years: 26.1 years, SD+/-13.1), and 7.5% were current smokers (CS) (mean smoke years 38.0 years, (SD+/-12.1). The proportional distribution of CAL >/=4.0 mm differed significantly by smoking status (NS and CS groups) (mean difference: 12.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5-22.6, p<0.02). The Mantel-Haenszel common odds ratio between smoking status (CS+FS) and periodontitis (>20% bone loss) was 1.3 (p<0.09, 95% CI: 0.9-2.0) and changed to 1.8 (p<0.02, 95% CI: 1.3-2.7) with 30 years of smoking as cutoff. A weak correlation between number of years of smoking and CAL>/=4.0 mm was demonstrated (r(2) values 0.05 and 0.07) for FS and CS, respectively. Binary logistic forward (Wald) regression analysis demonstrated that the evidence of carotid calcification, current smoking status, gender (male), and the number of remaining teeth were explanatory to alveolar bone loss.

    CONCLUSIONS: A clinically significant impact on periodontal conditions may require 30 years of smoking or more. Tooth loss, radiographic evidence of carotid calcification, current smoking status, and male gender can predictably be associated with alveolar bone loss in older subjects.

  • 28.
    Ravon, Nicolas A
    et al.
    School of Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Hollender, Lars G
    School of Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    McDonald, Vanessa
    School of Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    School of Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Signs of carotid calcification from dental panoramic radiographs are in agreement with Doppler sonography results.2003In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 30, no 12, 1084-1090 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Duplex ultrasonography (DS) is a frequently used noninvasive method for assessing carotid artery stenosis. The level of agreement between panoramic radiographs (PMX) findings of radiopacities in the area of C3-C4 and DS results has not been established.

    AIMS: (1) to examine the level of agreement between DS results and PMX signs of carotid calcification and (2) to evaluate the association between periodontitis and DS results.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-three subjects who had received a DS assessment at the University of Washington Medical Center within 36 months volunteered for a periodontal examination, including assessments of probing pocket depth (PPD), attachment level (PAL), evidence of bleeding on probing and bone loss from PMX. Two examiners independently analyzed the radiographs for evidence of carotid calcifications. The distance between the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) to bone level (BL) CEJ-BL was used to assess alveolar bone loss as a criteria for periodontitis.

    RESULTS: Twenty-nine subjects (34.9%) presented with positive DS readings. The Mantel-Haentszel common odds ratio estimate for a positive DS score and periodontitis (> 30% of teeth with distance CEJ-BL > or = 4.0 mm) was 38.4 (95% CI: 10.6-138.7, p < 0.0001). For nonsmokers only (n = 72) the odds ratio was 43.0 (95% CI: 16.7-1178.0, p < 0.0001). Evidence of bleeding on probing was 16% of sites both in the DS-positive and -negative subjects. Subjects with a positive DS result had significantly more teeth with clinical evidence of attachment loss > or = 5.0 mm (p < 0.001). The odds ratio of having periodontitis (CEJ-BL > or = 4.0 mm at > or = 30% of the teeth) and medical records confirmed diagnosis of either a stroke or an infarct or both was 7.8 (95% CI: 2.6-23.8, p < 0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: Subjects with positive DS readings of the carotid arteries due to calcified arterial plaque are accurately detected by means of conventional PMX. The likelihood of being DS positive and having radiographic evidence of periodontitis is high. A dose-response relationship between the extent of carotid calcification and severity of periodontitis was demonstrated, supporting the hypothesis of an association between periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases.

  • 29.
    Renvert, Stefan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Lessem, Jan
    Dahlén, Gunnar
    Lindahl, Christel
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Svensson, Marie
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Topical minocycline microspheres versus topical chlorhexidine gel as an adjunct to mechanical debridement of incipient peri-implant infections: a randomized clinical trial2006In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 33, no 5, 362-369 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This randomized clinical trial presents a 12-month follow-up of the clinical and microbiological results after application of minocycline microspheres as an adjunct to mechanical treatment of incipient peri-implant infections compared with an adjunctive treatment using 1% chlorhexidine gel application.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-two subjects with probing depth > or =4 mm, combined with bleeding and/or exudate on probing and presence of putative pathogenic bacteria were given oral hygiene instructions and mechanical treatment of infected areas adjacent to implants. The subjects were then randomly assigned adjunctive subgingival antimicrobial treatment using either chlorhexidine gel or minocycline microspheres. Sixteen patients in the minocycline group and 14 in the chlorhexidine group completed the study. Follow-up examinations were carried out after 10 days, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months.

    RESULTS: The adjunctive use of minocycline microspheres resulted in improvements of probing depths and bleeding scores, whereas the adjunctive use of chlorhexidine only resulted in limited reduction of bleeding scores. For the deepest sites of the treated implants in the minocycline group, the mean probing depth was reduced from 5.0 to 4.4 mm at 12 months. This study could not show any significant difference in the levels of bacterial species or groups at any time point between the two antimicrobial agents tested. The present findings encourage further studies on adjunctive use of minocycline microspheres in the treatment of peri-implant lesions.

    CONCLUSIONS: The use of a local antibiotic as an adjunct to mechanical treatment of incipient peri-implantitis lesions demonstrated improvements in probing depths that were sustained over 12 months.

  • 30.
    Renvert, Stefan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Lindahl, Christel
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    The incidence of peri-implantitis for two different implant systems over a period of thirteen years2012In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 39, no 12, 1191-1197 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To study the incidence of peri-implantitis over 13 years between two types of dental implants. Materials and methods Peri-implantitis incidence was defined as bone loss ≥ 1.0 mm after 1 year, and with BOP or suppuration. Results Nineteen subjects with TioBlast AstraTech™ (AT) and 22 subjects with machine-etched Brånemark Nobel Biocare® (NB) implants were studied. The incidences of peri-implantitis between years 1 and 7 and between years 7 and 13 were 26.2% and 7.1% for AT implants, and 30.4% and 11.5% for NB implants (NS). A history of periodontitis was a risk for future incidence of peri-implantitis (Likelihood ratio: 4.1, 95% CI: 2.0, 8.4, p < 0.001). Subjects with a history of systemic disease had a higher incidence of peri-implantitis (p < 0.05). Conclusions No difference in the incidence of peri-implantitis over a period of 13 years as an effect implant surface and design was found. Bone loss during the first 7 years after implant installation was greater than thereafter. Microbiological information at year 7 did not predict incidence of peri-implantitis at year 13. Subjects with a previous history of periodontitis and with systemic disease were at higher risk for future incidence of peri-implantitis.

  • 31.
    Renvert, Stefan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL).
    Lindahl, Christel
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL). Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Persson, Rutger G
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL).
    Occurrence of cases with peri-implant mucositis or peri-implantitis in a 21-26 years follow-up study2017In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: to determine the prevalence and development of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis and to assess risk factors over time.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study is a longitudinal case series assessing the occurrence and diagnosis of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis.

    RESULTS: 218/294 patients who had received dental implants between 1988-1992 were examined between 2000-2002 (exam II; 9-14 years after the first exam). At exam III (20-26 years after exam I, on average 23.3 years), 86 individuals were re-examined. The diagnosis of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis at exam III was 23.8% and 13.7% respectively. Surgical treatment of peri-implantitis after exam II resulted in a bone gain for 2/12 individuals. Individuals with ≥ 3 implants at exam II were at risk for peri-implantitis at exam III (χ2=7.9, p <0.01, LR: 11.6, 95%CI: 1.5, 92.5, p < 0.01). A history of periodontitis (p=0.07), a diagnosis of peri-implant mucositis (p =0.77), or smoking (p=0.86) at exam II, were not predictive of peri-implantitis at exam III.

    CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis and occurrence of peri-implantitis and peri-implant mucositis was high. Healthy conditions at implants after 9-14 years were predictive of future implant health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 32.
    Renvert, Stefan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Lindahl, Christel
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Roos Jansåker, Ann-Marie
    Department of Periodontology, Public Dental Health Service, Kristianstad.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Treatment of peri-implantitis using an Er:YAG laser or an air-abrasive device2011In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 38, no 1, 65-73 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Non-surgical peri-implantitis therapies appear to be ineffective. Limited data suggest that ER:YAG laser therapy improves clinical conditions. The present study aimed at comparing the treatment effects between air-abrasive (AM) and Er:YAG laser (LM) mono-therapy in cases with severe peri-implantitis.

    Materials and methods

    Twenty-one subjects in each group were randomly assigned to one time intervention by an air-abrasive device or an Er:YAG laser. Clinical data were collected before treatment and at 6 months. Data analysis was performed using repeat univariate analysis of variance controlling for subject factors.

    Results

    No baseline subject characteristic differences were found. Bleeding on probing and suppuration decreased in both the groups (p < 0.001). The mean probing depth (PPD) reductions in the AM and LM groups were 0.9 mm (SD 0.8) and 0.8 mm (SD +/- 0.5), with mean bone-level changes (loss) of -0.1 mm (SD +/- 0.8) and -0.3 mm (SD +/- 0.9), respectively (NS). A positive treatment outcome, PPD reduction >= 0.5 mm and gain or no loss of bone were found in 47% and 44% in the AM and LM groups, respectively.

    Conclusions

    The clinical treatment results were limited and similar between the two methods compared with those in cases with severe peri-implantitis.

  • 33.
    Renvert, Stefan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Ohlsson, Ola
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Persson, Susanna
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Lang, Niklaus P
    School of Dental Medicine, University of Berne, Switzerland.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    School of Dental Medicine, University of Berne, Switzerland.
    Analysis of periodontal risk profiles in adults with or without a history of myocardial infarction2004In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 31, no 1, 19-24 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: An association between periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases has been suggested.

    AIMS: To study whether a combination of clinical variables in a functional risk diagram enhanced the ability to differentiate between subjects with or without an immediate history of acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: A functional periodontal pentagon risk diagram (PPRD) with five periodontal risk vectors was created. The surface of individual PPRDs was calculated using data from 88 subjects with recent AMI and 80 matched control subjects with no history of AMI.

    RESULTS: Age, gender, number of remaining teeth (mean value: 21.1 versus 21.6 teeth), smoking status, and pocket probing depth (PPD) distribution did not differ by group. Gingival recession was greater in control subjects (mean difference: 5.7, SD: +/- 1.9, p<0.01, 95% CI: 1.8-9.6). Bone loss > or = 4.0 mm was at all levels studied was significantly greater in subjects with AMI and bone loss > or = 50% (> or = 4 mm) was the best individual predictor of AMI (beta = 2.99, p < 0.000, 95% CI: 7.5-53.4). Only PPRD scores were associated with AMI status when factors not included in the PPRD were studied (beta = 22.1, SE: 5.9, p < 0.0001, 95% CI: 10.3-33.7). The best association between AMI status and study variables was the combination of > or = 4 mm of bone loss > or = 50%, proportion of bleeding on probing (%BOP), %PPDs > or = 6 mm, and tooth loss (Nagelkirke r2 = 0.46).

    CONCLUSIONS: The combination of five periodontal parameters in a PPRD added predictive value, suggesting that comprehensive data should be used in studies of associations between periodontitis and heart diseases. Radiographic evidence of bone loss was the best individual parameter.

  • 34.
    Renvert, Stefan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Washington, USA & University of Berne, Switzerland.
    Patient-based assessments of clinical periodontal conditions in relation to alveolar bone loss2004In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 31, no 3, 208-213 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Limited subject-based information exists on the relationship between clinical and radiographic periodontal data.

    AIMS: To use subject-based data to assess the extent of concurrence between clinical and radiographic information, and to study what clinical information best predicts alveolar bone loss (ABL). Material and Methods: Subject-based data on smoking habits, bleeding on probing, plaque scores, pocket probing depth (PD), and evidence of alveolar BL were obtained, and functional periodontal pentagon risk diagrams (PPRDs) were studied from 168 consecutive subjects attending a medical clinic.

    RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects was 62.7 years (SD+/-9.0). The average number of teeth was 21.3 (SD+/-8.0) with on average 5.6 molars remaining (SD+/- 3.9). In this subject cohort, 33.1% had never smoked, 44.2% had quit smoking, and 22.7% were currently smokers. Mean plaque and bleeding scores were high or 60.2% (SD+/-24.0) and 53.1% (SD+/-23.6), respectively. PDs >or=6.0 mm were found in 55.9% of the subjects. Binary logistic regression analysis demonstrated that tooth loss and proportional plaque scores were the predominant factors included in the equations associated with ABL. Wald coefficients varied between 3.99 and 9.15, and with p-values between 0.05 and 0.01. When included, the PPRD score became the exclusive factor at several cut-off levels (Wald's coefficients between 19.8 and 15.6, p<0.001). Consequently, the best receiver operator curve was identified for the PPRD at the >40% cut-off ABL level (area under the curve: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.74-0.89; p<0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: The number of teeth lost and the proportion of plaque scores provided significant predictive factors for ABL. The functional PPRD demonstrated an exclusive and highly predictable association with ABL. Subject-based proportional data for PDs >4.0 mm provided poor substitute measures for the extent of ABL.

  • 35.
    Renvert, Stefan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    Department of Periodontology, University of Berne.
    Periodontitis as a potential risk factor for peri-implantitis.2009In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 36, no Suppl 10, 9-14 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To review the literature regarding the possible association between a previous history of periodontitis and peri-implantitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A search of MEDLINE as well as a manual search of articles were conducted. Publications and articles accepted for publication up to January 2008 were included. RESULTS: Out of 951 papers retrieved, a total of three papers were selected for the review. Thus, the available evidence for an association between periodontitis and peri-implantitis is scarce. CONCLUSIONS: Based on three studies with a limited number of patients and considerable variations in study design, different definitions of periodontitis, and confounding variables like smoking that not been accounted for, this systematic review indicates that subjects with a history of periodontitis may be at greater risk for peri-implant infections. It should, however, be stressed that the data to support this conclusion are not very robust.

  • 36.
    Renvert, Stefan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life.
    Polyzois, Ioannis
    Dublin Dental University Hospital.
    Risk indicators for peri-implant mucositis: a systematic literature review2015In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 42, no 16, 172-186 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    To examine the existing evidence in identifying risk indicators in the aetiology of peri-implant mucositis.

    Material and methods

    A search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science (WOS) and The Cochrane Library databases for articles published until June 2014.

    Results

    This search gave 3135 results out of which 15 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The current review revealed that only a few studies provided data on risk indicators for the development of peri-implant mucositis. Based on the data available, there is evidence that plaque is a risk indicator for peri-implant mucositis. Smoking has also been identified as an independent risk indicator whereas the overall evidence for surface roughness, residual cement, the dimension of the keratinized tissue and time of implant in function is weak. There are limited data available to support systemic conditions as risk indicators for peri-implant mucositis.

    Conclusions

    Plaque accumulation at implants will result in development of peri-implant mucositis. Smoking should also be considered as a risk indicator for the development of peri-implant mucositis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 37.
    Renvert, Stefan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Polyzois, Ioannis
    School of Dental Sciences, Trinity College, Dublin.
    Claffey, Noel
    School of Dental Sciences, Trinity College, Dublin.
    How do implant surface characteristics influence peri-implant disease?2011In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 38, 214-222 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To review the literature on how implant surface characteristics influence peri-implant disease. Material and Methods A search of PubMed and The Cochrane Library of the Cochrane Collaboration (CENTRAL) as well as a hand search of articles were conducted. Publications and articles accepted for publication up to March 2010 were included. Results Thirteen studies were selected for the review. Human studies: To date, few studies have investigated if such differences occur. Limited data suggest that smooth surfaces may be less affected by peri-implantitis than rough surface implants. Animal studies: In ligature-induced peri-implantitis studies, no difference between surfaces has been reported. In a spontaneous progression model of peri-implantitis, there was a suggestion that the progression was more pronounced at implants with a porous anodized surface. Conclusion The current review revealed that only a few studies provided data on how implant surfaces influence peri-implant disease. Based on the limited data available, there is no evidence that implant surface characteristics can have a significant effect on the initiation of peri-implantitis.

  • 38.
    Renvert, Stefan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Samuelsson, Emelie
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Lindahl, Christel
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    Department of Periodontology and Clinical Dental Research Center, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern.
    Mechanical non-surgical treatment of peri-implantitis: a double-blind randomized longitudinal clinical study. I: clinical results2009In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 36, no 7, 604-609 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Peri-implantitis is a frequent finding in patients with dental implants. The present study compared two non-surgical mechanical debridement methods of peri-implantitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-seven subjects (mean age 61.5; S.D+/-12.4), with one implant each, demonstrating peri-implantitis were randomized, and those treated either with titanium hand-instruments or with an ultrasonic device were enrolled. Data were obtained before treatment, and at 1, 3, and 6 months. Parametric and non-parametric statistics were used. RESULTS: Thirty-one subjects completed the study. The mean bone loss at implants in both groups was 1.5 mm (SD +/-1.2 mm). No group differences for plaque or gingival indices were found at any time point. Baseline and 6-month mean probing pocket depths (PPD) at implants were 5.1 and 4.9 mm (p=0.30) in both groups. Plaque scores at treated implants decreased from 73% to 53% (p<0.01). Bleeding scores also decreased (p<0.01), with no group differences. No differences in the total bacterial counts were found over time. Higher total bacterial counts were found immediately after treatment (p<0.01) and at 1 week for ultrasonic-treated implants (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: No group differences were found in the treatment outcomes. While plaque and bleeding scores improved, no effects on PPD were identified.

  • 39.
    Renvert, Stefan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Samuelsson, Emelie
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Lindahl, Christel
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Persson, Gösta Rutger
    Department of Periodontology and Clinical Dental Research Center, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern.
    Erratum. Mechanical non-surgical treatment of peri-implantitis: a double-blind randomized longitudinal clinical study. I2009In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 36, no 12, 1076-1076 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Renvert, Stefan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona.
    Widén, Cecilia
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life. Department of Periodontics, University of Washington, Seattle.
    Cytokine expression in peri-implant crevicular fluid in relation to bacterial presence2015In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 42, no 7, 697-702 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim was to assess clinical inflammatory parameters, cytokine levels, and bacterial counts in samples from implant crevicular fluid in cases with untreated peri-implantitis.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Several bacterial species known to up-regulate pro-inflammatory cytokines have been associated with peri-implantitis. The Luminex magnet bead technology was used to study cytokines in crevicular fluid. The checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method was used to study bacterial counts in samples from 41 implants (41 individuals).

    RESULTS: Profuse bleeding and suppuration was found in 25/41 (61.0%) and 17/41 (41.5%) of the implants. The reliability of duplicate cytokine processing was high. In the presence of profuse bleeding, higher pg/ml levels of IL-1β (p = 0.016), IL-8 (p = 0.003), TNF-α (p = 0.024), and VEGF (p = 0.004) were found. Higher concentrations of IL-1β were found in the presence of suppuration, and if Escherichia coli (p = 0.001) or Staphylococcus epidermidis (p = 0.05) could be detected.

    CONCLUSION: Profuse bleeding and/or suppuration in untreated peri-implantitis can be associated with higher concentrations of IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α and VEGF in peri-implant crevicular fluid. A higher concentration of IL-1β in peri-implant crevicular fluid was found in samples that were positive for E. coli or S. epidermidis.

  • 41. Riben-Grundstrom, C
    et al.
    Norderyd, O
    André, U
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III. Blekinge tekniska högskolan .
    Treatment of peri-implant mucositis using a glycine powder air-polishing or ultrasonic device: a randomized clinical trial2015In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 42, no 5, 462-469 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To evaluate the clinical treatment effects of a glycine powder air-polishing or ultrasonic device on peri-implant mucositis.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with one implant diagnosed with peri-implant mucositis (probing depth ≥4mm (0,2N) and bleeding on probing (BOP) (primary outcome)) were randomly assigned to treatment with either glycine powder air-polishing (GPAP) or ultrasonic (US) debridement. Treatment was performed at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. Professional supra gingival cleaning was performed at 9 and 12 months. Oral hygiene instructions were reinforced at each visit.

    RESULTS: At 12 months there was a statistically significant reduction in mean plaque score, bleeding on probing and number of periodontal pockets >4 mm within the treatment groups compared to baseline. The percentages of diseased sites were significantly reduced for both groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with a glycine powder air-polishing or an ultrasonic device is effective in non-surgical treatment of peri-implant mucositis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 42.
    Roos-Jansåker, Ann Marie
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Lindahl, Christel
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Renvert, Helena
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Nine- to fourteen-year follow-up of implant treatment. Part I: implant loss and associations to various factors.2006In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 33, no 4, 283-289 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term result of implant therapy, using implant loss as outcome variable.

    MATERIAL AND METHOD: Two hundred and ninty-four patients had received implant therapy (Brånemark System) during the years of 1988-1992 in Kristianstad County, Sweden. The patients were recalled to the speciality clinic 1 and 5 years after placement of the suprastructure. Between 2000 and 2002, 9-14 years after implant placements, the patients were again called in for a complete clinical and radiographic examination.

    RESULTS: Two hundred and eighteen patients treated with 1057 implants were examined. Twenty-two patients had lost 46 implants and 12 implants were considered "sleeping implants". The overall survival rate was 95.7%. Implant loss appeared in a cluster in a few patients and early failures were most common. Eight patients lost more than one fixture. A significant relationship was observed between implant loss and periodontal bone loss of the remaining teeth at implant placement. Maxillary, as opposed to mandibulary implants, showed more implant loss if many implants were placed in the jaw. A significant relationship between smoking habits and implant loss was not found.

    CONCLUSION: A history of periodontitis seems to be related to implant loss.

  • 43.
    Roos-Jansåker, Ann-Marie
    et al.
    Department of Periodontology, Public Dental Health Service, Kristianstad.
    Lindahl, Christel
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Long-term stability of surgical bone regenerative procedures of peri-implantitis lesions in a prospective case-control study over 3 years2011In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 38, no 6, 590-597 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    P>Objectives To evaluate the extent of bone fill over 3 years following the surgical treatment of peri-implantitis with bone grafting with or without a membrane. Material and Methods In a non-submerged wound-healing mode, 15 subjects with 27 implants were treated with a bone substitute (Algipore (R)) alone and 17 subjects with 29 implants were treated with the bone substitute and a resorbable membrane (Osseoquest (R)). Implants with radiographic bone loss >= 1.8 mm following the first year in function and with bleeding and/or pus on probing were included. Following surgery, subjects were given systemic antibiotics (10 days) and rinsed with chlorhexidine. After initial healing, the subjects were enrolled in a strict maintenance programme. Results Statistical analysis failed to demonstrate changes in bone fill between 1 and 3 years both between and within procedure groups. The mean defect fill at 3 years was 1.3 +/- (SD) 1.3 mm if treated with the bone substitute alone and 1.6 +/- (SD) 1.2 mm if treated with an adjunct resorbable membrane, (p=0.40). The plaque index decreased from approximately 40-10%, remaining stable during the following 2 years. Conclusion Defect fill using a bone substitute with or without a membrane technique in the treatment of peri-implantitis can be maintained over 3 years.

  • 44.
    Roos-Jansåker, Ann-Marie
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Lindahl, Christel
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Renvert, Helena
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Nine- to fourteen-year follow-up of implant treatment. Part II: presence of peri-implant lesions2006In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 33, no 4, 290-295 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyse the proportions of peri-implant lesions at implants after 9-14 years of function.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred and ninety-four patients underwent implant therapy during the years 1988-1992 in Kristianstad County. These individuals were recalled to the speciality clinic 1 and 5 years after placement of the suprastructure. Between 2000 and 2002, 218 patients with 999 implants were examined clinically and radiographically.

    RESULTS: Forty-eight per cent of the implants had probing depth > or =4 mm and bleeding on probing (peri-implant mucositis). In 20.4% of the implants, the bone level was located 3.1 mm apical to the implant shoulder. Progressive bone loss (> or =1.8 mm) during the observation period was found in 7.7% of the implants. Peri-implantitis defined as bone loss > or =1.8 mm compared with 1-year data (the apical border of the bony defect located at or apical to the third thread, i.e. a minimum of 3.1 mm apical to the implant shoulder), combined with bleeding on probing and or pus, were diagnosed among 16% of the patients and 6.6% of the implants.

    CONCLUSION: After 10 years in use without systematic supportive treatment, peri-implant lesions is a common clinical entity adjacent to titanium implants.

  • 45.
    Roos-Jansåker, Ann-Marie
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet.
    Lindahl, Christel
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet.
    Surgical treatment of peri-implantitis using a bone substitute with or without a resorbable membrane: a 5-year follow up2014In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 41, no 11, 1108-1114 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To compare two regenerative surgical treatments for peri-implantitis over five years.

    MATERIAL & METHODS: Twenty-five individuals with peri-implantitis remained at study endpoint. They were treated with a bone substitute and a resorbable membrane (13 individuals with 23 implants) [Group 1], or with bone substitute alone (12 individuals with 22 implants)[Group 2]. All study individuals were kept on a strict maintenance program every third month.

    RESULTS: 5-year follow up demonstrated clinical and radiographic improvements in both groups. No implants were lost due to progression of peri-implantitis. Probing depths were reduced by 3.0 mm ± 2.4 mm in Group 1, and 3.3 mm ± 2.09 mm in Group 2 (NS). In both groups, radiographic evidence of bone gain was significant (p < 0.001). At year 5, the average defect fill was 1.3 mm (S.D. ± 1.4 mm) in Group 1 and 1.1 mm (S.D.± 1.2 mm) in Group 2 (mean diff; 0.4 95% CI -0.3,1,2, p=0.24). Bleeding on probing decreased in both groups. Baseline and year 5 plaque scores did not differ between groups and was reduced from 50% to 15%.

    CONCLUSION: Both procedures resulted in stable conditions. Additional use of a membrane does not improve the outcome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 46.
    Roos-Jansåker, Ann-Marie
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Renvert, Helena
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Lindahl, Christel
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Nine- to fourteen-year follow-up of implant treatment. Part III: factors associated with peri-implant lesions2006In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 33, no 4, 296-301 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present paper was to analyse, on patient and implant basis, factors related to peri-implant lesions.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred and eighteen patients treated with titanium implants were examined for biological complications at existing implants 9-14 years after initial therapy. The effects of several potentially explanatory variables, both on patient and on implant levels, were analysed.

    RESULTS: On the implant level, the presence of keratinized mucosa (p = 0.02) and plaque (p = 0.005) was associated with mucositis (probing depth > or =4 mm + bleeding on probing). The bone level at implants was associated with the presence of keratinized mucosa (p = 0.03) and the presence of pus (p < 0.001). On the patient level, smoking was associated with mucositis, bone level and peri-implantitis (p = 0.02, <0.001 and 0.002, respectively). Peri-implantitis was related to a previous history of periodontitis (p = 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with a history of periodontitis and individuals who smoke are more likely to develop peri-implant lesions.

  • 47.
    Roos-Jansåker, Ann-Marie
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Renvert, Helena
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lindahl, Christel
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Submerged healing following surgical treatment of peri-implantitis: a case series2007In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 34, no 8, 723-727 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim was to study a regenerative surgical treatment modality for peri-implantitis employing submerged healing. Material and Methods: Twelve patients, having a minimum of one osseointegrated implant with peri-implantitis, with a progressive loss of >= 3 threads (1.8 mm) following the first year of healing were involved in the study. After surgical exposure of the defect, granulomatous tissue was removed and the implant surface was treated using 3% hydrogen peroxide. The bone defects were filled with a bone substitute (Algipore((R))), a resorbable membrane (Osseoquest((R))) was placed over the grafted defect and a cover screw was connected to the fixture. The implant was then covered by flaps and submerged healing was allowed for 6 months. After 6 months the abutment was re-connected to the supra-structure. Results: A 1-year follow-up demonstrated clinical and radiographic improvements. Probing depth was reduced by 4.2 mm and a mean defect fill of 2.3 mm was obtained. Conclusion: Treatment of peri-implant defects using a bone graft substitute combined with a resorbable membrane and submerged healing results in defect fill and clinical healthier situations.

  • 48.
    Roos-Jansåker, Ann-Marie
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Renvert, Helena
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lindahl, Christel
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Surgical treatment of peri-implantitis using a bone substitute with or without a resorbable membrane: a prospective cohort study2007In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 34, no 7, 625-632 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this prospective cohort study was to compare two regenerative surgical treatment modalities for peri-implantitis. Material and Methods: Thirty-six patients having a minimum of one osseointegrated implant, with a progressive loss of bone amounting to >= 3 threads (1.8 mm) following the first year of healing, combined with bleeding and/or pus on probing, were involved in this study. The patients were assigned to two different treatment strategies. After surgical exposure of the defect, granulomatous tissue was removed and the infected implant surface was treated using 3% hydrogen peroxide. The bone defects were filled with a bone substitute (Algipore((R))). In 17 patients (Group 1), a resorbable membrane (Osseoquest((R))) was placed over the grafted defect before suturing. In 19 patients (Group 2), the graft was used alone. Results: One-year follow-up demonstrated clinical and radiographic improvements. Probing depths were reduced by 2.9 mm in Group 1 and by 3.4 mm in Group 2. Defect fill amounted to 1.5 and 1.4 mm, respectively. There was no significant difference between the groups. Conclusion: It is possible to treat peri-implant defects with a bone substitute, with or without a resorbable membrane.

  • 49.
    Roos-Jansåker, Ann-Marie
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Egelberg, J
    Treatment of peri-implant infections: a literature review2003In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 30, no 6, 467-485 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The purpose of the present paper is to review available information on the treatment of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis.

    Materials and Methods: The results of animal research and human studies are presented. Proposed strategies for the treatment of peri-implantitis presented in the literature are also included.

    Results: Most of the information accessible at this time derives from case reports. The reports provide evidence that efforts to reduce the submucosal infection may result in short-term improvements of the peri-implant lesion. They also indicate that regenerative procedures in intrabony peri-implant defects can result in the formation of new bone.

    Conclusions: Several uncertainties remain regarding the treatment of peri-implantitis. Properly conducted long-term follow-ups of consecutively treated cases would seem to be a realistic avenue for accumulation of more information. This may assist in establishing the predictability, magnitude and stability of improvements that can be achieved.

  • 50.
    Salvi, Giovanni E
    et al.
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Franco, Lea M
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Braun, Thomas M
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Lee, Angie
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Lang, Niklaus P
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Hong Kong.
    Giannobile, William V
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Pro-inflammatory biomarkers during experimental gingivitis in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a proof-of-concept study.2010In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 37, no 1, 9-16 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To compare gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) biomarker levels and microbial distribution in plaque biofilm (SP) samples for subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) versus healthy subjects without diabetes during experimental gingivitis (EG).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of nine T1DM patients and nine healthy controls of age and gender similar to the T1DM patients were monitored for 35 days during EG. Hygiene practices were stopped for 3 weeks, and GCF, SP, plaque index (PI) and gingival index were determined. IL-1beta, IL-8, MMP-8 and MMP-9 were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and SP samples were assessed by DNA-DNA hybridization for a panel of 40 subgingival microbial species.

    RESULTS: IL-1beta levels in T1DM patients were elevated compared with healthy individuals, and showed differences between groups at 7-21 days while healthy patients showed IL-1beta increases from baseline to 14-21 days (p<0.05). Differences were observed in MMP-9 levels between patients with and without T1DM at 7-14 days (p<0.05). Orange complex species and PI measurements displayed a superior correlation with biomarker levels when compared with other complexes or clinical measurements during EG.

    CONCLUSIONS: The mean GCF biomarker levels for IL-1beta and MMP-8 were most significantly elevated in T1DM subjects compared with healthy individuals during EG, not resulting from differences in the mean PI or microbial composition.

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