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  • 1.
    Baeshen, H.A.
    et al.
    Department of Cariology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg.
    Kjellberg, H.
    Department of Orthodontics, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg.
    Lingström, Peter
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Birkhed, Dowen
    Department of Cariology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg.
    Uptake and release of fluoride from fluoride-impregnated chewing sticks (miswaks) in vitro and in vivo2008In: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 363-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to investigate the uptake and release of fluoride (F) from F-impregnated chewing sticks (miswaks). In the first series, 3-cm-long pieces were impregnated in 1, 2, 3 and 4% NaF solutions for 3 h, 1 day and 3 days (10 pieces/test). There was a dose-response effect with respect to both impregnation time and the concentration of the F solution. In the second and third series, totally 40 miswak pieces were impregnated in 3% NaF for 1 day and 3 days; the outer layer (bark) was separated from the inner spongy part (pulp) and analyzed separately. F was released from both parts, but somewhat more was released from the bark than from the pulp; a plateau was reached at around 30 min. In vivo, 9 healthy subjects used three products for 2 min in a crossover design: (1) a miswak impregnated in 3% NaF for 1 day, (2) a miswak impregnated in 3% NaF for 3 days, and (3) 1 g of F toothpaste (containing 1,450 ppm F as NaF) on a toothbrush. The highest F concentration at the approximal area was obtained after using the miswak impregnated in 3% NaF for 3 days compared with the other products (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). To conclude, NaF-impregnated miswaks produced a rapid release of F in vitro as well as in vivo and may be an interesting vehicle for home care use for caries prevention in countries where they are used regularly.

  • 2.
    Sofrata, Abier
    et al.
    Institute of Odontology, Karolinska Institutet.
    Lingström, Peter
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Baljoon, M.
    Institute of Odontology, Karolinska Institutet.
    Gustafsson, A.
    Institute of Odontology, Karolinska Institutet.
    The effect of miswak extract on plaque pH: an in vivo study2007In: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 451-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to document changes in plaque pH when an acidic challenge was followed by rinsing with miswak extract (Salvadora persica), and to evaluate the effect of miswak rinse on parotid gland secretion rate. Plaque pH was measured in 3-day-old plaque using the microtouch electrode. Rinsing with miswak extract, compared with water rinsing, resulted in protracted elevation of plaque pH (> 6.0). The difference in plaque pH between miswak extract and water rinse was statistically significant at 30 min (p < 0.001). Rinsing with miswak extract stimulated parotid gland secretion (p < 0.01). In conclusion, miswak extract raised the plaque pH, suggesting a potential role in caries prevention.

  • 3.
    Särner, Barbro
    et al.
    Department of Cariology, Institute of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University.
    Birkhed, D.
    Department of Cariology, Institute of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University.
    Lingström, Peter
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Approximal fluoride concentration using different fluoridated products alone or in combination2008In: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 73-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present investigation was to measure the approximal fluoride (F) concentration after using different F-containing products, either alone or in combination. Ten subjects participated on a total of 17 occasions, which were randomized, distributed and divided into two trials (called trial I and trial II). The F concentration was studied after treatment with toothpicks, dental flosses, an interdental brush dipped in 0.2 or 0.32% F gels, brushing with toothpaste containing 0.32% F and a mouthrinse with 0.2% NaF solution. The results of trial I revealed that the rinsing solution resulted in the highest approximal F values, followed by toothpicks and brushing. When brushing was combined with either flossing or toothpick, the sequence order of the two methods had less influence. However, when combined with rinsing it appeared to be better to use the floss or the toothpicks first, prior to the mouthrinse. In trial II, treatment with the gels alone, and in combination with brushing, resulted in higher approximal F concentrations compared with brushing alone. The data indicate that the order of usage when combining products may be of importance when it comes to obtaining high F levels at the approximal sites and that an interdental brush with F gel after toothbrushing may be a suitable method, called 'Inter Dental Brush Gel Method', to produce elevated F concentrations at approximal sites.

  • 4. Wyatt, C C L
    et al.
    Maupome, G
    Hujoel, P P
    MacEntee, M I
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Persson, Rigmor E.
    Kiyak, H A
    Chlorhexidine and preservation of sound tooth structure in older adults: A placebo-controlled trial2007In: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 93-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Trial to Enhance Elderly Teeth Health (TEETH) was designed to test the impact of regular rinsing with a 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX) solution on tooth loss, and the causes of tooth loss (caries, periodontal disease and trauma) were also investigated. This paper reports on the effectiveness of a 0.12% CHX solution for controlling caries using a tooth surface (coronal and root) survival analysis. A total of 1,101 low income elders in Seattle (United States) and Vancouver (Canada), aged 60-75 years, were recruited for a double-blind clinical trial and assigned to either a CHX (n = 550) or a placebo (n = 551) mouth rinse. Subjects alternated between daily rinsing for 1 month, followed by weekly rinsing for 5 months. All sound coronal and root surfaces at baseline were followed annually for up to 5 years. At each follow-up examination, those tooth surfaces with caries, restored, or extracted were scored as 'carious'. The hazard ratio associated with CHX for a sound surface to become filled, decayed, or extracted was 0.87 for coronal surfaces (95% confidence interval: 0.71-1.14, p = 0.20) and 0.91 for root surfaces (95% confidence interval: 0.73-1.14, p = 0.41). These findings suggest that regular rinsing with CHX does not have a substantial effect on the preservation of sound tooth structure in older adults.

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