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  • 1.
    Andreasson, Mikael
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Förflyttad till en annan värld: en litteraturstudie om immersion och användargränssnitt i digitala spel2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    I have with this literature study closer studied the term immersion and it's connection to user interfaces within video games in the FPS-genre (First-Person Shooter). The study first presents previous research that has occurred in the fields of immersion, user interfaces and video games. Three things are then, from this, later lifted up in the problem specification, those three are, that immersion can affect people, that user interfaces are critical links between the gamer and the game and that the genre is significant in the development of a user interface. The purpose of the study has been to a research current theory which has expanded my knowledge in the fields of immersion, user interfaces and video games. A qualitative oriented research with hermeneutics as the methodology has been applied in the execution of the study.

    I then present, in the results chapter, three examples of games in the FPS-genre where it is found that two of these games have a user interface that supports immersion with the third game having a user interface that breaks immersion. The results have then been extracted into four guidelines with the purpose to give user interface designers clear instructions about what applies in the development of user interfaces that supports immersion in the FPS-genre. The conclusion of the study has then been that user interfaces can affect immersion in both a positive and in a negative way.

  • 2.
    Blomberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Karlsson, Markus
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Användarupplevelser av appar för TV: Viktiga faktorer vid design av applikationer för TV i hemmiljö2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the market for interactive applications for television has become more accessible for outside developers a new arena has been created where new interactive applications can take place. When developing digital services and products it is important to take into account the intended context. In our bachelor thesis, we examine the user experiences of applications for the TV in the home environment and explores the characteristics and perceptions regarding navigation and social context from the participants' situation that may be important to consider when designing applications for TV. We do this with the help of six user groups with two adults in each group of mixed ages and with varying experience, through observations and interviews about their use of selected applications for the Apple TV. The survey shows that the context has a crucial role and that the interest in applications and interactive TV is primarily in common use, while more individual activities are used by other technologies such as computers, smartphones and tablets. The experiences of applications for television proved to be affected by, among other things previous technical experience but also age. Even if some elements where perceived as cumbersome, users attitude was still positive, which means that there are more aspects than just usability affecting user experiences. Important factors for the user experience when designing applications for television include the varying distance users have to the TV, and the size of it.

  • 3.
    Boström Andersson, Jesper
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business.
    Nygren, Jonas
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business.
    Security Theater i digitala applikationer: En illusion för att förstärka känslan av säkerhet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Computer power and speed have increased exponentially in recent years, but our expectations and mental models of what computer systems are capable of have not kept up. In cases where people do not believe that the system can perform the requested task as quickly as they do, an artificial wait can be applied to closer match the reality. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether security theater works in the context of banking applications and what happens with the users trust if the illusion of security fails. Through this paper we have found that security theater is a phenomenon that works and adds value to the user. However, the context in question must be carefully evaluated, as security theater in the wrong context can be seen as a disturbing element. We came to the conclusion that the majority of our test subjects are not negatively affected, and instead sees the value in security theater even after the illusion have been revealed.

  • 4.
    Eerola, Isabelle
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business.
    Wahlén, Felicia
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business.
    Emojier – Ett lingua franca för den digitala tidsåldern: men hur användbart är det egentligen?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Emojis have become a major part of how we interact with each other, online as well as offline and almost 40 percent of all text messages in the Western world contains one or more emojis. In 2009, the Unicode Consortium chose to implement emojis in their standard which entailed that Apple became the first commercial company to add emojis to their keyboard. Previous studies have different opinions on whether or not there is a difference in the use of emojis between younger and older various age-groups. Former studies have mainly focused on the use of emojis in social channels online, however, there is little research on how emojis are experienced in an offline interaction. The aim of this study is to investigate how emojis are experienced offline through text messages in iOS interface of emojis, this is done by comparing two age-groups: informants between the ages of 20-30 and 50-60. Moreover, this study aims to explore the possibilities of improvements of the iOS interface of emojis in order to further improve user experience. The qualitative approach of the study involves unstructured observations and semistructured interviews. The results show both similarities and differences between the age-groups on how they experience emojis when interacting through text messages. It also appears shortcomings in the use of the interface which undermine good usability.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Isa
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business, Avdelningen för design.
    Westergren, Fanny
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business, Avdelningen för design.
    Smartphone-kalendrar inom “Personal Ecology of Artifacts”: En studie kring akademiska studenters planering av tid med hjälp av smartphone-kalendrar2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här studien har vi undersökt användbarheten av smartphone-kalendrar i förhållande till högskolestudenters “Personal Ecology of Artifacts”. Eftersom den tekniska utvecklingen går snabbt framåt behövs ny forskning för att fylla den kunskapsluckan om smartphone-kalenderns design för tidsplanering, vilket vi utforskar på akademiska studenter. Vårt syfte med undersökning är att kartlägga vad det är som fungerar, respektive inte fungerar med de smartphone-kalendrarna som används hos studenter. För att ta reda på det har vi genomfört en kvalitativ undersökning där vi höll i en fokusgrupp. De positiva och negativa egenskaperna som vi har sett i användbarheten utifrån vårt empiriska material, är det vi slutligen kommer att presentera

  • 6.
    Faraon, Montathar
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Co-creating democracy: conceptualizing co-creative media to facilitate democratic engagement in society2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-based information and communication technology (ICT) have increasingly been used to facilitate and support democratic engagement in society. A growing body of research has demonstrated that the Internet and, in particular, social media have given citizens the opportunity to participate, interact, network, collaborate, and mobilize themselves within communities. While these media have broadened the means of exercising citizenship in many forms of participatory democracy, the technological prerequisites exist to go beyond the standard uses of social media (e.g., social networking, entertainment) and towards proactive and co-creative democratic engagement. Such engagement includes, but is not limited to, participatory activities for democratic purposes. Further, some researchers have argued that representative democracy is in decline and has several limitations related to citizens’ trust in politicians and engagement with representative institutions. There is a recognition among scholars to infuse representative democracy with participatory bottom-up processes by employing ICT in an attempt to bridge these limitations. In order to further facilitate and support participatory as well as co-creative processes, this thesis elaborates a concept of co-creative media. The process of this work was guided by the following question: How can co-creative media be theoretically anchored and conceptualized in order to facilitate and support citizen engagement within democratic processes? A concept-driven design research approach was adopted to address this research question, and this resulted in five interconnected articles. Firstly, based on the results from each article, four design guidelines were formulated to further guide the design of co-creative media for democratic engagement. These design guidelines may support future participatory design processes in which stakeholders collectively contribute to the development and evaluation of co-creative media. The guidelines constitute a resource that stakeholders may use to develop adaptations of co-creative media for the purposes of facilitating democratic engagement. Secondly, the results from each article were fed forward into the concept-driven research process as theoretical and empirical insights, which were used to inform and elaborate the main contribution of this thesis, namely the concept of co-creative media. The concept of co-creative media in its form outlined by this thesis seeks to broaden citizens’ democratic engagement by means of creating virtual spaces in which new ideas, initiatives, knowledge, solutions, and digital tools could emerge. The implications of co-creative media could be to create, develop, and strengthen partnerships between communities and local services, extend digital skills in society through community-engaged practitioners, and propagate as well as coordinate large-scale co-creative practices.

  • 7.
    Faraon, Montathar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business, Avdelningen för design. Södertörns högskola.
    Cronquist, Björn
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för matematik- och naturvetenskapernas didaktik.
    Kaipainen, Mauri
    Södertörns högskola.
    Social media affordances in net-based higher education2011In: Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference on International Higher Education (IHE 2011), 2011, p. 11-37Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the attitudes, conceptions and use of social media in net-based higher education. By using statistical and content analysis of data generated by two surveys directed to students (n = 109) and teachers (n = 77) involved in net-based higher education, we explore how social media influence the design of learning context in net-based higher education courses. By applying the affordance theory, we describe actual as well as preferred use of social media from an educational, social, and technical perspectives. The results showed that the potential use of social media have not yet been fully found in the context of net-based higher education. However, the perceived benefit of using social media differs in relation to educational topics. The potential use of social media in net-based higher education courses is discussed.

  • 8.
    Faraon, Montathar
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola.
    Kaipainen, Mauri
    Södertörns högskola.
    Much more to it: the relation between Facebook usage and self-esteem2014In: Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE 15th International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration, IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society (SMC) , 2014, p. 87-92Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine closer the conflicting results from previous studies concerning the relation- ship between Facebook use and self-esteem using the Facebook Intensity Scale and Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale (N = 107). In line with some previous studies, our data confirmed that there is a relationship between Facebook usage and self-esteem, but the applied scales allowed a more refined assessment of it. The results showed, after controlling for demographic variables, that participants with low Facebook intensity reported on average higher self-esteem than those who did not use Facebook or those with high Facebook intensity, while those with medium Facebook intensity had significantly higher self-esteem compared to the participants with high Facebook intensity. Future studies should address the underlying causal relations using a time-bound observation method.

  • 9. Gutemyr, Malin
    et al.
    Lindkvist, Sandra
    Att leverera kärnvärden vid förstagångsanvändningen: en studie kring hur onboarding påverkar användandet av en digital vårdcentral2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims to investigating how design solutions can help first-time users to gain a better understanding of how digital primary care works. The concept of onboarding is central to this study and the scientist Cardoso's onboarding framework. Onboarding describes a learning process where the user is introduced to the service so that he or she can use it and become an active user. In order to complete the study, an explorative approach has been made. The study has been divided into three parts; a preliminary study, a design phase and a valuation phase. A total of 17 participants have been recruited. The study resulted in three different prototypes that participant tested. The result of the study showed that the participants' knowledge gap about how the doctor visit works on a digital primary care application was filled with an introduction - an onboarding.

  • 10.
    Henrysson, Desirée
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    ”Du går in i ett rum sen är det precis som en jävla labyrint ifrån Knossos”: En kvalitativ studie om IT-stödet edWise användbarhet gentemot vårdnadshavare i Kristianstads kommun2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to study how to design information systems, as a tool for communication between the school and parents, supports the parents while using it. The study is based on interviews and observations during usability tests with parents and indicate problems that occur while using this information system procured by Kristianstads municipality. One of the theoretical starting points of the article is how people build up a resitance against digital artifacts through a predetermined approach against them. A second theoretical point argues how people experiencing them self to be limited by the artifacts. This is also confirmed in this study which, shows that edWise, as designed today, is lacking usability and that parents dont want to feel tied up to the system. Instead they want to have a flexibility that a mobile and well articulated information system could provide them with.

  • 11.
    Jedenius, Anna
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Responsiv webbdesigns inflytande på det visuella uttrycket:: Användarens upplevelser av hemsidor anpassade för datorer respektive smartphones2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Digital technology is used today to help consumers in everyday life for example, webpage design and appearance for different devices such as computers, smartphones and tablets. Homepages for all devices can be based on a specific coding called "Responsive Web Design" (RWD).From a social and literary point of view, it appears that RWD in its current form has some problems while transitioning from computer displays to tablets and smartphones. Using the common base that RWD allows for equivalent design expression to different screen sizes should be created by all devices. Although this possibility exists today, there are often differences in navigation that can confuse the user. A consistent design expression facilitates the recognition of the navigation. Additionally, the user experience (UX) through the visual expression can enhance the experience of a webpage or medium used and thus create a whole.This study describes how users look at how the implementation of RWD affects two webpages main menu for computer and smartphone devices. The focus has been on studying the user experience in relation to visual expression. The problem is that RWD in different contexts means that visual expression may be less important and thus changing the user experience. With qualitative interviews, four informants have studied two webpages on both computer and smartphone and expressed their own thoughts. The result of the study shows that the differences between webpages on the computer and smartphone devices do not cause difficulties in the use, but if the similarities between the devices are the same, it creates a more positive user experience.

  • 12.
    Jellve, Kheiron Niclas
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Easy RWD: bridging discoverability and usability in responsive web design2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Human-computer interaction problems have been approached by design practitioners and researchers for a few decades now. Usability is an established quality attribute that is used to assess how easy user interfaces are to use. Websites have been determined to benefit from such assessment, and responsive web design (RWD) is a fairly new approach to web design where usability problems have been recognised, and where usability focused research has been carried out. While usability testing can be used to determine how easy a RWD website is to use, it does not provide a detailed psychological model that tells the designer how to design RWD websites that are easy to use. Discoverability is a psychological model within the field of design in general, that can be implemented by designers who want to achieve a good design. No previous research has been carried out with the purpose of exploring how discoverability can be used to improve the usability of a RWD website, and the author of this thesis suggests that there is value in conducting such research, because it has the potential to provide new insight into how RWD websites can be designed in way that makes them easier to use. This thesis approaches the question by conducting a usability test on a RWD website, and uses the results of the test as a foundation for a suggested discoverability focused approach to improving the usability of the RWD website. 

  • 13.
    Johansson, Elin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business.
    Strid, Julia
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business.
    Digitala förutsättningar efter Googles mobile-first index: En kvalitativ studie av relationen mellan SEO och användbarhet för mobila enheter.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a qualitative study of the relationship between search engine optimization (SEO) and usability in web development for mobile devices. The aim of the study was to examine Google's algorithm update Mobile-First Index (MFI) and its impact on web development with the goal of gaining high positions for websites in Google's indexing. In previous research, results were found on the relationship between SEO and usability on computers, where the intent was to determine what was most important of the two. Related research also discusses how opinions about SEO differ between experts and end users, as well as the importance of different SEO parameters in indexing. Scientific basis was not available for MFI, due to the modernity of the update. Therefore, interviews with five experts in the field of SEO were conducted in this study. There, SEO and usability were discussed along with the growing use of mobile devices and the update that Google is now implementing to its algorithm, which has been summarized in eighteen parameters to use as web development support. Their perceptions about the area show that the difference between SEO and usability is considerably reduced today than before. It is no longer about usability versus SEO, but SEO has changed to work with usability as well. In this conclusion, it is therefore possible to argue that usability is more important than SEO, especially in mobile situations. Updates such as MFI will not have a major impact on design methods and web development if websites are mobile-friendly, hence positions in Google's indexing should not be affected. The experts instead see greater opportunities for web development today, as the more technical web also offers more opportunities, which contribute to a growing digital market. 

  • 14.
    Jönsson Lanevska, Alla
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    "Tekniken ska vara vacker": användarupplevelsen av mobila webbsidors estetik2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study contributes to the debate on the role of aesthetics within HCI by examining the effects of visual aesthetics on user-experience of mobile websites. Tractinsky's model of users' perception consisting of two dimensions termed classical and expressive aesthetics was used as a theoretical basis. A quantitative sub-study compared seven mobile and desktop sites belonging to e-commerce fashion retailers. The sites with the most contrasting characteristics were used as cases for qualitative study.

    The results demonstrate usefulness of Tractinsky's model for analysis of mobile websites' perceived aesthetics. Perceived aesthetics of mobile GUI includes both classical and expressive elements. Aesthetics impacts on both perceived usability of the mobile website and meaningfulness of the interaction. Structure and visual balance are essential for user acceptance of mobile websites. Personal, engaging and professional design increases acceptance of mobile technology and impinges on the continued user behavior. The meaning-making aspects of aesthetics such as identification and inspiration enrich user-experience and deepen users' relationship to the artifact.

  • 15.
    Nasufovski, Harun
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business.
    Gamification och online mathandel: ett förslag för att handla mer frukt och grönt.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Online grocery shopping is an ever-growing service in Sweden, as more people are starting to purchase their food online. Despite this, the Swedes do not eat well since over 51% of the population is overweight or obese, which can lead to serious diseases. The inclusion of fruits and vegetables in the daily diet has proven to be the optimal way to counteract obesity and diseases. Since year 2010, the term gamification has been formed and has meant that game elements have been used in different contexts outside of games. Studies have shown that the implementation of gamification and game elements such as points, badges and leaderboards in various services has had a positive impact on learning, teaching and, above all, motivation. The purpose of the study was to investigate how gamification could motivate people to purchase more fruit and vegetables via an online grocery shopping site. The study was conducted with a high-fidelity prototype containing the game elements badges, leaderboards, avatars, points, levels and feedback and was tested on six participants who had previously purchased food online. The qualitative methods of observation and interview were used to generate the result. The study resulted in the participants experiencing increased motivation to purchase more fruit and vegetables and showed that gamification could also be implemented in online grocery shopping services.

  • 16.
    Nilsson, Linda
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business.
    Signifiers i flat designs: Hur kommer användaren fram till vad som är klickbart?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A task for a digital designer is to create useful visual interfaces, which can be seen as, for example, text and graphics. It creates a real problem when the designer uses the popular style flat design in visual interfaces when later research indicates that the style lacks clear signals (signifiers) that tells what is clickable due to the lack of shadows. Research says that it is difficult to detect what is clickable when clickable elements do not "pop out" as in the theory of preattentive processing; which makes the style less useful. But there are contradictions in recent research which means that I want to increase understanding of how the user figure out what is clickable in flat design.Through a qualitative case study consisting of an experiment, the observation and interview methods, I examined flat design signifiers using 5 informants and 3 web pages. I found that what makes the user figure out if elements are clickable depends on the composition between the details and the whole. design laws are important. Conventions are important and the theory of preattentive processing. The informants have an inferior behavior, but they also learn as they browse and there are elements that “pop out” despite the absence of shadows.

  • 17.
    Persson, Elenor
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Från statusuppdatering till nytt jobb?: en kvalitativ studie om Facebookprofilens betydelse i rekryteringssammanhang bland småföretagare.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Employers background checks in social media is just one example of all emergent behavioralpatterns developed at the individual- enterprise- and community level because of the interactiveweb (Web 2.0) and Facebook around which a discussion is held. The results of the qualitative study is compiled in a conclusion valid for the local sample groupincluding 7 small business owners and demonstrates that employers, although it is not alwaysconsciously, are influenced in their subjective judgments about the job applicants suitability foremployment through information obtained from Facebook along with other information sources. Facebook is a web-based social platform originally designed for social interaction related toprivacy. The information are used in completely different contexts when other stakeholders in theform of decision-making professionals enter the network in order to perform background checks. This information can be interpreted and used as a basis for professional decision-making and influence users' living conditions. Earnings reports for some difficulties and opportunities ofinformation transfer through Facebook that may be of interest to consider and discuss whilecomposing social media policys related to information gathering during recruitment and duringinteraction design of social media.

  • 18.
    Projkovska, Martina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Rosén, Ida
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Att missa, eller att inte missa, det är frågan: en studie berörande mobila enheter och generation Z belyst med hjälp av joy of missing out samt fear of missing out2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the current study is to investigate the city-living generation Z, and how they are affected by the constant availability of mobile units and the Internet, to create further understanding of the target group. This is executed by usage of the notions JoMO and FoMO, to uncover which sort of behaviour generation Z is driven to as a consequence of said development. Are they driven to evasion for happiness (JoMO) or are they driven to miserability from not being to participate enough? (FoMO). Hereinafter, these behaviours are analyzed to create an understanding concerning how generation Z acts, communicates and thinks in relation to the mobile units: to create further understanding of them and to be able to create better designs for them in the future. The results and knowledge from the current study therefore aims towards starting to examine the societal issue which is lack of understanding of the relation to internet connected devices among generation Z.

  • 19.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Bergman, Anna-Karin
    FoU Helsingborg.
    Svensson, Måns
    Lund University Internet Institute.
    Danielsson, Pernilla
    PArT Helsingborg.
    Rosengren, Calle
    Lund University Internet Institute.
    Åström, Fredrik
    Lund University Internet Institute.
    Lundin, Therese
    PArT Helsingborg.
    Digital teknik och socialt arbete: att motivera socialt utsatta ungdomar med stöd avmotivationsappar och hälsoarmband2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Digital teknik och socialt arbete är en pilotstudie som syftat till att undersöka effekter av att använda aktivitetsarmband med tillhörande motivationsapp för att stärka ungdomars motivation till fysisk aktivitet och goda sömnvanor. Projektet har präglats av ett explorativt angreppsätt i det att vi undersökt hur introduktion av ny digital teknik mottas av olika målgrupper inom socialtjänsten.

    Forskning har visat sig att det finns en tydlig koppling mellan ökad fysisk aktivitet och minskad psykisk ohälsa. Sömnen är ytterligare faktor som spelar en betydande roll för barn och ungas hälsa. Vi har denna kunskap om fysiska aktivitet och sömn i samhället idag samtidigt som barn och ungas psykiska och fysiska hälsosituation utgör ett uppmärksammat folkhälsoproblem. Att barn rör på sig för lite syns hos alla grupper av barn och unga oavhängigt faktorer som familjeförhållanden, arbetsmarknadsstatus och föräldrars samhällsekonomiska status. Enligt Socialstyrelsen (2013) är det av extra vikt att barn och unga uppnår bästa möjliga hälsa eftersom det visat sig att nedsatt hälsotillstånd i unga år kan få betydelse för resten av individens liv. Insatser för att preventivt främja våra barns och ungas hälsa är därför en önskvärd och god samhällsinvestering både för den enskilda individen och för allas vår gemensamma hållbara framtid. Denna rapport beskriver resultatet av ett forsknings-och utvecklingsprojekt där vi undersökt hur appar och aktivitetsarmband skulle kunna användas för att motivera barn och unga till ökad fysisk aktivitet samt bättre sömnvanor. 

    Våra undersökningar av tidigare forskning inom problemområdet har visat på att det finns en tydlig koppling mellan ökad fysisk aktivitet och minskad psykisk ohälsa, såsom t.ex. att fysisk aktivitet kan minska depression och ångest. Fysisk aktivitet har samma effekt som psykologisk behandling och medicinering, men ger betydligt färre biverkningar än medicinering. Det finns också framgångsrika försök med viktminskningsgrupper som arbetat med stöd av digitala lösningar. Tekniken i sig kan bidra med att sätta mål, motivera, och följa upp resultat. Sociala funktioner för att kunna följa andras framsteg har visat sig öka motivation gällande att vara mer fysiskt aktiv. Angreppsätt där man låter användare mäta och följa sitt eget beteende ger den största positiva effekten för att åstadkomma hälsofrämjande beteendeförändringar. 

    Om fysisk aktivitet är bra för hälsa är sömn om möjligt ännu viktigare. Forskning inom sömn visar att det en tydlig koppling mellan sömn och vardagligt välbefinnande. Det har konstaterats att olika typer av sömn har olika funktioner. REM-sömnen har t.ex. påvisat koppling till bättre mönsterigenkänning medan djupsömnen har en påverkan på minnet. Forskning visar också att sömnlöshet påverkar immunförsvaret negativt vilket i sin tur kan bidra till sömnstörningar och övervikt hos ungdomar.

    Vad gäller teknik så visar forskning att professionell kompetens inom hälsa och medicin inte alltid används vid framtagning av teknik, vilket utgör ett återkommande problem. Det är inte enbart är tekniken som måste fungera för att insatsen ska kunna lyckas, attityden till e-hälsa bland befolkningen generellt sett kan också ha en avgörande betydelse. Om den generella bilden av tekniken bland befolkningen är negativ så är det svårt att införa och lyckas med teknikstöd. Teknikutvecklingen är snabb, och vi står inför en dramatisk ökning av olika informations- och telekommunikationsteknologier vars syfte är att förbättra och utveckla egenvård och omsorg. Frågor om integritet hamnar ofta i skymundan. Flertalet av de identifierade relevanta publikationerna fokuserade mer på tekniken än det hälsobefrämjande stödet.

    Vår bibliografiska undersökning visar att det finns förhållandevis lite av samband mellan begrepp som är relaterade till hälsoappar och egenvård kontra motivationsarbete och socialt arbete. De starkaste sambanden av intresse för oss hittade vi i ett gränsland mellan medicin och datavetenskap. Sammanfattningsvis kan vi säga att flertalet av de här identifierade akademiska publikationerna diskuterar de tekniska lösningarna i sig, eller presenterar användarvalidering av olika lösningar; snarare än socialt arbete, eget motivations- och förändringsarbete av dåliga vanor och livsmönster - som är vårt intresseområde i denna studie.

    För att bättre förstå och bidra till utmaningarna så har ett samarbete initierats mellan Helsingborgs stads Forsknings- och utvecklingsenhet för social hållbarhet (FoU Helsingborg), Preventivt arbete tillsammans (PART) från Helsingborgs stad och forskare från både Lunds Internet institut (LUii), Lunds Universitet samt Digital design, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle på Kristianstad Högskola (HKR). Ett internt utvecklingsprojekt har genomförts av PART med stöd av FoU i Helsingborgs stad. I samband med utvecklingsprojektet har ett gränsöverskridande samarbete initierats där aktionsforskning ramat in utvecklingsprojektets empiriska studie och möjliggjort en gemensam yta för ett bredare kunskapsskapande. Vårt fokus har varit ett kunskapsbildande vad gäller aktivitetsarmband och motivationsappar för barn och unga som löper risk för ohälsa. Denna rapport presenterar en akademisk kunskapsöversikt, samt resultatet från ett utvecklingsprojekt där vi tillsammans undersökt effekterna av att använda aktivitetsarmband och tillhörande social app. Vi har beforskat vilken påverkan dessa kan ha på ungdomars egen motivation till fysisk aktivitet och goda sömnvanor.

    Syftet med pilotprojektet har varit att kartlägga forskningen på området, undersöka de upplevda effekter av att använda aktivitetsarmband med tillhörande motivationsapp för att stärka deltagares motivation till fysisk aktivitet och förbättrade sömnvanor, samt undersöka hur vi kan förstå de faktorer som verkar vara mest betydande för att uppnå effekter. Det senare har vi gjort genom att fokusera på fyra övergripande områden: Användandet av motivationsapp - Hur länge och med vilken frekvens använder deltagarna armband och motivationsapp? Värdeskapande för ungdomar - Till vilka positiva resultat bidrar armband och motivationsapp? Negativa bieffekter - Kan armband och motivationsapp orsaka negativa bieffekter hos deltagarna? Om så, till vilka områden hänför sig dessa bieffekter? Värdeskapande för personal – Vilken nytta ser personalen av armband och motivationsapp i sitt arbete?

    Ur ett forskningsperspektiv så är studien att betrakta som mindre, varvid dess värde skall beaktas utifrån detta. Mer forskning behövs i området motivationsappar och socialt arbete. Studieresultatet visar på faktorer som har betydelse för frågeställningarna, som också kan identifieras i tidigare forskning. Positiva upplevelser har varit att ungdomarna fått en märkbart ökad medvetenhet om sina egna levnadsmönster vad gäller motion och sömn. Tydligast märktes den nya medvetenhet som växte fram runt egna sömnvanor, även att dessa inte alltid gick att åtgärda på egen hand. Det var också uppenbart att den nya medvetenheten ledde ökad motivation och fysisk aktivitet. Identifierade negativa bieffekter var att stress kunde uppstå när ungdomarna var förhindrade att själva öka sitt stegantal samtidigt som de såg andra ungdomars resultat öka. Det rapporterades problem med att sköta den dagliga laddningen av aktivitetsarmbandet, samt att aktivera sömnmätningen när de skulle lägga sig. Ett stort värde för personalen var att de fick ett instrument som berikade kommunikationen utifrån “objektiv” data genererad av ungdomarnas egna mätningar av motion och sömn. Ett verktyg som utgjorde god hjälp för samtal, som i sig kunde bidra till bättre struktur i ungdomars liv.

  • 20.
    Wastring, Emma
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    En ny teknikkultur: äkthet i sociala medier2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis gives increased knowledge of how a digital artifact in social media might encourage genuineness, as an antithesis to profiling in order to create a balance between profiling and genuineness. The thesis treats the area of “ how and why we present ourselves in a certain way in social media”. This is understood and discussed with the help of two endpoints; profiling and genuinness in social media. The study also discusses the role of the designer in this context.

    The thesis explores the area through a literature, but also conduct its own study in the form of semi-structured group interviews. The study shows that stakeholders feels pressure to profiling from social media. Public areas seems to benefit profiling, while smaller context favors genuinness. When it comes to the form of communication it seems that profiling is favored from the forms of communication that come as far from the physically real meeting as possible, while the communicatonforms that provide the experiences similar to a physically real meeting is perceived to be the most genuine.

    The thesis suggests that an digital artefact in social media that aim to encourage genuinness should create a safe environment, where everything is not always for everyone and where the forms of communication that promotes genuinness is encouraged.

  • 21.
    Ågren, Emy Svetlana
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Datorer som förändringsredskap i dagens undervisning: en studie kring hur IKT inflytande i utbildningssektor påverkade undervisning och lärande2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The usage of computers and Information and Communication technologies (ICT) has changed the way people communicate and share information in many areas, and education is the one of the sectors where ICT plays a major role.

    Over the past few years educational sector introduced many new technologies to support teaching and learning methods. To maintain competitiveness at international level, the investment in ICT in schools has grown constantly.

    Due to the growing influence of ICT on educational sector the view of people has changed drastically on teaching and learning. Previous research points out that ICT develop students’ different abilities, such as increased learning, abilities to process and handle huge amount of data, as well as intellectual growth. It is also helps students to achieve better academic results by performing better in some of the academic courses. ICT also erases previous limits and allows doing things that were not possible to do before. Some of the examples are flexibility in work and studies, distance learning. According to my study many teachers and students, believe that the investment in ICT is very important because it helps to increase the number of IT- skilled citizens as well as makes school more flexible thus, improves the quality of learning. This work investigates also the possibilities that can be explored with ICT in education, such as importance of investment in ICT in schools, importance of ICT in education and learning in general. My study has shown that, both teachers and students sometimes will be involved in their work and studies even at leisure time. My study has found that ICT improves and facilitates the ways of teaching and learning, as well as learning improves. ICT with these portable technologies make students life more flexible. My interviews indicate that flexibility is good, though there are some risks or disadvantages with ICT in education, including increased plagiarism, as well as superficial learning may be increased. Information search with help of ICT has become easier, according to earlier research, though less than half of all respondents in my study doubt this. The study demonstrates that it is important to invest in education and guidance of information search. Wastage of time is also common problem in school and sometimes this happens because students are not able to use the technology efficiently.

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