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  • 1.
    Andersson, Malin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Engervall, Magnus
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    The Relationship Between Mindfulness and Work-Related Stress2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stress is both a health risk and an economic risk for our society. Employers search for ways to offer possible stress reducers for their employees. Mindfulness as a stress reducer is a fairly new research area but with a good amount of research papers suggesting that mindfulness programmes over several weeks are successful in reducing subjective perceived stress as well as physiological stress, such as blood pressure and cortisol levels. This study aims to examine whether mindfulness could show positive effects on stress at work, after only one mindfulness session, compared to being on an extended break. Measurements includes the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ), blood pressure and pulse. The results show that engaging in one single mindfulness session does have an effect on lowering blood pressure as well as lowering perceived tension, which is one of four parts of the SMBQ. 

  • 2.
    Johansson, Stina
    et al.
    LTH Teknik och Samhälle.
    Siotis, Camilla
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Barn och unga i kollektivtrafiken2012Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Rosander, Pia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Bäckström, Martin
    Lunds universitet.
    Personality traits measured at baseline can predict academic performance in upper secondary school three years late2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 611-618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to explore the ability of personality to predict academic performance in a longitudinal study of a Swedish upper secondary school sample. Academic performance was assessed throughout a three-year period via final grades from the compulsory school and upper secondary school. The Big Five personality factors (Costa & McCrae, 1992) - particularly Conscientiousness and Neuroticism - were found to predict overall academic performance, after controlling for general intelligence. Results suggest that Conscientiousness, as measured at the age of 16, can explain change in academic performance at the age of 19. The effect of Neuroticism on Conscientiousness indicates that, as regarding getting good grades, it is better to be a bit neurotic than to be stable. The study extends previous work by assessing the relationship between the Big Five and academic performance over a three-year period. The results offer educators avenues for improving educational achievement.

  • 4.
    Sonnby-Borgström, Marianne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Lunds universitet.
    Svensson, Owe
    Gender differences in facial imitation and verbally reported emotional contagion from spontaneous to emotionally regulated processing levels2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 111-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies on gender differences in facial imitation and verbally reported emotional contagion have investigated emotional responses to pictures of facial expressions at supraliminal exposure times. The aim of the present study was to investigate how gender differences are related to different exposure times, representing information processing levels from subliminal (spontaneous) to supraliminal (emotionally regulated). Further, the study aimed at exploring correlations between verbally reported emotional contagion and facial responses for men and women. Masked pictures of angry, happy and sad facial expressions were presented to 102 participants (51 men) at exposure times from subliminal (23 ms) to clearly supraliminal (2500 ms). Myoelectric activity (EMG) from the corrugator and the zygomaticus was measured and the participants reported their hedonic tone (verbally reported emotional contagion) after stimulus exposures. The results showed an effect of exposure time on gender differences in facial responses as well as in verbally reported emotional contagion. Women amplified imitative responses towards happy vs. angry faces and verbally reported emotional contagion with prolonged exposure times, whereas men did not. No gender differences were detected at the subliminal or borderliminal exposure times, but at the supraliminal exposure gender differences were found in imitation as well as in verbally reported emotional contagion. Women showed correspondence between their facial responses and their verbally reported emotional contagion to a greater extent than men. The results were interpreted in terms of gender differences in emotion regulation, rather than as differences in biologically prepared emotional reactivity.

  • 5.
    Thuen, Frode
    et al.
    Norge.
    Masche-No, Johanna G.
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Psykologi.
    Raffing, Rie
    Danmark.
    Do heterosexual couples with children benefit equally from relationship education programs despite various backgrounds?: effects of a Danish version of the prevention and relationship education program (PREP)2017In: Scandinavian Psychologist, ISSN 1894-5570, Vol. 4, no e12, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known on whether the effects of marriage education programs such as the Prevention and Relationship Enhancement Program (PREP) hold across genders or are moderated by risk factors (participants’ parents’ relationship instability, participants’ low level of education, being unmarried, previous relationship counseling, who initiated program participation, having many children). This trial of 889 participants revealed medium to large improvements in relationship satisfaction and communication from baseline to posttest. Only a few tentative moderating factors were identified. Women who were at risk, as indicated by previous relationship counseling, even caught up with others without such risk at the outset. However, men with little higher education did not improve on all measures. Thus, overall, PREP appears applicable for the prevention of intimate relationship problems in a broad range of circumstances. One of the strengths of this study includes the examination of PREP effects in a real-life application across an entire Scandinavian country.

  • 6.
    Torrance, Mark
    et al.
    Psychology division, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK.
    Johansson, Roger
    Department of psychology, Lund University.
    Johansson, Victoria
    Lunds universitet.
    Wengelin, Åsa
    Institutionen för svenska, Göteborgs universitet.
    Reading during the composition of multi-sentence texts: an eye-movement study2015In: Psychological Research, ISSN 0340-0727, E-ISSN 1430-2772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Writers composing multi-sentence texts have immediate access to a visual representation of what they have written. Little is known about the detail of writers’ eye movements within this text during production. We describe two experiments in which competent adult writ- ers’ eye movements were tracked while performing short expository writing tasks. These are contrasted with condi- tions in which participants read and evaluated researcher- provided texts. Writers spent a mean of around 13 % of their time looking back into their text. Initiation of these look-back sequences was strongly predicted by linguisti- cally important boundaries in their ongoing production (e.g., writers were much more likely to look back imme- diately prior to starting a new sentence). 36 % of look-back sequences were associated with sustained reading and the remainder with less patterned forward and backward sac- cades between words (‘‘hopping’’). Fixation and gaze durations and the presence of word-length effects sug- gested lexical processing of fixated words in both reading and hopping sequences. Word frequency effects were not present when writers read their own text. Findings demonstrate the technical possibility and potential value of examining writers’ fixations within their just-written text. 

    We suggest that these fixations do not serve solely, or even primarily, in monitoring for error, but play an important role in planning ongoing production. 

  • 7.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education.
    Political bias in hiring: people consider political opponents as less hireable than others without weighting criteria to justify why2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that characteristics like gender and ethnicity can affect the possibility to be hired. Decisions in hiring may also be justified by weighting the importance of hiring criteria and can thus seem unbiased. In other areas, bias due to political affiliation have been noted to be even more pronounced than bias due to ethnicity. However, effects of candidates’ political affiliation in hiring are not equally researched. This study aimed to fill this blank. Participants (N= 283) were randomized to a between-subjects design; A third read a resumé from a candidate affiliating with the The Left Party, a third read a resumé from a candidate affiliating with The Sweden Democrats, a party at the right end of the spectrum, and a third read a resumé from a candidate with no political affiliation. After reading the resumés, participants evaluated the hireability of their candidate. They also stated which hiring criteria, experience or education, was considered most important in this evaluation. Results showed that participants evaluated candidates with divergent political affiliation from the own as less hireable than candidates with unknown political affiliation, or a politicalaffiliation more similar to the own. Cues of political affiliation may thus be a disadvantage for an individual, applying for a job. However, biased evaluations were not justified to seem unbiased by weighting criteria. It is suggested that social norms do not imply hiding political bias to the same degree as bias due to for example gender or ethnicity.

  • 8.
    Österlind, Marie-Louise
    Kristianstad University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Head teachers: street level bureaucrats or pedagogues?2003In: Psychological constructivism and the social world / [ed] Chiari, Gabriele & Nuzzo Maria Laura, EPCA Publications , 2003, p. 213-219Chapter in book (Other academic)
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