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  • 1.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Innes-Ker, Åse Helene
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Holmgren, Jessica
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Fredin, Gunilla
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Children's and adults' realism in their event-recall confidence in responses to free recall and focused questions2008In: Psychology, Crime and Law, ISSN 1068-316X, E-ISSN 1477-2744, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 529-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two experiments examined the realism in the confidence of 8-9-year-olds, 12-13-year-olds and adults in their free recall and answers to focused questions after viewing a short video clip. A different video clip was shown in each experiment and the focused questions differed in difficulty. In both experiments the youngest age group, in contrast to the two other age groups, showed no overconfidence in their confidence judgements for the free recall. The free recall results also showed that the youngest group had lower completeness but similar correctness as the adults. There was a tendency, over both experiments, for the participants to show poorer realism for the focused questions than for the free recall, especially when questions with content already mentioned in the free recall were excluded from the analyses of the focused questions in Experiment 1. The study shows the importance of question format when evaluating the credibility of the confidence shown by 8-9-year-old children in their own testimony.

  • 2.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Innes-Ker, Åse Helene
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Holmgren, Jessica
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Fredin, Gunilla
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Children's and adults' realism in their event-recall confidence in responses to free recall and focussed questions2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Innes-Ker, Åse
    Lunds universitet.
    Holmgren, Jessica
    Lunds universitet.
    Fredin, Gunilla
    Lunds universitet.
    Barns händelseminne jämfört med vuxnas: korrekthet och realism i konfidens som effekt av frågetyp och minnesuppgiftens svårighet2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Innes-Ker, Åse
    Lunds universitet.
    Holmgren, Jessica
    Lunds universitet.
    Fredin, Gunilla
    Lunds universitet.
    Children's and adults' realism in their event-recall confidence in response to free recall and focussed questions.2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Anderson, Rachele
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Psykologi.
    Sandsten, Maria
    Lund University.
    Modelling of time-varying HRV using locally stationary processes2017In: Abstract book: at EMBEC'17 & NBC'17, 2017, p. 44-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimates of heart rate variability (HRV), and particularly parameters related to high frequency HRV (HF-HRV), are in-creasingly used as a proxy of cardiac parasympathetic nervous system regulation. Reduced HF-HRV is related to attention deficits, depression, various anxiety disorders, long-term work related stress or burnout, and cardiovascular diseases [1,2]. In this work, a stochastic model, known as

    Locally Stationary Processes, [3], is applied to HRV data sequences from 47 test participants. The model parameters are estimated with a novel inference method and regression using a number of available covariates is used to investigate their correlation with the stochastic model parameters.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Jessica
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Färdigh, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Kriminalvårdares och polisers syn på intagna i anstalt: en studie i attityd och personlighet2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Attityder påverkar vår informationshantering, vårt omdöme och vårt beteende. Denna studie syftar till att undersöka om fenomenet skiljer sig mellan olika grupper och om det har att göra med personlighet. 120 personer ur grupperna poliser, kriminalvårdare och en kontrollgrupp undersöktes avseende attityder till intagna och Big Five teorins personlighetsdimensioner. En one-way ANOVA visade inga signifikanta skillnader mellan grupperna. Två-vägs variansanalyser användes för att undersöka eventuella huvudeffekter och interaktionseffekter med hög respektive låg grad av samtliga personlighetsdimensioner samt variablerna anställning (kriminalvårdare, poliser och kontrollgrupp) och attityd till intagna. Inga signifikanta resultat påträffades.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Malin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Engervall, Magnus
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    The Relationship Between Mindfulness and Work-Related Stress2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stress is both a health risk and an economic risk for our society. Employers search for ways to offer possible stress reducers for their employees. Mindfulness as a stress reducer is a fairly new research area but with a good amount of research papers suggesting that mindfulness programmes over several weeks are successful in reducing subjective perceived stress as well as physiological stress, such as blood pressure and cortisol levels. This study aims to examine whether mindfulness could show positive effects on stress at work, after only one mindfulness session, compared to being on an extended break. Measurements includes the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ), blood pressure and pulse. The results show that engaging in one single mindfulness session does have an effect on lowering blood pressure as well as lowering perceived tension, which is one of four parts of the SMBQ. 

  • 8.
    Annerstedt, Matilda
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Lund University.
    Wallergård, Mattias
    Lund University.
    Johansson, Gerd
    Lund University.
    Karlson, Björn
    Lund University.
    Grahn, Patrik
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Hansen, Ase Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Währborg, Peter
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Inducing physiological stress recovery with sounds of nature in a virtual reality forest: results from a pilot study2013In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 118, p. 240-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental research on stress recovery in natural environments is limited, as is study of the effect of sounds of nature. After inducing stress by means of a virtual stress test, we explored physiological recovery in two different virtual natural environments (with and without exposure to sounds of nature) and in one control condition. Cardiovascular data and saliva cortisol were collected. Repeated ANOVA measurements indicated parasympathetic activation in the group subjected to sounds of nature in a virtual natural environment, suggesting enhanced stress recovery may occur in such surroundings. The group that recovered in virtual nature without sound and the control group displayed no particular autonomic activation or deactivation. The results demonstrate a potential mechanistic link between nature, the sounds of nature, and stress recovery, and suggest the potential importance of virtual reality as a tool in this research field.

  • 9.
    Asplund Brattberg, Marcus
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Adaptive Memory: Survival Processing in Ancestral and Fictional Scenarios2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the function behind adaptive memory by comparing groups of participants processing information in  ancestral and fictional  scenarios related to survival.  The  thesis  was  that  participants  would  retain  information  to  a  higher  extent  if processing  occurred  in  a  fictional,  threatening  scenario  compared  to  scenarios  based  on pleasantness  and survival  in  grasslands. There  were four different  scenarios,  whereas three acted as experimental and one as a control. The comparison was measured by the number of recalled words after a rating process which consisted of rating the relevance of words to survival in respective scenario. Seventy-one participants of differing age were recruited from different parts of the world through social media. They participated by completing a memory experiment on  Explorable.com.  The  results  showed  that  there  were  no  significant  differences  between groups and the number of rated words recalled. The thesis could therefore not be confirmed. No significant difference could be found in rating of the words in the different scenarios. Much research made on the topic of adaptive memory has suggested that participants remember better when processing information in scenarios described as threatening survival in grasslands and during a zombie outbreak. It seems that simple threat to survival does not increase the retention of information. The increased retention found in scenarios related to zombies may not be due to the popularity this subject has in film and games.

  • 10.
    Augustine, Lilly
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Psykologi. Jönköping University.
    Lygnegård, Frida
    Jönköping University.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University.
    Adolfsson, Margareta
    Jönköping University.
    Linking youths' mental, psychosocial, and emotional functioning to ICF-CY: lessons learned2017In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 40, no 19, p. 2293-2299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Linking ready-made questionnaires to codes within the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Children and Youth Version with the intention of using the information statistically for studying mental health problems can pose several challenges. Many of the constructs measured are latent, and therefore, difficult to describe in single codes. The aim of this study was to describe and discuss challenges encountered in this coding process.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire from a Swedish research programme was linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Children and Youth Version and the agreement was assessed.

    RESULTS: Including the original aim of the questionnaire into the coding process was found to be very important for managing the coding of the latent constructs of the items. Items from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Children and Youth Version chapters with narrow definitions for example mental functions, were more easily translated to meaningful concepts to code, while broadly defined chapters, such as interactions and relationships, were more difficult.

    CONCLUSION: This study stresses the importance of a clear, predefined coding scheme as well as the importance of not relying too heavily on common linking rules, especially in cases when it is not possible to use multiple codes for a single item. Implications for rehabilitation The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Children and Youth Version, is a useful tool for merging assessment data from several sources when documenting adolescents' mental functioning in different life domains. Measures of mental health are often based on latent constructs, often revealed in the description of the rationale/aim of a measure. The latent construct should be the primary focus in linking information. By mapping latent constructs to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Children and Youth Version, users of the classification can capture a broad range of areas relevant to everyday functioning in adolescents with mental health problems. The subjective experience of participation, i.e., the level of subjective involvement, is not possible to code into the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Children and Youth Version. However, when linking mental health constructs to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Children and Youth Version codes, the two dimensions of participation (the being there, and the level of involvement) need to be separated in the linking process. This can be performed by assigning codes focusing on being there as separate from items focusing on the subjective experience of involvement while being there.

  • 11.
    Aupée, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Lunds universitet.
    Age-related changes of phasic heart rate responses to affective pictures2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 325-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined age differences in phasic heart rate in response to neutral, negative and positive pictures. Heart rate changes and subjective ratings were analyzed in 22 middle-aged (40-55 years) and 30 older (56-78 years) participants. The effects of valence on the HR pattern across time were similar to that obtained by Bradley and co-workers. Conversely to previous studies, we did not report any age-related reduction in cardiac reactivity. Instead, when viewing positive pictures, the triphasic wave form appeared in the group of older adults, but for younger participants, it was replaced by a sustained deceleration. These results were interpreted in the light of the socioemotional selectivity theory.

  • 12.
    Badin, Iulia
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Personlighet, val av utbildning och prestation: en studie av svenska studenter inom humaniora och ekonomi2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within the framework of the Big Five factor model, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between personality and choice of college major as well as academic performance in a Swedish sample. A secondary aim was to test whether Hollands (1997) vocational choice theory, which was developed for almost 20 years ago in the United States, could be meaningful for Sweden in present-days. A total of 177 students enrolled in college majors within Humanities (N = 121) and Economics (N = 56) from several Swedish universities used a web-based survey to complete the IPIP-NEO-PI inventory (Goldberg, 1999) and to answer questions about their studies, their academic performance and vocational interests according to the RIASEC model (Holland, 1997). Multivariate covariance analyses showed that there were personality differences between humanities students and economics students that seem to pre-exist rather than to be a consequence of a socialization process. Correlation analyses, separate for the two groups, showed different associations of personality factors with performance across groups. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the personality factors that predict performance were different when only data from humanities students was analysed and when data from the whole sample was analysed which can be interpreted as if the personality factors that predict performance are different across majors. Finally, results showed that there are differences between educational environments of humanities and economics according to the RIASC model. For humanities students, but nor for economics students, the results also showed that “fit” between the individuals profiles and the profile of the environment leads to higher performance. These results are discussed in relation to previous research in the field. From a wider perspective the implications for practice of these results are discussed as well as insights about aspects needed to be considered in future research.

  • 13.
    Beery, Thomas
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Wolf-Watz, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University.
    Nature to place: rethinking the environmental connectedness perspective2014In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 40, no December, p. 198-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental connectedness perspective posits that direct encounter with generalized, or non-specific “nature,” leads to environmental connectedness and subsequent pro-environmental behavior. This article examines this perspective and proposes a place-based application of the nature encounter-environmental behavior relation. An empirical study using data from a national survey on outdoor recreation and nature-based tourism is presented. Results show a minimal relationship between measures of environmental connectedness and self-reports of environmental behavior. The following examination of the environmental connectedness perspective reveals that environmental connectedness is rooted in a material/objective perspective, neglecting the human domain of perceptions, values, and representations. The environment as “nature” is portrayed as a geographically undefined agent with the inherent power to change human attitudes and behavior. Based on this, the article concludes with a proposed replacement of the elusive concept of nature for the relational concept of place.

  • 14.
    Bengtsson, Hans
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Psouni, Elia
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Mothers' representations of caregiving and their adult children's representations of attachment: intergenerational concordance and relations to beliefs about mothering2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 247-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mothers (N= 35) and their adult children completed questionnaires and were interviewed in order to examine relationships between mothers' caregiving representations and their adult children's attachment representations, and relationships between attachment/caregiving representations and beliefs about mothering. Mothers' and their children's accounts of and present thinking about their past relationship were highly similar, indicating that the two parts develop concordant states of mind regarding their relationship. In contrast, there was no relationship between mothers' and their adult children's beliefs about mothering, suggesting that such beliefs are not simply passed on from generation to generation within families. Attachment/caregiving classification interacted with generation in influencing a belief that biological facts determine maternal behavior, young adults with preoccupied attachment being particularly prone to reject this idea. Attachment/caregiving classification also had a significant effect on participants' tendency to adhere to an idealized conception of mothering, this tendency being associated with a dismissive attachment/caregiving representation.

  • 15.
    Bengtsson, Martin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Pettersson, Sven-Erik
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Påverkar en diskussion av ett signalement med ett annat vittne realismen i konfidensbedömningarna vid en identifiering i en bildkonfrontation?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien undersökte hur realismen i vittnens konfidensbedömningar av sina identifikationsminnen påverkas av att vittnena diskuterar rapporterade signalementen med varandra innan de, var för sig, gör utpekanden i en vittneskonfrontation. Deltagarna fick se en filmatisering av ett fingerat bilinbrott och därefter avge ett skriftligt signalement. Hälften av deltagarna (n=32) fick sedan diskutera sig fram till ett gemensamt signalement (parvillkor) medan andra hälften (n=32) fick avge ett muntligt signalement (individvillkor). Därefter fick deltagarna individuellt göra utpekanden i en sekventiell bildkonfrontation och göra konfidensbedömningar. Realismen i konfidensbedömningarna beräknades enligt kalibreringsmetodik och resultaten för de båda villkoren jämfördes med t-tester. Vi fann att realismen för parvillkoret var signifikant bättre än för individvillkoret för måttet kalibrering. Vi fann också att konfidensen i parvillkoret var signifikant högre i de fall de avgett samma svar än i de fall de avgett olika svar. Olika möjliga förklaringar till resultaten presenterades.

  • 16.
    Berglund, Anna
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Hård eller mjuk?: val av metoder i hundträning speglar personlighet och sociala attityder2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I litteraturen antyds ibland att dominansåsikter och uppfattningen att hundar ska behandlas med hårda tag för att uppnå lydnad tycks hänga ihop. Däremot verkar det inte ha genomförts några studier för att undersöka om sambandet verkligen existerar. En Internetbaserad enkätundersökning med 355 deltagare genomfördes för att undersöka om ett antal personlighetsdrag predicerar klassiska dominansattityder mot hundar. Dessutom undersöktes om samma variabler plus klassiska dominansattityder predicerar en överseende attityd till plågsamma metoder för att uppnå hundlydnad. Av variablerna visade sig manligt kön och klassiska dominansattityder vara de viktigaste för att predicera en överseende attityd till plågsamma metoder. För att predicera en hög grad av klassiska dominansattityder var manligt kön och en hög grad av social dominansorientering viktigast.

  • 17.
    Berglund, Malin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Stereotyper i politiken: finns de och hur ser de ut?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att se om det förekommer stereotypiska bilder av värderingar hos människor som anser sig höra till höger respektive vänster på den politiska skalan i Sverige. Studien har genomförts som en experimentell inomgruppsdesign där fokus legat på fyra  enligt psykologisk teori olika grundvärderingar som anses stå i motsats till varandra - selftranscendence och selfenhancement samt normativism och humanism. I Sverige finns ingen tidigare forskning på området, men forskning som utförts i andra länder indikerar att politiska opponenter utvecklar stereotypiska bilder av varandra och att detta kan påverka förhandlingar samt eventuellt också leda till överdrivna konflikter dem emellan. Den aktuella studien utgjordes av personer som skattar sig själva att höra till vänster (N=92) respektive höger (N=42) på den svenska politiska skalan. Resultatet visade att det skiljer sig markant i hur deltagare generellt skattade typiska personer som röstar antingen åt vänster eller höger inom den svenska politiken vad gäller deras grundvärderingar och slutsatsen kunde därför dras att det existerar stereotypiska värderingsbilder för de olika ändarna på den svenska höger- och vänsterskalan. Personer som själva skattar sig höra till vänster inom den svenska politiken visade sig också ha en tendens att i något högre grad utveckla stereotypiska värderingsbilder än personer som skattar sig till höger. För vidare forskning föreslås att jämföra stereotypiska värderingsbilder med verkliga värderingsskillnader mellan människor som skattar sig höra till höger respektive vänster för att kunna dra bättre slutsatser kring vilken påverkan dessa skulle kunna ha vad gäller konflikter inom politiken.

  • 18.
    Bergquist Fransson, Anna
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Att skjuta upp arbetsuppgifter: Finns det en relation mellan medarbetarens prokrastinering och en effektiv organisation ?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Why do some people postpone tasks until the last moment, even though it may have negative consequences? Previous studies on procrastination has been mostly focused on students and school work, but this behaviour and approach are also in other life and professional field and to get a broader picture of how these are affected further research is needed. This study examines whether there is a relationship between procrastination and effective organizations. The study was conducted through a questionnaire answered by 157 people divided between two companies, working with technology and process in Sweden and Norway. The questionnaire consisted of questions from Pure Procrastination Scale (PPS), as well as questions concerning factors related to an organization's efficiency. The study's main results showed that organizational goals and opportunity have a relation to procrastination and that males have a higher tendency to procrastinate than women.

  • 19.
    Bertills, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University.
    Augustine, Lilly
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Psykologi. Jönköping University.
    Measuring self-efficacy, aptitude to participate and functioning in students with and without impairments2018In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 572-583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Including vulnerable groups of students such as students with learning disabilities in mainstream school research, require ethical considerations and questionnaire adaptation. These students are often excluded, due to low understanding or methodologies generating inadequate data. Students with disability need be studied as a separate group and provided accessible questionnaires. This pilot study aims at developing and evaluating student self-reported measures, rating aspects of student experiences of school-based Physical Education (PE). Instrument design, reliability and validity were examined in Swedish secondary school students (n = 47) including students, aged 13, with intellectual disability (n = 5) and without impairment and test–retested on 28 of these students. Psychometric results from the small pilot-study sample were confirmed in analyses based on replies from the first wave of data collection in the main study (n = 450). Results show adequate internal consistency, factor structure and relations between measures. In conclusion, reliability and validity were satisfactory in scales to measure self-efficacy in general, in PE, and aptitude to participate. Adapting proxy ratings for functioning into self-reports indicated problems. Adequacy of adjustments made were confirmed and a dichotomous scale for typical/atypical function is suggested for further analyses.

  • 20.
    Bertills, Karin
    et al.
    Jönkoping University.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönkoping University.
    Dahlstrom, Orjan
    Linköping University.
    Augustine, Lilly
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Relationships between physical education (PE) teaching and student self-efficacy, aptitude to participate in PE and functional skills: with a special focus on students with disabilities2018In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 387-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Students with disability show an increasing incidence of school failure. Quality teaching and appropriate support may foster high self-efficacy, a predictive factor for successful school outcomes. Physical Education (PE) can provide students with a context in which self-efficacy and participation are promoted leading to improved academic achievement. The transition into secondary school can be challenging for many students with increased educational demands, developmental changes and individual social identification coinciding. A disability may add to the challenge of success.Methods: Three groups of students, aged 13 years and enrolled in Swedish mainstream schools were targeted (n=439). Groups included students with 1.A diagnosed disability, 2.Low grades in PE (D-F) and 3.High grades (A-C) in PE. Questionnaires were collected and analyzed from 30/439 students with a diagnosed disability (physical, neuro-developmental and intellectual) from 26 classes, their classmates and their PE-teachers (n=25). Relationships between student self-reports and PE-teachers' self-ratings were investigated. Also examined was the potential to which students' functional skills could predict elevated general school self-efficacy, PE specific self-efficacy and aptitude to participate in PE. Results were compared with the total sample and between the three target groups (n=121).Results: For students with disabilities, better self-rated teaching skills were related to lower student perceived general school self-efficacy, PE specific self-efficacy and aptitude to participate in PE. The impact of classroom climate in PE was more obvious among students with disabilities. Perceived functional skills were associated with elevated general school self-efficacy, PE specific self-efficacy and aptitude to participate in PE. Better socio-cognitive functional skills had an overall positive effect on all outcomes. Students with disabilities reported results similar to the total sample, the D-F group scored lower and the A-C group higher than the total sample and the disability group. Elevated self-efficacy in PE is six times less probable in students with disabilities, compared to the A-C group.Conclusions: Our findings that better teacher planning and grading skills, are detrimental to students disadvantaged by disability is contradictive. Improving the establishment and communication of adapted learning standards at the transition to secondary school is a crucial and a predictive factor for promoting positive school experiences for students with disability. Students with disabilities need to be assured that the intended learning outcomes can be reached by doing activities differently than their typically functioning peers. Consideration of class composition is suggested as a means of promoting a positive learning climate, which would particularly benefit students with disabilities. Allocation of resources to support student socio-cognitive skills would improve experiences for the D-F group and likely promote a positive learning environment.

  • 21.
    Bertilsson, Daniel
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Glad och fortfarande glad: uppmärksamhetsbias mot belönande ord2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att se om känslan glädje leder till att man uppmärksammar en viss typ av information i större utsträckning än annan. I detta fall för positivt belönande ord respektive positivt icke belönande ord. Denna studie är en replikering av Tamir & Robinsons (2007) studie som fick belägg för detta. Deltagarna delades in i två grupper där experimentgruppen som bestod av 9 deltagare fick i uppgift att skriva ner en händelse som gjort och fortfarande gör dem glada för att väcka ett tillstånd av glädje. Kontrollgruppen som bestod av 10 deltagare fick istället i uppgift att minnas och skriva ner hur deras sovrum ser ut för att hamna i ett neutralt tillstånd. Deltagarna slumpades in i respektive grupper och fick 5 minuter på sig att göra denna uppgift. Efter uppgiften fick deltagarna fylla i ett formulär som mäter aktuellt känsloläge, och här skilde sig grupperna signifikant från varandra.Glädje var den känslan som skiljde sig signifikant mellan grupperna. Dot probe task användes för att mäta uppmärksamhetsbias men inga signifikanta skillnader mellan grupperna visades. Detta innebär att glädje i denna studie inte styrde uppmärksamheten mot generellt belönande information. E-prime 2.0 användes som verktyg för att bygga och utföra experimentet.

  • 22.
    Bolstad, Ingeborg
    et al.
    KG Jebsen Centre for Psychosis Research, Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital.
    Andreassen, Ole A.
    KG Jebsen Centre for Psychosis Research, Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital.
    Reckless, Greg E.
    KG Jebsen Centre for Psychosis Research, Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital.
    Sigvartsen, Niels P.
    KG Jebsen Centre for Psychosis Research, Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital.
    Server, Andres
    Department of Neuroradiology, Oslo University Hospital.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Aversive event anticipation affects connectivity between the ventral striatum and the orbitofrontal cortex in an fMRI avoidance task2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 6, p. e68494-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ability to anticipate aversive events is important for avoiding dangerous or unpleasant situations. The motivation to avoid an event is influenced by the incentive salience of an event-predicting cue. In an avoidance fMRI task we used tone intensities to manipulate salience in order to study the involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex in processing of incentive salience. In the task, cues predicting either aversive or neutral avoidable tones were presented. Ventral striatum, amygdala and anterior insula activations were significantly stronger during presentation of cues for aversive than neutral tones. A psychophysiological interaction analysis showed stronger connectivity between the ventral striatum and the orbitofrontal cortex during aversive than neutral conditions. The present study shows an interaction between the ventral striatum, a structure previously linked to negative incentive salience, and the orbitofrontal cortex supporting a role for this region in processing salience. In addition, this study replicates previous findings suggesting that the task is robust.

  • 23.
    Boström, Kristina
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Using your strengths: Strengths use and its relation to stress in Sweden2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Stress is a widespread problem and in Sweden many of the long-term sick are due to stress related causes. Discussions about how to reduce stress are present. Positive psychology offers one potential way to reduce stress. One intervention that has strong benefits is to know ones strengths of character, this has benefits both in reducing depression and stress as well as increasing well-being. Coaching psychologists stands on the platform of positive psychology and may play a key role in guiding healthy people preventive through reduced risk for stress related health adversatives. The aim of this essay is to investigate impact of strengths on perceived stress and well-being. Method: A test battery containing questionnaires about psychological well-being, subjective well-being, strengths of character, strengths use and stress were put together and administered via internet to the participants. Results: A total of 21 participants answered the questionnaire (10 male). The main finding includes that stress were positively correlated with satisfaction with life, psychological well-being and negatively correlated with negative affect. Strengths use was positively correlated with psychological well-being and positive affect. A multiple regression analysis showed that only negative affect and strengths use was strong predictor of perceived stress. Conclusion: As strengths use are related to stress in two ways, both by predicting presence of stress and by increasing well-being, which in turn are related to lower perceived stress.

  • 24.
    Brandt, Christine Lycke
    et al.
    Norge.
    Kaufmann, Tobias
    Norge.
    Agartz, Ingrid
    Norge.
    Hugdahl, Kenneth
    Norge.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Ueland, Torill
    Norge.
    Haatveit, Beathe
    Norge.
    Skatun, Kristina C.
    Norge.
    Doan, Nhat Trung
    Norge.
    Melle, Ingrid
    Norge.
    Andreassen, Ole A.
    Norge.
    Westlye, Lars T.
    Norge.
    Cognitive effort and schizophrenia modulate large-scale functional brain connectivity2015In: Schizophrenia Bulletin, ISSN 0586-7614, E-ISSN 1745-1701, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 1360-1369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is characterized by cognitive dysfunction and disorganized thought, in addition to hallucinations and delusions, and is regarded a disorder of brain connectivity. Recent efforts have been made to characterize the underlying brain network organization and interactions. However, to which degree connectivity alterations in SZ vary across different levels of cognitive effort is unknown. Utilizing independent component analysis (ICA) and methods for delineating functional connectivity measures from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, we investigated the effects of cognitive effort, SZ and their interactions on between-network functional connectivity during 2 levels of cognitive load in a large and well-characterized sample of SZ patients (n = 99) and healthy individuals (n = 143). Cognitive load influenced a majority of the functional connections, including but not limited to fronto-parietal and default-mode networks, reflecting both decreases and increases in between-network synchronization. Reduced connectivity in SZ was identified in 2 large-scale functional connections across load conditions, with a particular involvement of an insular network. The results document an important role of interactions between insular, default-mode, and visual networks in SZ pathophysiology. The interplay between brain networks was robustly modulated by cognitive effort, but the reduced functional connectivity in SZ, primarily related to an insular network, was independent of cognitive load, indicating a relatively general brain network-level dysfunction.

  • 25.
    Bredefeldt Öhman, Monica
    Kristianstad University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Episodiskt minne: finns det något sådant?2003In: Nordisk Psykologi: teori, forskning, praksis, ISSN 0029-1463, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 232-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distinction between semantic and episodic memory is discussed on the basis of an empirical study focusing on mental representations and autobiographical memory. The notion of episodic memory is called in question. An alternative model is proposed which is grounded in whether the memory is refering to the self or not, and if a phenomenal reliving experience is activated or not. In the proposed model autobiographical memory and semantic memory are partly overlapping but the recollective memory is regarded to be a "natural kind" and consequently secluded. Everything a person knows and remembers has its origin in experiences. If the experiences are emotionally significant for the self they will fill a different function for the individual than they will if they are emotionally neutral. This is the crucial point for whether the memory of an experience will become a semantic memory or an autobiographical memory.

  • 26.
    Bredefeldt Öhman, Monica
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Force dynamics in autobiographical memory2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Bredefeldt Öhman, Monica
    Kristianstad University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Livet som figur: om självbiografiskt minne2003Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Bredefeldt Öhman, Monica
    Lunds universitet.
    Livet som figur: om självbiografiskt minne och metaforer2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 29. Briem, Valdimar
    et al.
    Siotis Ekberg, Camilla
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    de Lima, Sonia
    Psykiatriska öppenvården, Region Skåne.
    Lokförare och dödsolyckor på spåret: psykologiska och säkerhetsmässiga aspekter. Slutrapport, november 20042004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Psykisk ohälsa som en följd av stress påverkar kognitiva och emotionella funktioner, såsom minne, uppmärksamhet, koncentration och beslutsfattande. Alla dessa är nödvändiga egenskaper i arbetet som lokförare, där föraren ansvarar för sin egen och andras säkerhet, och behöver sin totala prestationsförmåga. Arton lokförare,40-57 år, de flesta med lång yrkeserfarenhet deltog i denna undersökning. Resultaten indikerar att det att ha varit inblandad i en tågolycka med dödlig utgång kan i mångafall ha långsiktiga, psykologiska följdverkningar för lokföraren. Förarens sociala nätverk framstår som en viktig komponent i den psykiska läkningsprocessen efter en påkörning. Det förefaller att för en bra och hållbar återhämtning krävs insatser som innefattar bl.a. professionell hjälp samt stöd från familj, kamrater och företagsledning.

  • 30.
    Brinck, Ingar
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Liljenfors, Rikard
    Lunds universitet.
    The Developmental Origin of Metacognition2013In: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 85-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explain metacognition as a management of cognitive resources that does not necessitate algorithmic strategies or metarepresentation. When pragmatic, world-directed actions cannot reduce the distance to the goal, agents engage in epistemic action directed at cognition. Such actions often are physical and involve other people, and so are open to observation. Taking a dynamic systems approach to development, we suggest that implicit and perceptual metacognition emerges from dyadic reciprocal interaction. Early intersubjectivity allows infants to internalize and construct rudimentary strategies for monitoring and control of their own and others' cognitions by emotion and attention. The functions of initiating, maintaining, and achieving turns make proto-conversation a productive platform for developing metacognition. It enables caregiver and infant to create shared routines for epistemic actions that permit training of metacognitive skills. The adult is of double epistemic use to the infantas a teacher that comments on and corrects the infant's efforts, and as the infant's cognitive resource in its own right.

  • 31.
    Brocker, Ann
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Kvinnors förhållningssätt till kropp och ätande: om ätbeteende, kroppsmissnöje och ålders samband med den självmedvetna emotionen skam2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningen som är en korrelationsstudie från ett sociokulturellt perspektiv vände sig till kvinnor i en normalpopulation. Deltagarna var mellan 19 och 59 år. Ett syfte var att undersöka samband mellan kroppsmissnöje, skam och känslor, attityder och beteenden kopplade till ätande. Kroppsmissnöje konceptualiserades och mättes som missnöje med kroppsform. Skam konceptualiserades och mättes som body shame (skam över den egna kroppen). Enligt feministiska objektifieringsteorier lärs flickor tidigt att se sin egen kropp från en utomstående observatörs perspektiv. En del av de flickor och unga kvinnor som i kulturen erfar sexuell objektifiering internaliserar normer som objektifierar deras kroppar. Detta förutsätts kunna leda till skamkänslor och ätproblem. Eftersom kroppsnormerna är orealistiska är de omöjliga att mot-svara och misslyckandet med detta genererar ytterligare skamkänslor. Menopausen kan för många individer innebära mindre exponering för sexuell objektifiering varför skamkänslor kan antas minska. Ett ytterligare syfte var därför att undersöka ålders samband med skam. Resultatet indikerar att såväl kroppsmissnöje som skam är riskfaktorer för utvecklandet av attityder och beteenden kopplade till ätproblem. Kroppsmissnöje korrelerade starkt positivt med skam och det förelåg ett svagt negativt samband mellan ålder och skam.

  • 32.
    Bröms, Emelie
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Hultenmo, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Personlighet hos ultralöpare och cyklister: En jämförande studie av the Big Five hos deltagare i Ultravasan och Cykelvasan 20152016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More people than ever participate in long distance races and the purpose of this study wasto investigate the personality of these individuals. We had 214 Ultravasan runners and145 Cykelvasan cyclists complete the Revised NEO Personality Inventory test, to assesstheir personality based on the Big Five. The main question was whether the personality ofthe runners would differ from the cyclists’.Results showed that runners scored higher on openness compared to the cyclists.Furthermore, runners were significantly less extrovert than the cyclists. Generally however,the results showed minor differences in personality between the two groups.

  • 33.
    Buratti, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    University of Gothenburg.
    Johansson, Marcus
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Lund University.
    Stability in the metamemory realism of eyewitness confidence judgments2014In: Cognitive Processing, ISSN 1612-4782, E-ISSN 1612-4790, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 39-53Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Cardeña, Etzel
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Lund University.
    Terhune, Devin B
    Storbritannien.
    Marcusson-Clavertz, David
    Lund University.
    The neurophenomenology of neutral hypnosis2013In: Cortex, ISSN 0010-9452, E-ISSN 1973-8102, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 375-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: After a hypnotic induction, medium and highly hypnotizable individuals often report spontaneous alterations in various dimensions of consciousness. Few studies investigating these experiences have controlled for the inherent demands of specific hypnotic suggestions and fewer still have considered their dynamic properties and neural correlates.

    METHODS: We adopted a neurophenomenological approach to investigate neutral hypnosis, which involves no specific suggestion other than to go into hypnosis, with 37 individuals of high, medium, and low hypnotizability (Highs, Mediums, and Lows). Their reports of depth and spontaneous experience at baseline, following a hypnotic induction, and then after multiple rest periods were analyzed and related to EEG frequency band power and global functional connectivity.

    RESULTS: Hypnotizability was marginally associated with lower global functional connectivity during hypnosis. Perceived hypnotic depth increased substantially after the induction especially among Highs and then Mediums, but remained almost unchanged among Lows. In the sample as a whole, depth correlated moderately to strongly with power and/or power heterogeneity for the fast EEG frequencies of beta2, beta3, and gamma, but independently only among Highs. The spontaneous phenomenology of Lows referred primarily to the ongoing experiment and everyday concerns, those of Mediums to vestibular and other bodily experiences, and those of Highs to imagery and positive affect/exceptional experiences. The latter two phenomena were associated with lower global functional connectivity during hypnosis. Imagery correlated positively with gamma power heterogeneity and negatively with alpha1 power heterogeneity. Generally, the pattern of correlations for the Highs was the opposite of that for the Lows.

    CONCLUSIONS: Experienced hypnotic depth and spontaneous phenomena following a neutral hypnotic induction vary as a function of hypnotizability and are related to global functional connectivity and EEG band wave activity.

  • 35.
    Cardeña, Etzel
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Lehmann, Dietrich
    University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Faber, Pascal L
    University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Milz, Patricia
    University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D
    University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Kochi, Kieko
    University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zurich, Switzerland.
    EEG sLORETA functional imaging during hypnotic arm levitation and voluntary arm lifting2012In: The International journal of clinical and experimental hypnosis, ISSN 1744-5183, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 31-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study (N = 37 with high, medium, and low hypnotizables) evaluated depth reports and EEG activity during both voluntary and hypnotically induced left-arm lifting with sLORETA functional neuroimaging. The hypnotic condition was associated with higher activity in fast EEG frequencies in anterior regions and slow EEG frequencies in central-parietal regions, all left-sided. The voluntary condition was associated with fast frequency activity in right-hemisphere central-parietal regions and slow frequency activity in left anterior regions. Hypnotizability did not have a significant effect on EEG activity, but hypnotic depth correlated with left hemisphere increased anterior slow EEG and decreased central fast EEG activity. Hypnosis had a minimal effect on depth reports among lows, a moderate one among mediums, and a large one among highs. Because only left-arm data were available, the full role of the hemispheres remains to be clarified.

  • 36. Carlsson, Margareta
    et al.
    Berg, Stig
    Wenestam, Claes-Göran
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Life experiences and patterns of adjustment among the oldest old. Paper presented at the XIV International Congress of Gerontology, June 19-23, Acapulco, Mexico1989Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37. Carlsson-Agren, M
    et al.
    Berg, S
    Wenestam, Claes-Göran
    Department of Teacher Education, Abo Akademi University, Vasa.
    The oldest old and their children: how strong are the relationships?1992In: Aging (Milan, Italy), ISSN 0394-9532, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 293-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eighty-five-year-old parents (N = 99) and their middle-aged children (N = 58) participated in a study on solidarity in intergenerational relationships in Sweden. The research model utilized evaluated six dimensions of family solidarity: family structures and associational, affectional, consensual, functional and normative solidarity. The finding of close family bonds in most of these areas may be attributed to the fact that the extensive Swedish public home-help system facilitated relationships on more equal terms. While the children were relieved from much responsibility for their parents' needs, most parents did not experience feelings of dependency on their children. It was in fact evident that even very old parents can be a source for help to their children. Children were, however, the main providers for emotional support and this role could not be substituted by formal caregivers.

  • 38.
    Castenbrandt, Jonas
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Motivation och engagemang: arbetsmotivation och arbetsengagemang hos tjänstemän och yrkesarbetare i ett byggföretag2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att studera sambandet mellan arbetsmotivation och arbetsengagemang samt hur skilda yrkestillhörigheter påverkar utfallet. Studien genomfördes på ett företag i byggbranschen med sammanlagt 72 anställda varav 54 deltog i undersökningen och fokus låg på inre motivation, arbetsengagemang samt branschens två huvudsakliga yrkeskategorier; tjänstemän och yrkesarbetare. Inre motivation har mätts med enkäten Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale (WEIMS) som grundar sig på Self-Determination Theory. Arbetsengagemang mättes med hjälp av en förkortad version av enkäten Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES). Resultatet visade att inre motivation var positivt relaterat tillarbetsengagemang och tjänstemän visade genomgående högre grad av inre motivation och arbetsengagemang i jämförelse med yrkesarbetare. Studiens slutsats blev då att arbetsmotivation och arbetsengagemang hänger ihop och att det finns en tydlig skillnad mellan tjänstemän och yrkesarbetare.

  • 39.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Engelberg, Elisabeth
    Stockholms universitet.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    Kristianstad University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Avancerad förhörs- och intervjumetodik1998Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur ska man kunna få optimal information i en förhörs- eller intervjusituation om en händelse eller omständighet i samband med ett brott? Ett brott är en känsloladdad upplevelse oavsett om man är offer, gärningsman eller ögonvittne. Kommunikationen vid förhöret, samt förtrogenhet med förhörets dynamik, är här av mycket stor betydelse.

    Boken redogör för aktuell psykologisk kunskap och forskning , främst inom områdena kommunikationsprocesser och minnesfunktioner. I olika kapitel behandlas sedan förhörssituationer med brottsoffer, gärningsmän, vittnen, barn, traumatiserade personer, psykiskt störda personer, personer med minnesförlust etc. Här ges exempel på såväl god som dålig förhörsmetodik.

    En intervjumetodik som kommit att få stor uppmärksamhet och framgång inom polisen i bl a Storbritannien och USA är den kognitiva intervjun, som beskrivs närmare i boken. Den kognitiva intervjun är en procedur för intervjuer och förhör som bygger på psykologisk forskning angående minnets organisation och åtkomlighet.

    Boken riktar sig främst till studerande och yrkesverksamma inom rättsväsendet, exempelvis poliser, åklagare och andra jurister. Även personal inom socialtjänsten, kriminalvården samt psykiatrin kan finna boken användbar inför samtal med klienter.

  • 40.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    Förhör och utredande intervjumetodik2008In: Handbok i rättspsykologi: Granhag, P.A., Christianson, S.Å., Stockholm: Liber , 2008, p. 257-274Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Chukman, Vesna
    Kristianstad University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Jakten på de gömda metaforerna: förekomst och variation av KRAFTmetaforer i två olika typer av texter; självbiografiska och argumenterande2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Via semantisk analys har förekomst och variation av KRAFTmetaforer i två olika typer av texter jämförts. Hypotesen är att kognitiva neurala nätverk som ansvarar för den abstrakta tanken är tätt sammanbundna med kognitiva neurala nätverk som representerar känsloerfarenhet baserat på sensoriska upplevelser. Analysen utfördes på två olika typer av texter. Resultatet visar på signifikant skillnad i förekomsten av antalet metaforer i de olika texterna. Ett antagande för undersökningen var att självbiografiska texter är mer förankrade i känsloerfarenhet baserat på sensoriska upplevelser än vad argumenterande texter är. Resultatet visar dock att de argumenterande texterna innehåller ett större antal metaforer än de självbiografiska texterna, vilket står i strid med hypotesen. Två tolkningar av resultatet är därför möjliga. 1) Sensoriska upplevelser har inget med förekomst av KRAFTmetaforer att göra. 2) Argumenterande texter visar mer eller kan visa mer känsloerfarenhet baserat på sensoriska upplevelser än självbiografiska texter. I resultaten finns belägg som stödjer den teoretiska referensramen för hur abstrakt tänkande uppstår samt hur abstrakt betydelse uppstår dvs som ett resultat av sensoriska erfarenheter baserat på kroppsliga upplevelser som kan spåras i språket genom metaforiska processer. De slutsatser man kan dra utifrån resultaten i denna undersökning stödjer hypotesen att det neurala nätverk som ansvarar för den abstrakta tanken är tätt sammanbundet med det neurala nätverk som representerar sensorisk erfarenhet baserat på kroppsliga upplevelser

  • 42.
    Dahl, Mats
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    Lund University.
    Hagberg, Bo
    Blekinge Institute of Research & Development, Karlskrona.
    The realism in older people's confidence judgments of answers to general knowledge questions2009In: Psychology and Aging, ISSN 0882-7974, E-ISSN 1939-1498, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 234-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated 2 aspects of the accuracy (i.e., realism) of confidence judgments of persons age 60-93 years (N = 1,384) regarding their answers to general knowledge questions. These aspects are the level of confidence (calibration) in relation to the proportion of correct answers and the ability to discriminate between correct and incorrect answers by means of confidence judgments. No age differences were found for either of the 2 aspects. Gender differences were found for proportion of correct answers and confidence but not for the realism in the confidence judgments.

  • 43. Dahlberg, Karin
    et al.
    Wenestam, Claes-Göran
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Synskadad i samhället: om folkhögskolekursers effekter för äldre synskadades återanpassning1990Report (Other academic)
  • 44. Dahlgren, L. O.
    et al.
    Wenestam, Claes-Göran
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Ideas about nuclear power plants. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association's (AERA) Annual Meeting, April 7-11, Boston1980Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45. Danielsen, A
    et al.
    Otnæss, M K
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Williams, S C R
    Østberg, B C
    Investigating repetition and change in musical rhythm by functional MRI2014In: Neuroscience, ISSN 0306-4522, E-ISSN 1873-7544, Vol. 275, p. 469-476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groove-based rhythm is a basic and much appreciated feature of Western popular music. It is commonly associated with dance, movement and pleasure and is characterized by the repetition of a basic rhythmic pattern. At various points in the musical course, drum breaks occur, representing a change compared to the repeated pattern of the groove. In the present experiment, we investigated the brain response to such drum breaks in a repetitive groove. Participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while listening to a previously unheard naturalistic groove with drum breaks at uneven intervals. The rhythmic pattern and the timing of its different parts as performed were the only aspects that changed from the repetitive sections to the breaks. Differences in blood oxygen level-dependent activation were analyzed. In contrast to the repetitive parts, the drum breaks activated the left cerebellum, the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG), and the superior temporal gyri (STG) bilaterally. A tapping test using the same stimulus showed an increase in the standard deviation of inter-tap-intervals in the breaks versus the repetitive parts, indicating extra challenges for auditory-motor integration in the drum breaks. Both the RIFG and STG have been associated with structural irregularity and increase in musical-syntactical complexity in several earlier studies, whereas the left cerebellum is known to play a part in timing. Together these areas may be recruited in the breaks due to a prediction error process whereby the internal model is being updated. This concurs with previous research suggesting a network for predictive feed-forward control that comprises the cerebellum and the cortical areas that were activated in the breaks.

  • 46.
    Davidson, Per
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Carlsson, Ingegerd
    Lund University.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Johansson, Mikael
    Lund University.
    A more generalized fear response after a daytime nap2018In: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, ISSN 1074-7427, E-ISSN 1095-9564, Vol. 151, p. 18-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine how a daytime nap affected the consolidation of fear learning. Participants first underwent fear conditioning during which they were exposed to a large and a small circle. One of these was repeatedly paired with an electric shock (making it the CS+), whereas the other circle was never paired with the shock (the CS-). After a delay interval containing either a nap or wake, participants again viewed the CS+ and the CS- intermixed with eight novel circles that varied in size between the two stimuli seen before, as well as a blue triangle that served as a novel stimulus without prior fear relevance. We examined both fear retention (the difference between the CS+ and the CS-) as well as fear generalization (responses to the novel stimuli based on their similarity to the original CS+). Contrary to previous studies, results from the participants who acquired a differentiated fear response during the acquisition phase revealed that the wake group showed significantly larger skin conductance responses to the CS+ compared to the CS-, whereas no such difference was present in the sleep group. These results were not driven by differences in explicit memory or by differences in general reactivity. Analyzing responses to the novel stimuli revealed a tendency towards a more generalized response in the sleep group, with no differences between the CS+ and any other stimulus, whereas the wake group showed increased responses to the stimuli depending on their similarity to the original CS+. This effect was however only present when controlling for baseline differences in worry.

  • 47.
    Davidson, Per
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Carlsson, Ingegerd
    Lund University.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Johansson, Mikael
    Lund University.
    Sleep and the generalization of fear learning2016In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 88-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fear conditioning is an important survival mechanism, as is the ability to generalize learned fear responses to stimuli that are similar to the original conditioned stimulus. Overgeneralization of fear learning, prominent in many anxiety disorders, is however highly maladaptive. Because sleep is involved in the consolidation of fear learning, and in active processing of information, the present study explored the effect of sleep on generalization of fear learning. Participants watched a random sequence of pictures of a small and a big circle, one of them coupled with an aversive sound. Then, after a delay period containing either a nap or wake, generalization was examined as participants watched the two circles again, together with eight novel circles that gradually varied in size between the former two. Results showed that the fear response increased as a function of similarity to the conditioned response. However, there was no difference in the degree of generalization between the sleep and the wake group.

  • 48.
    Davidson, Per
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Carlsson, Ingegerd
    Lund University.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Johansson, Mikael
    Lund University.
    The effect of pattern separation on fear conditioning2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Davidson, Per
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Hellerstedt, Robin
    England.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Psykologi.
    No effect of sleep on the forgetting of unwanted memories2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Debby, George-Michael
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Olsson, Mikaela
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Upplevelser av bemötandet i vården för patienter med schizofreni2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Approximately 0,5-1 percent of the Swedish population are diagnosed with schizophrenia at some stage in their life. Living with schizophrenia involves mental illness such as hallucinations, delusions and apathy including passivity. Purpose: To examine the experiences that patients with schizophrenia encounter within the care system. Method: A literature review based on ten qualitative articles were conducted. Results: The need for communication was identified as the main theme throughout the results. As a result five sub-categories were derived:  Experience of frustration, denial, dignity & respect, comprehension and time & conversation. Discussion: The absence of communication was predominantly due to the staff’s lack of knowledge in dealing with patients with schizophrenia. The patients experienced disrespect and degradation. Not understanding the staff also resulted in uncertainty amongst the patients. Conclusion: The manner with which nurses encounter patients with schizophrenia is very important during care. This literature review highlights those areas the nurse must focus on during the care of patients with schizophrenia.

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