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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Addressing smoking during pregnancy: the challenge to start from the woman's view2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Betydelsen av alkohol och drogsamordnare på Länsstyrelsen i Blekinge län: en utvärdering2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten utgår ifrån länssamordnarens egen beskrivning av funktionen och speglar den sedan i andra intressenters/informanters uppfattningar av hennes funktion. De uppfattar att arbetet som länssamordnare har fungerat mycket bra. Däremot har hon inte lyckats med att bygga upp en länsövergripande struktur för folkhälsoarbetet på beslutsfattande nivå. Något som är nödvändigt för att på lång sikt åstadkomma ett effektivt arbete. Rapporten avslutas med två förslag till framtida organisation av arbetet i länet och hur utvecklingen av policy och handlingsprogram kan gå till.

  • 3.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Samhällsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Arbete i skolan (AiS).
    Agevall, Lena
    Växjö universitet.
    Välfärdssektorns projektifiering: kortsiktiga lösning av långsiktiga problem2009In: Kommunal ekonomi och politik, ISSN 1402-8700, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 35-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we use two immigrant projects to identify similarities and consequences in order to discuss and analyse outwarding collaborative projects in human service organizations as a tool for change. The heavy use of projects in a slimmed public sector originates from projects’ contradictory promises of flexibility and effectiveness in the New Public Management context. Usually projects are used as a way to get more resources to long-term needs but are seldom implemented as planned in the regular organisation. Seemingly politicians, management and civil servants preferred are focusing on the positive side of projects as means to legitimate the organizations and to bring change by targeting and steering activities. However, they tend to overlook the negative consequences from projects. Citizens and participants experience frustration and distrust. The long-term development in organizations is scarce. Projects are seldom implemented meanwhile as the problems the projects were expected to target still are remaining or even are increasing.

  • 4.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Samhällsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Arbete i skolan (AiS).
    Andersson, Joyce
    Springett, Jane
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Building bridges or negotiating tensions?: experiences from a project aimed at enabling migrant access to health and social care in Sweden2009In: Diversity in Health and Care, ISSN 1759-1422, E-ISSN 1743-4904, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 85-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A current challenge for many European countries is to enable forced migrants to access health and social care that meets their needs. One solution is to use paraprofessionals - that is, trained individuals who are not professionals - to act as bridge-builders between minority communities and the health and social care sectors. This paper explores the development of a quality improvement project in Sweden. The project aimed to recruit and train forced migrants who had lived in Sweden for more than five years to act as bridge-builders. The aim was to use their unique experiences and knowledge in two ways - to work with service staff in developing new ways of working, and to become culturally competent paraprofessionals working with their own communities. This paper focuses on how an understanding of the role evolved as the participants reflected on their experiences and undertook an inquiry process culminating in the development of three possible models of what the task of a bridge-builder should be in developing culturally appropriate health and social services that are responsive to the needs of forced migrants. The conclusion reflects on what was learned and how the experiences from this project may be useful for others who are struggling with the same kind of problem in Sweden and in other countries.

  • 5.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Samhällsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Arbete i skolan (AiS).
    Bing, Vibeke
    Löfström, Mikael
    Högskolan Borås.
    Familjecentraler i Västra Götaland: en utvärdering2009Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    A salutogenic perspective could be of practical relevance for the prevention of smoking amongst pregnant women2002In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 323-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: to use empirical data to assess the theoretical relevance of using a salutogenic, instead of a pathogenic, perspective to prevent smoking during pregnancy. DESIGN: quantitative study, a questionnaire was completed during the first trimester of pregnancy and an interview was conducted after the baby was born. SETTING: a geographically defined area in the south-east of Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: all 395 women in the study area who were pregnant during the study period 1994-1995. FINDINGS: the women were categorised according to their smoking habits. A significant difference in the sense of coherence (SOC) score was shown between smoking and non-smoking women in indicators of bad health. Women who relapsed to smoking showed a lower level of SOC, particularly in the manageability component, than others. The SOC score was higher in the whole study group than in other comparable, non-pregnant populations. KEY CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: a salutogenic perspective could be used in antenatal care as a basis for encouraging pregnant women to stop smoking. This could enhance the SOC by making smoking more understandable for the woman, by discussing smoking as a way of coping, and by encouraging the woman's own capacity and motivation to stop smoking. Starting a dialogue about smoking from the woman's point of view could do this, with the midwife and the woman exploring together the woman's thoughts about the smoking problem.

  • 7.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Smoking patterns during pregnancy: differences in socio-economic and health-related varaiables2000In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 208-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The objective of this study was to assess different smoking patterns during and after pregnancy and relate these patterns to socioeconomic conditions and different health issues such as symptoms, drug consumption and health care use. Methods: The study group included 337 pregnant women from a district in south Sweden. A questionnaire was filled in during the first part of pregnancy and an interview was conducted after the baby was born. The women were categorised according to their smoking habits. Results: The categories defined were continuers, relapsers, decreasers, quitters and non-smokers. Among relapsers three symptoms, difficulty in relaxing (OR 4.48), restlessness (OR 9.59) and dysphoria (OR 3.98), were more common than among non-smokers. All three musculoskeletal symptoms were most common among continuers. Among quitters the OR for backache was 2.05, for numbness In the arms and legs 2.76 and for tearfulness 2.92. Educational level was relatively high among quitters and few had a smoking partner. Among smokers (decreasers, relapsers and continuers) 24% used drugs regularly, compared to 5% among non-smokers. Conclusions: To prevent smoking during pregnancy awareness of the relations between different smoking categories and symptoms could make it easier for hearth personnel to individualise support. A possible starting point is to discuss how to cope with different symptoms occurring during smoking cessation. Women with predictors for continued smoking during pregnancy, such as low education, unemployment, a smoking partner and multiparous, should be focused on more intensively and preventive strategies suitable for their special needs should be developed.

  • 8.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Karjalainen, Jennie
    Knutsson, Christina
    Humana basala strategier: flyktingkvinnors hälsa och resurser i utvecklingen av närsjukvård2005Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lindmark, Ulrika
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University.
    Gerdner, Arne
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University.
    Sense of coherence of reindeer herders and other Samis in comparison to other Swedish citizens2013In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 2242-3982, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 72, p. 20633-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Samis are indigenous people in north Europe. In the territory called Sápmi (Lapland), reindeer herding is the traditional base for the Sami economy. The relation between living conditions and positive health of the Swedish Samis has been sparsely studied. As health is closely linked to sense of coherence (SOC), an understanding of the background factors to SOC may contribute knowledge that might be useful in promoting living conditions and health.

    METHODS: The study examines relations between the level of SOC and background factors from surveys in a Sami population (n=613) in comparison to a non-Sami population (n=525) in Sweden, and in comparison between 2 subsamples of Samis, that is, herders and non-herders.

    RESULTS: There are more similarities than differences between the Sami and non-Sami populations. However, dividing the Sami population, reindeer herders had significantly lower SOC, and in specific the subcomponent manageability, that is, less ability to use available resources to meet different demands in life, compared to non-herders.

    CONCLUSIONS: In addition to age and health, predictors of SOC are related to the life form of reindeer husbandry and the belonging to the herding community.

  • 10.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, School of Health and Society.
    Springett, Jane
    Kristianstad University College, School of Health and Society.
    Dynamic between partners and pregnant women in relation to smoking cessation2008In: Research focus on smoking and women's health / [ed] Tolson, K.P. and Veksler E.B., New York: Nova Science Publishers , 2008, p. 303-314Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Samhällsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Arbete i skolan (AiS).
    Springett, Jane
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Leif
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Håkansson, Anders
    Department of Community Medicine, Lund University.
    Ottosson, Torgny
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Kristianstad University, Research environment Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    Some lessons from Swedish midwives' experiences of approaching women smokers in antenatal care2005In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 335-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: to describe the qualitatively different ways in which midwives make sense of how to approach women smokers. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: a more person-centred national project 'Smoke-free pregnancy' has been in progress in Sweden since 1992. Using a phenomenographic approach, 24 midwives who have been regularly working in antenatal care were interviewed about addressing smoking during pregnancy. FINDINGS: four different story types of how the midwives made sense of their experiences in addressing smoking in pregnancy were identified: 'avoiding', 'informing', 'friend-making', 'co-operating'. KEY CONCLUSION: the midwives' story types about how they approached women who smoke illustrated the difficulties of changing from being an expert who gives information and advice to being an expert on how to enable a woman in finding out why she smoked and how to stop smoking. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: health education about smoking that is built on co-operation and dialogue was seen by the midwives as a productive way of working. The starting point should be the lay perspective of a woman, which means that her thoughts about smoking cessation are given the space to grow while she talks.

  • 12.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Samhällsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Arbete i skolan (AiS).
    Springett, Jane
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Leif
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ottosson, Torgny
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Kristianstad University, Research environment Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    Making sense of the challenge of smoking cessation during pregnancy: a phenomenographic approach.2005In: Health Education Research, ISSN 0268-1153, E-ISSN 1465-3648, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 367-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In general, most women are familiar with the need to stop smoking when they are pregnant. In spite of this, many women find it difficult to stop. Using a phenomenographic approach, this study explored Swedish pregnant and post-pregnant women's ways of making sense of smoking during pregnancy. A total of 17 women who either smoked throughout pregnancy or stopped smoking during pregnancy were interviewed. Five different story types of how they are making sense of smoking during pregnancy were identified: smoking can be justified; will stop later; my smoking might hurt the baby; smoking is just given up; smoking must be taken charge of. Based on the study it is argued that the approach used in health education in relation to smoking cessation in antenatal care needs to move from information transfer and advice-giving to the creation of a dialogue. The starting point should be the woman's knowledge, concerns, rationalizations and prejudices. A model is suggested in which a woman may move in a space on three axes depending on life encounters, dialogue and reflections on meaning. The goal in health education would be to encourage movement along three axes: 'increase of self-efficacy towards control', 'increase awareness by reflection on meaning of the smoking issue' and 'avoidance of defense of the smoking behavior'.

  • 13.
    Adamsson Jensen, Sabina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, School of Health and Society.
    Johnsson, Josefin
    Kristianstad University College, School of Health and Society.
    Upplevelse av stress och lärande relaterat till KASAM och fysisk aktivitet: en enkätstudie till gymnasieelever2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Public health is important to many areas of society. It is important to have different goals to focus the work with health promotion in different sectors, one such area is the school. In the society of today there are a lot of public health issues like stress, overweight and physical inactivity. To experience well-being physical activity, sense of coherence (SOC) and the individual experience of stress have important functions. School is an important part of the student’s learning, development and socialisation. The aims of the study were numerous: how many of the upper secondary school students are physically active and if physical activity reduces the experience of stress. Other questions of the study were: if the experience of teaching about stress and physical activity relate to students SOC, physical activity and the experience of stress, and also illuminate the relation between SOC, physical activity and stress. A quantitative questionnaire study was performed among 187 students at three  upper secondary schools in the south of Sweden. The questionnaire was classified into four different categories; stress, physical activity, pedagogy and SOC. The result showed that the students´ SOC related to the students’ experience of stress and prevalence of different symptoms. The students’ physical activity did not relate to the students SOC and experience of stress. The physical activity education showed a trend to relate to increased physical activity and prevalence of stress education was related to increased stress. The socio-cultural perspective imprinted the study that shows that learning takes place not only in school, but also in other social contexts. The school should open up for physical activity and create a bigger interest in good health and SOC and thereby create opportunities for the  future life of the students.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Anders-Petter
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Cappelen, Birgitta
    The Oslo School of Architecture and Design.
    Musical interaction for health improvement2014In: Oxford handbook of interactive audio / [ed] Karen Collins, Bill Kapralos, Holly Tessler, Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2014, p. 247-262Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past decade, tangible sensor technologies have matured and become less expensive and easier to use, leading to an explosion of innovative musical designs within video games, smartphone applications, and interactive art installations. Interactive audio has become an important design quality in commercially successful games like Guitar Hero , and a range of mobile phone applications motivating people to interact, play, dance, and collaborate with music. Parallel to the game, phone, and art scenes, an area of music and health research has grown, showing the positive results of using music to promote health and wellbeing in everyday situations and for a broad range of people, from children and elderly to people with psychological and physiological disabilities. Both quantitative medical and ecological humanistic research show that interaction with music can improve health, through music’s ability to evoke feelings, motivate people to interact, master, and cope with difficult situations, create social relations and experience shared meaning. Only recently, however, the music and health field has started to take interest in interactive audio, based on computer-mediated technologies’ potential for health improvement. Here, we show the potential of using interactive audio in what we call interactive musicking in the computer-based interactive environment Wave. Interactive musicking is based on musicologist Christopher Small’s concept “musicking”, meaning any form of relation-building that occurs between people, and people and things, related to activities that include music. For instance, musicking includes dancing, listening, and playing with music (in professional contexts and in amateur, everyday contexts). We have adapted the concept of "musicking" on the design of computer-based musical devices. The context for this chapter is the research project RHYME. RHYME is a multidisciplinary collaboration between the Centre for Music and Health at the Norwegian Academy of Music, the Oslo School of Architecture and Design (AHO), and Informatics at the University of Oslo. Our target group is families with children with severe disabilities. Our goal is to improve health and wellbeing in the families through everyday musicking activities in interactive environments. Our research approach is to use knowledge from music and health research, musical composition and improvisation, musical action research, musicology, music sociology, and soundscape studies, when designing the tangible interactive environments. Our focus here is interaction design and composition strategies, following research-by-design methodology, creating interactive musicking environments. We describe the research and design of the interactive musicking environment Wave, based on video documentation, during a sequence of actions. Our findings suggest some interactive audio design strategies to improve health. We base the design strategies on musical actions performed while playing an instrument, such as impulsive or iterative hitting, or sustainable stroking of an instrument. Musical actions like these can also be used for musicking in everyday contexts, creating direct sound responses to evoke feelings that create expectations and confirm interactions. In opposition to a more control-oriented, instrument and interface perspective, we argue that musical variation and narrative models can be used to design interactive audio, where the audio is seen as an actor taking many different roles, as instrument, co-musician, toy, etc. In this way, the audio and the interactive musicking environments will change over time, answering with direct response, as well as nose-thumbing and changing response, motivating creation, play, and social interaction. Musical variation can also be used to design musical backgrounds and soundscapes that can be used for creating layers of ambience. These models create a safe environment and contribute to shared meaning.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Anders-Petter
    et al.
    Institute of Design, The Oslo School of Architecture and Design.
    Cappelen, Birgitta
    Institute of Design, The Oslo School of Architecture and Design.
    Vocal and tangible interaction crossing borders2013In: Include Asia 2013 Proceedings: global challenges and local solutions in inclusive design, Conference on inclusive design / [ed] Jeremy Myerson, London: Helen Hamlyn Centre of Design, The Royal College of Art in London, The Hong Kong Design Centre , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our voice and body are important parts of our self-expression and self-experience for all of us. They are also essential for our way to communicate and build relations cross borders such as abilities, ages, locations and backgrounds. Voice, body and tangibility gradually become more important for ICT, due to increased development of tangible interaction and mobile communication. The voice and tangible interaction therefore also become more important for the Universal Design field. In this paper we present and discuss our work with voice and tangible interaction in our ongoing research project RHYME. The goal is to improve health for families, adults and children with disabilities through use of collaborative, musical, tangible and sensorial media. We build on use of voice in Music Therapy, knowledge from multi-sensory stimulation and on a humanistic health approach. Our challenge is to design vocal and tangible interactive media that are sensorially stimulating. Interactive media that through use reduce isolation and passivity and increase empowerment for all the users. We use sound recognition, generative sound synthesis, vibrations and cross-media techniques, to create rhythms, melodies and harmonic chords to stimulate voice-body connections, positive emotions and structures for actions.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Emelie
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Lindström, Emelie
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Ambassadörer inom tobaksprevention: en kvalitativ studie om peer education2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In the project known as TBU, tobacco free adolescents in Blekinge, ambassadors in the ages 16-19 have been used for spreading information about tobacco to adolescents in the ages 13-15. This approach is related to the method peer education. The use of peers who are close in age or have similar experiences represents another way of learning than the more common situation between a teacher and a student. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine how ambassadors use peer education as tobacco prevention and how the ambassadors could be affected by their work as peer educators. Method: The methods used in this study were interviews with the ambassadors and a focus group interview with the project group of TBU. The material was analysed with a content analysis. Results: The results show that the ambassadors had, or had developed, an interest for their work and an ability to communicate with their target group, which they also stated as important parts of the role as an ambassador. The ambassadors had also been affected by their work. Their communication skills had been improved and they had had an increase in knowledge, which was thought to be a result of their education containing different parts and perspectives. Conclusion: The most important in the work of the ambassadors to prevent the use of tobacco in adolescents was the education the ambassadors had the first week of their work period. Therefore, we suggest that TBU develops a concrete material for the education with well- defined methods and targets which would aim to develop the ambassadors interest for the subject and their communication skills. Further studies could examine the relationship between students and ambassadors from the student's perspective.

  • 17.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Biomedicin: viktig grund men också hinder2009In: Andersson, Ingemar & Ejlertsson, Göran (red.). Folkhälsa som tvärvetenskap: möten mellan ämnen, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, p. 63-85Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    Department of Community Health Sciences, Lund University, Sweden.
    Chronic pain: epidemiological studies in a general population1998Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to study the epidemiology of chronic pain (> 3 months duration) and factors associated to pain prevalence, prognosis, health care and medication in a general population. A cross-sectional mailed survey to a random population sample (n = 1806) was followed by a clinical examination and a prospective study of three selected groups. Pain related diagnoses from primary health care was monitored and compared with pain prevalence. The most important findings were: - a high total prevalence of chronic pain, 55.2%, without gender difference but varying by age and socioeconomic level. About one fourth (12.8%) reported high pain intensity and functional impairments. Women experienced pain at more locations and with higher intensity. - in a multivariate analysis increasing age, female gender, low education, high work strain, depression and insomnia were associated with chronic pain. - widespread pain showed a worse 2- year prognosis compared with neck shoulder pain. - musculoskeletal location of pain dominated, myalgia and myofascial pain being the most common symptom descriptions. - co-morbidity with chronic pain was common. More hypertensives and an increased level of serum uric acid associated to widepread pain indicated possible metabolic connections to pain. - smoking (current and previous) was associated with low-back and widespread pain. - chronic pain had a substantial influence of primary health care-seeking and medication; high pain intensity being the most important predictor of care and medication. - pain related diagnoses in primary health care increased between 1987 and 1996. Chronic pain, mainly with musculoskeletal location, is a community health problem. A multi-factorial approach in prevention and treatment on the basis of present knowledge is necessary.

  • 19.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Epidemiologi: att bestämma folkhälsans innehåll och orsaker2009In: Andersson, Ingemar & Ejlertsson Göran (red.). Folkhälsa som tvärvetenskap: möten mellan ämnen, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, p. 157-180Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Increased mortality among individuals with chronic widespread pain relates to lifestyle factors: a prospective population-based study2009In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. Widespread chronic pain has been related to disability and loss of quality of life, but in a few epidemiological studies also to increased mortality. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relationship between chronic pain, lifestyle factors and all cause mortality. Methods. A random sample of an adult (age 25-74) Swedish population (n = 1609) responded to a comprehensive questionnaire on pain, other symptoms, lifestyle, work and socioeconomic factors in 1988. Mortality data for this cohort between 1988 and 2002 were analysed. Survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier) and Cox proportional regression were used to study initially reported factors influencing survival. Results. Individuals with widespread chronic pain showed an increased mortality risk (hazard ratio, HR = 1.95, CI: 1.26-3.03) compared to the group without chronic pain. Death due to cardiovascular disease accounted for the increased mortality. Adjustment for lifestyle factors eliminated the excess risk. Conclusions. Increased mortality among individuals with widespread chronic pain is related to factors like smoking, sleep disturbances and low physical activity. The result emphasises the importance of including lifestyle factors in a cognitive-behavioural rehabilitation process. It remains to be shown whether health promotion activities aimed at lifestyle could change mortality among individuals with chronic pain.

  • 21.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    The course of non-malignant chronic pain: a 12-year follow-up of a cohort from the general population2004In: European Journal of Pain, ISSN 1090-3801, E-ISSN 1532-2149, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 47-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high prevalence of chronic pain (duration >3 months) reported from different populations indicates a public health problem. Knowledge of the long-term course of chronic non-malignant pain is incomplete and scarce.This paper describes a follow-up of a cohort recruited from a survey in the general population. The cohort (n=214) consisted initially of individuals with widespread or located (neck-shoulder) pain or without chronic pain. The individuals were initially examined and replied to questionnaires on pain, social factors, lifestyle, medication and health care after two and 12 years. The deaths during the period were obtained from the population register. Complete data exist for 77% of the eligible individuals.After 12 years one-third of the individuals initially without pain reported chronic pain, and among those with initial chronic pain 85% still reported chronic pain. The number of painful areas was the strongest predictor of chronic pain 12 years later (OR 15.8; >3 locations vs. 0) whereas a social factor (having a close friend) decreased the risk (OR 0.44). The onset of chronic pain during the same period was related to the physical workload (work with bent positions; OR 5.31; yes vs. no). Mortality was significantly higher in the group initially reporting widespread pain compared with the other groups. The chronicity of widespread chronic pain supports early and intense intervention among individuals with located pain. The association between chronic widespread pain and increased mortality needs further investigation but may deepen the view of chronic pain as a public health problem.

  • 22.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    Department of Community Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    The epidemiology of chronic pain in a Swedish rural area.1994In: Quality of Life Research, 1994 3(Suppl. 1), 1994, Vol. 3 Suppl 1, p. S19-S26Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to establish basic epidemiological data on chronic pain (duration > 3 months) in a rural population, a survey of pain symptoms was conducted by means of a postal questionnaire. The questionnaire was sent to a random sample (from the population register) of 15% of the population aged 25-74 (n = 1806) in two Swedish primary health care districts. The response rate was 90%. In a follow-up study individuals selected among the responders (neck-shoulder pain, widespread pain and controls without pain; n = 213) were examined and interviewed. They were requestioned about pain symptoms 24 months after the initial survey. Without sex differences 55% of the population had perceived persistent pain for 3 months and 49% for 6 months. Women experienced more multiple localizations of pain and had pain in neck, shoulder, arm and thigh to a greater extent than men. Prevalence of pain increased by age up to 50-59 years for both genders and then slowly decreased. The neck-shoulder area was the most common site of pain (women 32.9%, men 27.5%). Blue-collar workers and employers (including farmers) reported chronic pain to a greater extent than other groups. In 13% of the population, manifest pain problems were associated with reduced functional capacity. Examination of selected pain groups indicated a high proportion of unspecific musculoskeletal symptoms. Diagnosis with definite definitions, explaining the pains, were found in 40% of the individuals. Individuals with widespread pain had a higher pain intensity, more somatic symptoms, were more depressive and had the lowest scores for quality of life.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  • 23.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Folkhälsovetenskap: perspektiv och framtid2009In: Folkhälsa som tvärvetenskap: möten mellan ämnen / [ed] Andersson, Ingemar & Ejlertsson, Göran, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, p. 367-375Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Salutogenetic and pathogenetic factors of equal importance to predict mortality in a Swedish general population2008In: European Journal of Public Health, 18(Suppl. 1), 2008, Vol. 18, no Suppl. 1, p. 193-194Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social support and physical exercise seem to be salutogenetic factors of importance for longterm survival to balance traditional risk factors such as smoking and defined diseases. The results support health promotion initiatives focused on salutogenetic factors and not only prevention in relation to traditional risk factors and diseases.

  • 25.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Sleep disturbances predict long-term mortality in men: a prospective Swedish study2007In: European Journal of Public Health, 17(Suppl. 2), 2007, Vol. 17, no Suppl. 2, p. 225-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    et al.
    Department of Community Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad College of Health Professions.
    Leden, Ido
    Department of Medicine, Rheumatology Section, Central Hospital, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Widespread musculoskeletal chronic pain associated with smoking: an epidemiological study in a general rural population1998In: Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 0036-5505, E-ISSN 1940-2228, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 185-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data on smoking and pain symptoms from a random sample (n = 1806) of a general population were used to evaluate the association between chronic pain at various locations and smoking. In both genders current smoking was associated with reports of increased pain in low back, neck and with multiple locations. In a multiple logistic regression analysis current smoking was associated with an increase in widespread chronic musculoskeletal pain (OR 1.60, CI 1.04-2.46, in relation to non-smokers) and chronic low back pain (OR 1.58, CI 1.13-2.20, in relation to non-smokers). A dose-response relationship was found between the daily cigarette consumption and the prevalence of chronic low back pain. Smoking is associated not only with low back pain but also with chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain. No conclusive decrease in pain prevalence was found after quitting smoking. Further studies are necessary to elucidate an aetiologic relationship between smoking and chronic pain.

  • 27.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    et al.
    Department of Community Health Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad College for Health Professions.
    Leden, Ido
    Department of Medicine, Central Hospital, Kristianstad.
    Rosenberg, Claes
    Simrishamn Health Care Centre.
    Characteristics of subjects with chronic pain, in relation to local and widespread pain report: a prospective study of symptoms, clinical findings and blood tests in subgroups of a geographically defined population1996In: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0300-9742, E-ISSN 1502-7732, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 146-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between reported chronic pain and clinical findings was studied by comparing survey data six months before and eighteen months after a clinical examination. Studied individuals (n = 165) were randomly selected from subsamples of an initial survey (n = 1806) to a general population. Among individuals reporting chronic pain 85% were assessed to have chronic pain at the examination. Diagnoses were found in 22% of examined pain individuals. Myofascial pain syndrome and myalgia were the most common findings. Compared with located neck-shoulder pain, widespread pain had a greater impact on the individual, a worse prognosis regarding pain duration and working capacity, and revealed a raised serum urate level of unclear significance. Although no specific cause of pain is found in individuals with widespread pain it is important to identify and treat this group due to the great effects on functional capacity and the worse prognosis.

  • 28.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    et al.
    Department of Community Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Leden, Ido
    Department of Medicine, Rheumatology section, Central Hospital, Kristianstad.
    Rosenberg, Claes
    Simrishamn Health Care Centre.
    Chronic pain in a geographically defined general population: studies of differences in age, gender, social class, and pain localization.1993In: The Clinical Journal of Pain, ISSN 0749-8047, E-ISSN 1536-5409, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 174-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To establish basic epidemiological data on chronic pain (duration > 3 months) in a defined population. Relationships between age, gender, and social class were tested. DESIGN: A survey of pain symptoms, including location, intensity, duration, and functional capacity, was conducted by means of a mail questionnaire. SETTING: General populations in two Swedish primary health care districts. Medical care was provided in a state health system. SUBJECTS: A random sample (from the population register) of 15% of the population aged 25-74 (n = 1,806). The response rate was 90%. OUTCOME MEASURES: Descriptive epidemiologic data in relation to objectives of the study. RESULTS: Without sex differences, 55% (95% confidence interval, 53-58%) of the population had perceived persistent pain for 3 months and 49% for 6 months. Among individuals with chronic pain, 90% localized their pain to the musculoskeletal system to a variable extent. Women experienced more multiple localizations of pain and had pain in the neck, shoulder, arm, and thigh to a greater extent than men. Prevalence of pain increased by age up to 50-59 years for both genders and then slowly decreased. The neck-shoulder area was the most common site of pain (30.2%), followed by the lower back (23.2%). Even in the youngest age groups more than one of four reported chronic pain. Blue-collar workers and employers (including farmers) reported chronic pain to a greater extent than other groups. In 13% of the population, manifest pain problems were associated with reduced functional capacity. CONCLUSION: Chronic pain symptoms are common but unevenly distributed in a general population. The results may influence planning and consultation in primary health care as well as warranting selective prevention activities.

  • 29.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Nilsson, P.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Bringsén, Åsa
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Positive work experience factors relate to salutogenic health-a survey among Swedish hospital employees2012In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 22, no Suppl. 2, p. 156-156Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Andersson, Ida
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Eskesjö, Jimmy
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Motivation för motionsidrott: äldre tonårsflickors beskrivning av motionsidrott2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It emerges in the background of the study that club sports are an important player that has the resources to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary population. To avoid low physical activity and defections in club sports requires that the individual feels motivated to participate in sports. The aim of the study was to investigate motivational aspects of older teenage girls participating in exercise activities in sports clubs. A qualitative study was used as a method in the study, with a strategic choice that resulted in team sports by teenage girls who exercise sports. The material was analyzed through a qualitative content analysis where keywords were sorted out and categories formed. The results showed that several aspects are important for teenage girls' motivation for physical exercise: the love of sport, health aspects, to be part of the team, ambient impact, conditions and confirmation. Self-determination and togetherness proved to be important components for creating motivation and should, on the basis of the conclusion, play a vital role in the discussions about how the club sports could be organised in order to increase interest in participating in sports clubs.

  • 31.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Epidemiologi för hälsovetare: en introduktion2016 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den andra upplagan av Epidemiologi för hälsovetare har aktualiserats och uppdaterats i alla delar. Flera nya delar som relaterar till utvecklingen inom epidemiologin har också tillkommit.

    Boken ger en grundläggande beskrivning av arbetssätt, teorier och metoder inom epidemiologin. Med utgångspunkt i rubrikerna Beskriva, Analysera och Åtgärda förklaras begrepp och analysmetoder, olika typer av studier samt hur epidemiologin kan användas i hälsofrämjande syfte. Statistiska metoder, felkällor samt etiska frågeställningar relaterade till området behandlas och exempel ges på praktiska tillämpningar inom flera områden. Nytt i den här upplagan är bl.a. avsnitt om kvalitetsregister, epigenetik, livsförloppsepidemiologi samt evidensbaserad medicin liksom ett kapitel om socialepidemiologi. Författaren introducerar läsaren i ämnet epidemiologi på ett enkelt och tydligt sätt, bland annat med hjälp av konkreta exempel på arbetssätt och analysmöjligheter. Bokkapitlen avslutas i den nya upplagan med ett ökat antal studieuppgifter med tillhörande facit.

    Epidemiologi för hälsovetare vänder sig i första hand till universitets- och högskolestuderande inom vård- och folkhälsoområdet, det vill säga till blivande folkhälsovetare, sjuksköterskor, sjukgymnaster, farmaceuter, socialarbetare och arbetsterapeuter, men även som introduktion under läkarutbildningen och till yrkesverksamma inom dessa områden.

  • 32.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Epidemiologi för hälsovetare: en introduktion2006Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken ger en grundläggande beskrivning av arbetssätt, teorier och metoder inom epidemiologin. Med utgångspunkt i rubrikerna Beskriva, Analysera och Åtgärda förklaras begrepp och analysmetoder, olika typer av studier samt hur epidemiologin kan användas i hälsofrämjande syfte. Statistiska metoder, felkällor samt etiska frågeställningar relaterade till området behandlas och exempel på hur kunskapsområdet kan tillämpas på bland annat livsstilsfaktorer, infektioner och genetik presenteras. Författaren introducerar läsaren i ämnet epidemiologi på ett enkelt och tydligt sätt, bland annat med hjälp av konkreta exempel på arbetssätt och analysmöjligheter. Flera kapitel avslutas med studieuppgifter. Epidemiologi för hälsovetare vänder sig i första hand till universitets- och högskolestuderande inom vård- och folkhälsoområdet, det vill säga till blivande folkhälsovetare, sjuksköterskor, sjukgymnaster, socialarbetare och arbetsterapeuter, men även som introduktion under läkarutbildningen och till yrkesverksamma inom dessa områden. Till boken finns en webbplats med ett stort antal interaktiva övningar, faktafrågor, beräkningsuppgifter, simuleringar och länkar. Detta kompletterande material är ett bra stöd som gör det enkelt och roligt att ta till sig viktig kunskap.

  • 33.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Epidemiologi för vård- och hälsovetenskaperna: en fördjupning2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Epidemiologi för vård- och hälsovetenskaperna är avsedd som en fördjupning i epidemiologi för dem som tillägnat sig grunderna. Den vänder sig främst till universitets- och högskolestuderande inom vård- och hälsoområdet, d.v.s. till blivande folkhälsovetare, sjuksköterskor, läkare, apotekare, sjukgymnaster, socialarbetare och arbetsterapeuter. Den är också användbar för yrkesverksamma inom samma områden samt i forskningsmetodiska utbildningar.

  • 34.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Ejlertsson, GöranKristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Folkhälsa som tvärvetenskap: möten mellan ämnen2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Folkhälsovetenskap är ett förhållandevis ungt ämne. Det har vuxit fram i samklang med en rad andra discipliner och behandlar olika aspekter av betydelse för befolkningens hälsa. Från att ha varit nästan obefintlig har folkhälsovetenskapen under några få decennier utvecklats till vad den är idag.

    Den här boken visar vilka relationer som finns mellan folkhälsovetenskap och andra ämnen. Med folkhälsovetenskap som bas görs i bokens olika kapitel kopplingar till biomedicin, vård- och omvårdnadsvetenskap, sociologi, statistik, epidemiologi, politik, psykologi, pedagogik, kultur, arbetsvetenskap, arbets- och miljömedicin, ekonomi och etik. Även en del definitioner tas upp, liksom en redovisning av folkhälsovetenskapens utveckling och möjliga framtid.

    Boken är skriven av specialister inom de respektive ämnena, som dessutom har bred kunskap inom folkhälsovetenskap. Till boken finns en webbplats med länkar och kompletteringar.

    Folkhälsa som tvärvetenskap är främst avsedd som en fördjupning i folkhälsovetenskap för dem som redan tillägnat sig grunderna. Den kan användas såväl i rent folkhälsovetenskapliga utbildningar som i andra utbildningar där hälsan är av betydelse. Blivande och färdiga folkhälsovetare, folkhälsopedagoger, sjuksköterskor, läkare, sjukgymnaster, arbetsterapeuter, lärare, samhällsvetare m.fl. bör i boken finna stimulans och kunskap som kan omsättas i praktiskt arbete för folkhälsan.

  • 35.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Axelsson, Runo
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Bihari Axelsson, Susanna
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Eriksson, Andrea
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Åhgren, Bengt
    Nordic School of Public Health.
    Samverkan inom arbetslivsinriktad rehabilitering: En sammanställning av kunskaper och erfarenheter inom området2010Report (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Andersson, Kim
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Hiv - En förstummande sjukdom?: socionomstudenters och socialsekreterares attityder till hiv-positiva2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine social workers' and social work students' attitudes towards people living with hiv in Sweden. I will also examine if there is a connection between knowledge and attitudes. The questions at issue are how social workers' and social work students' attitudes can assume to influence on their professional practice and what causes can affect their attitudes towards people living with hiv. The study is based on a qualitative method. The methods have been: conversational interviews with five social workers, who work with family issues and integration, and a focused group interview with four social work students. Both forms of interviews were combined with the vignette method. The theoretical framework of this study is symbolic interactionism.

    The result of the study indicates that both the social work students and the social workers lack adequate knowledge about hiv, however, the respondents are capable of reflecting and are able to put themselves into others' situations and therefore they will not discriminate their clients because of their disease. Results of the study also indicate that there is a great ambiguity among all of the respondents because of the lack of knowledge and adequate education.

  • 37.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Hur idrottsläraren motiverar eleverna till fysisk aktivitet i skolan och på fritiden2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Motivation is a word that is well known within the world of school, and a word that is important in sport and health. Pupils' attitude towards physical education is crucial, not only for their schooling, but also in the continued life. To support and help to stimulate students to a good attitude towards physical activity is the physical education teacher. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate how physical education teacher at the high school motivates students to physical activity at school and at play. Method: Qualitative approach has been chosen for the study, this through individual interviews with six physical education teachers. Results: The results showed that the physical education teacher could play a big role in different work when it comes to motivate students. Through communication, learner adapted teaching and support helps the teacher their students to develop an interest in physical activity and a joy of movement, which can be the basis for a life in which physical activity and health in focus. The teacher can help improve self-esteem by giving positive feedback to students while getting these students to succeed in the task. An important part is that teaching has different options and levels so that all students have the opportunity to experience success. The theme days, students get the opportunity to find an activity that they find interesting and funny. A method to motivate their students is through praise, encouragement, feedback and enthusiasm. A motivated and interested student in physical education is the foundation for lifelong learning. The conclusion: Physical education teachers try to strive to arouse greater interest in physical activity among students by trying to vary teaching as much as possible. They also gave the students the influence of education in the hope of increasing interest. It also concluded that the physical education teacher must be very careful with their interpretation of the curriculum and the design of its programming. Sports teacher shaped students' interest through theme days where students could participate and see several different activities to arouse student interest.

  • 38.
    Andruškienė, Jurgita
    et al.
    Litauen.
    Kuzmienė, Ala
    Litauen.
    Martinkėnas, Arvydas
    Litauen.
    Jurgutis, Arnoldas
    Litauen.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Psychosocial work experiences related to health: a study of Lithuanian hospital employees2015In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 669-677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Research in the area of workplace health promotion from a salutogenic perspective is lacking in Eastern Europe.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between psychosocial work environment and health from a salutogenic perspective among Lithuanian hospital workers.

    METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design a questionnaire was distributed to staff in a large hospital in Lithuania. Out of 811 employees, 714 completed the survey: 151 physicians, 449 nurses and 114 other staff members (e.g., psychologists, technicians, therapists). A response rate of 88.0% was achieved. The Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS) and the Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale (SHIS) were linguistically adapted and used for the first time in a Lithuanian context. Logistic and multiple linear regression models were used for the analyses.

    RESULTS: Supportive working conditions, positive internal work experiences and time experience contributed the most to good health, defined as a high SHIS index. Having an executive post was significantly related to good work experiences, i.e. a high WEMS score, while being at the age of 40-54 years was associated with a low WEMS score. Physicians had the highest score on supportive working conditions; while nurses had the lowest scores on autonomy.

    CONCLUSIONS: A salutogenic approach enables an organisation to identify how to improve working conditions for the employees by focusing on possibilities and resources. Individual activities for workplace health promotion among different work groups seem necessary.

  • 39.
    Angelin, Malin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Skolsköterskors erfarenheter av hälsofrämjande arbete med övervikt hos elever: en kvalitativ intervjustudie2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Overweight increases among Swedish children and school nurses have an important part to reduce overweight among children. Aim: Describe school nurses experiences of their health promotion for overweight in students. Method: Nine school nurses were interviewed individually by semi-structured interviews. The interviews were analyzed based on a content analysis, categories and subcategories were designed to provide an overview of the school nurses experiences. Results: School nurses usually meet students during a health conversation, this meeting is usually the foundation of their health work. The school nurses strive to individualize the support they give the students and they often use the method of motivational interviewing to motivate students to make a change. They can also assist with various diet and exercise advice. The school nurses explain that there is often a need for collaboration in order to get students to become active and lose weight. Both within their own profession but especially inter professional collaboration in the school environment. The parents get involved in this work by some of the school nurses while others believe that the student needs to feel independent. Conclusion: This study thus suggests both differences and similarities in health promotion for overweight among student. To develop a united strategy and guidelines for their work can therefore be a part of the improvement of their health promotion against overweight among students.

  • 40.
    Artursson Kjell, Frida
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Varför slutar flickor att idrotta inom organiserad lagidrott?: en kvalitativ studie bland flickor i åldern 13 till 16 år2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2007 the Swedish government has allocated 500 millions SEK per annum, for a project named “Idrottslyftet”, the aim is to enhance the child and youth sport within five years. Despite this, it seems that more young girls choose to stop participating in organized sport clubs. The aim with this study was to find out why girls stop participating in organized sport clubs. The method that was used was focus groups, and 13 focus groups interviews (n=118) was performed in northeast Skåne. Qualitative content analysis was used as the analysis method. The result showed that there were several factors that influenced the girls to stop participating in organized sport clubs. The factors were friends and family and sport clubs. The physical education was also pointed out as a negative factor. The discussion was divided into two health perspectives; pathogenesis and salutogenesis. In pathogenesis the focus was to find out why young girls choose to dropout of organized sport clubs, and the interviewees perspective on the physical education curriculum. In salutogenesis, the discussion focus on, how sport clubs and physical education in schools can prevent dropouts and pursue more physical activity by young females in their spare time and in their future. The conclusions were that sport clubs that perform child and youth sports should perform their activities conforming with the Swedish Idrotten vill ideology and club education, but also a touch of competition education. A sport club that can balance these three factors will probably reach success in different ways. Schools should oversee the curriculum in physical education and make it more variable and stimulating for the students. But also the society and the families should cooperate to pursue a better and more positive attitude towards physical activity among young people.     

  • 41.
    Arvidsson, Emil
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Buchholtz, Kristina
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    “En ytlig bransch”: en kvalitativ studie om upplevd hälsa och kroppsuppfattning bland träningsinstruktörer som arbetar på gym2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A poor body perception can affect well being in a negative way and lead to detrimental results for both physical and mental health. Previous research about the phenomenon body perception is limited, especially work related, which makes it harder to understand how work can affect body perception. Purpose: To study body perception and the existence of well being amongst training instructors working at the gym. The objective is to increase the understanding of potential factors that may affect body perception and well being. Method: The study was implemented by using a qualitative methodology in the form of individual semi-structured interviews with a total of ten participants. Results: In summary the result shows that most of the participants experienced both negative and positive thoughts about their own body, although the positive thoughts were more common. A well conditioned body was considered a valuable asset in attracting clients since this was preferred. Some of the participants also competed in bodybuilding; however, this tended to have a negative impact on their well being. In a social setting there is a greater expectation about a women’s appearance than it is for men. The participants view on health can be summarized as a holistic approach where several components contributed. Conclusion: Due to the existence of limited research, there is a need for further studies about body perception from a qualitative and quantitative point of view to give a better picture of possible additional factors that affect it.

  • 42.
    Arvidsson, Ida
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Tv-reklam för söta drycker: En studie av hur antalet reklaminslag förändrats under åren 1999-20142016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: TV commercials for sweetened drinks may result in an increased consumption of unhealthy and energy dense drinks with a high content of sugar. In 2014 the swedes purchased an average of 92 litres of soft drinks per consumer, which is an increase by ten litres compared to the year 2000. Regular consumption of sugary drinks increases the risk of developing overweight, obesity and caries.

    Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate whether the number of commercials for sweetened drinks on TV has changed during the years 1999-2014 and if there are any differences between various TV channels regarding the number of commercials.

    Material and method: The study examines TV commercials for sweetened drinks such as juice and soft drinks (with and without carbonic acid) using an Excel document based on data from TvChecks database. By filtering the data by different food numbers and year various tables and graphs were created to show what changes occurred in the number of commercials for sweetened drinks during the years 1999-2014.

    Results: TV commercials for sweetened drinks has increased largely between the years 2013 and 2014. The TV channels that in average showed the most commercials for sweetened drinks are the Swedish Channel 5 and TV3, while TV4 and TV7 showed the least commercials in average during the years 1999-2014. Moreover, the TV commercials for drinks sweetened with sweeteners shows a clear increase during the years 1999-2014 from 586 to 8716 commercials.

    Conclusion: The number of TV commercials for sweetened drinks has increased considerably over the years 2013-2014, while the number of commercials during the years 1999-2009 was relatively constant.

  • 43.
    Atroshi, Isam
    et al.
    Department of Orthopedics, Hässleholm-Kristianstad Hospitals.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Kristianstad Hospital.
    Gummesson, Christina
    Department of Orthopedics, Hässleholm-Kristianstad Hospitals.
    Leden, Ido
    Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Kristianstad Hospital.
    Odenbring, Sten
    Department of Orthopedics, Hässleholm-Kristianstad Hospitals.
    Ornstein, Ewald
    Department of Orthopedics, Hässleholm-Kristianstad Hospitals.
    Primary care patients with musculoskeletal pain: value of health-status and sense-of-coherence measures in predicting long-term work disability2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0300-9742, E-ISSN 1502-7732, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 239-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate long-term sick leave among primary care patients with musculoskeletal disorders and the predictive value of health-status and sense-of-coherence measures. METHODS: Patients aged 17 to 64 years who, during seven weeks, attended one of six primary care centers because of non-traumatic musculoskeletal pain and who completed the SF-36 health questionnaire and the sense of coherence (SOC) scale at baseline and after one year. RESULTS: Of 189 patients, 36 (19%) were sicklisted for at least three months before and/or after their visit; the most common diagnoses were non-specific soft-tissue or multiple joint, low back, and shoulder pain. The long-term sicklisted patients had significantly worse baseline SF-36 and SOC scores than the non-sicklisted patients; moderate improvement in the SF-36 bodily pain but no improvement in the physical functioning scores occurred. The duration of sick leave at baseline and the SF-36 bodily pain score were significant predictors of continuos one-year work disability. CONCLUSION: Long-term sick leave was common among primary care patients with musculoskeletal pain. The physical functioning and return-to-work outcomes after one year were poor. The SF-36 bodily pain scale might be helpful in identifying at risk patients.

  • 44.
    Axelsson, Lars
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Edén, Lena
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Inequalities of quality of life in unemployed young adults: a population-based questionnaire study2007In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 6, p. 1-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is well known that unemployment is a great problem both to the exposed individual and to the whole society. Unemployment is reported as more common among young people compared to the general level of unemployment. Inequity in health status and lifesatisfaction is related to unemployment. The purpose of this population-based study was to describe QOL among unemployed young people compared to those who are not unemployed, and to analyse variables related to QOL for the respective groups.

    Methods: The sample consisted of 264 young unemployed individuals and 528 working or studying individuals as a reference group. They all received a questionnaire about civil status, educational level, immigration, employment status, self-reported health, self-esteem, social support, social network, spare time, dwelling, economy and personal characteristics. The response rate was 72%. The significance of differences between proportions was tested by Fisher's exact test or by χ2 test. Multivariate analysis was carried out by means of a logistic regression model.

    Results: Our results balance the predominant picture of youth unemployment as a principally negative experience. Although the unemployed reported lower levels of QOL than the reference group, a majority of unemployed young adults reported good QOL, and 24% even experienced higher QOL after being unemployed. Positive QOL related not only to good health, but also to high self-esteem, satisfaction with spare time and broad latitude for decision-making.

    Conclusion: Even if QOL is good among a majority of unemployed young adults, inequalities in QOL were demonstrated. To create more equity in health, individuals who report reduced subjective health, especially anxiety need extra attention and support. Efforts should aim at empowering unemployed young adults by identifying their concerns and resources, and by creating individual programmes in relation not only to education and work, but also to personal development.

  • 45.
    Axelsson, Lars
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Håkansson, Anders
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Family Medicine, Lund University.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Work ethics and general work attitudes in adolescents are related to quality of life, sense of coherence and subjective health: a Swedish questionnaire study2005In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 5, p. 103-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Working life is an important arena in most people's lives, and the working line concept is important for the development of welfare in a society. For young people, the period before permanent establishment in working life has become longer during the last two decades. Knowledge about attitudes towards work can help us to understand young people's transition to the labour market. Adolescents are the future workforce, so it seems especially important to notice their attitudes towards work, including attitudes towards the welfare system. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse upper secondary school students' work attitudes, and to explore factors related to these attitudes. METHODS: The sample consisted of 606 upper secondary school students. They all received a questionnaire including questions about quality of life (QOL), sense of coherence (SOC), subjective health and attitudes towards work. The response rate was 91%. A factor analysis established two dimensions of work attitudes. Multivariate analyses were carried out by means of logistic regression models. RESULTS: Work ethics (WE) and general work attitudes (GWA) were found to be two separate dimensions of attitudes towards work. Concerning WE the picture was similar regardless of gender or study programme. Males in theoretical programmes appeared to have more unfavourable GWA than others. Multivariate analyses revealed that good QOL, high SOC and good health were significantly related to positive WE, and high SOC was positively related to GWA. Being female was positively connected to WE and GWA, while studying on a practical programme was positively related to GWA only. Among those who received good parental support, GWA seemed more favourable. CONCLUSION: Assuming that attitudes towards work are important to the working line concept, this study points out positive factors of importance for the future welfare of the society. Individual factors such as female gender, good QOL, high SOC and good health as well as support from both parents, positive experience of school and work contacts related positively to attitudes towards work. Further planning and supportive work have to take these factors into account.

  • 46.
    Bengtsson-Tops, Anita
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna.
    Ehliasson, Kent
    Statens institutionsstyrelse.
    Ericsson, Ulf
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Ekonomi.
    Det vardagliga livet på LSS-boende för personer med psykisk funktionsnedsättning: ett brukar- och professionsperspektiv2015Report (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Bhatt, Meghna
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science.
    An explorative study comparing the knowledge of tobacco use and tobacco cessation program among school going boys and girls: A study in Ahmedabad district in Western India2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tobacco use is high in India. Previous studies have shown that awareness of health risks of tobacco use, and adolescents’ behavior are strongly associated with adolescents’ knowledge and perceptions towards tobacco use. There are only a few studies being conducted that assess school going boys’ and girls’ tobacco-related health knowledge, and their awareness related to tobacco control programmes. A questioner base cross-sectional study with 276 students had been conducted from four different schools (2 private and 2 government) in Ahmedabad district, Gujarat state, India. The results include from the group comparison (hypothesis testing) between the boys and girls. More than two thirds of boys’ and girls’ participants agreed tobacco use (also in all forms) is harmful to the body including the transitory use of the tobacco and its products. More than one third boys and one quarter girls believed that media plays an important role in promoting anti-tobacco messages. Around 50 % of the girls preferred strict anti-tobacco laws and policies in curbing the tobacco pandemic.  More than two thirds of the boys and girls in the study sample had no knowledge of any organizations or programs that assisted individuals to get rid of the tobacco habit. This study gives an overview of the knowledge regarding the tobacco use among the young school going boys and girls. Promoting school and community-based intervention programs and reviewing of the existing anti-tobacco policies could prove to be beneficial in curbing the tobacco consumption habit in adolescents.

  • 48.
    Björklund, Margereth
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Living with head and neck cancer: a health promotion perspective - a qualitative study2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim: In society there is a growing awareness that a vital factor for patientswith chronic diseases, such as head and neck cancer (HNC), is how well they are able to function in their every day lives – a common, but often overlooked, public health issue. The overall aim of this thesis is to reach a deeper understanding of living with HNC and to identify the experiences that patients felt promoted their health and well-being. It also explores the patients' experiences of contact and care from health professionals and whether these encounters could increase their feelings of health and well-being; salutogenic approach.

    Methods: This thesis engages a qualitative data design. On three occasions, 35 purposivelyselected patients were interviewed (31 from Sweden and one from Denmark, Finland, Island, and Norway). The first study was conducted in the Nordic counties (I), and the remainingstudies were conducted in Sweden (II, III, IV). Interviews were performed on a single basis(I, II, III) and then repeated (IV). The individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews usedopen-ended questions (n=53). Three different forms of analyses were used: critical incident technique (I), thematic content analysis (II), latent content analysis (III), and interpretativedescriptive analysis (paper IV).

    Findings: Living with head and neck cancer was expressed as living in captivity, in the sensethat patients' sometimes life-threatening symptoms were constant reminders of the disease. The patients experienced a threat against identity and existence. Patients struggled to find power and control over everyday life, and if successful this appeared to offer them better health and well-being along with spiritual growth. The general understanding was that these patients had strong beliefs in the future despite living on a virtual rollercoaster. The patients went through a process of interplay of internal and external enabling that helped them acquire strength and feelings of better health and well-being. Consequently, they found power and control from inner strength and other health resources, e.g. social networks, nature, hobbies, activity, and health professionals. However, the findings also revealed the opposite; that some patients were more vulnerable and felt powerless and faced everyday life with emotional and existential loneliness. They were dependent on next of kin and health professionals. Having good interpersonal relationships and emotional support 24 hours a day from next of kin were crucial, as were health promoting contacts and care from health professionals. This health promoting contact and care built on working relationships with competent health professionals that were available, engaged, respectful, validating, and, above all experienced in the treatment phase. But many patients experienced not health promoting contact and care – and a sense of not being respected, or even believed. Added were the patients' experiences of inadequate coordination between phases of their lengthy illness trajectory. They felt lost and abandoned by health services, especially before and after treatment.

    Conclusions: Inner strength, good relationships with next of kin, nature, hobbies, andactivities could create strength and a sense of better health and well-being. Patients experienced a mutual working relationship during dialoguing and sensed co-operation and equality in encounters with competent health professionals. This could lead to enhanced power and control i.e. empowerment in a patient's everyday life. The findings highlight psychosocial rehabilitation in a patient-centred organisation when health professionals supportpatients' inner strength and health resources , and also offer long-term support to next of kin.Finally, this research suggests that if health professionals could gain a deeper understanding of the psychosocial, existential, social, and economic questions on patients' minds, they could better sense how patients feel and would be better equipped not only to offer greater support, but to raise their voices to improve health policy and health care for these patients. 

  • 49.
    Bladh, Emelie
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Chefers hälsofrämjande arbete och ledarskap för den psykosociala arbetsmiljön: en kvalitativ studie inom äldreomsorgen2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Psykosocial arbetsmiljö inom vård och omsorg påverkas mycket av stress, hög arbetsbelastning och alltför få anställda. Samtidigt påverkas arbetsmiljön av chefens hälsofrämjande arbete och ledarskap. Förutsättningarna för chefer inom äldreomsorg beskrivs ofta som negativa, vilket påverkar möjligheterna att kunna utföra det hälsofrämjande arbete och ledarskap som behövs för att skapa en hållbar psykosocial arbetsmiljö för de anställda.

    Syfte: Att undersöka hur chefer inom äldreomsorgen upplever arbetet med att utveckla den psykosociala arbetsmiljön och hur de använder sig av hälsofrämjande arbete och ledarskap i detta arbete.

    Metod: Data har samlats in i form av sju individuella intervjuer. Materialet transkriberades och en innehållsanalys utfördes för att få fram resultatet.

    Resultat: Cheferna upplever att det hälsofrämjande arbetet och ledarskapet är viktigt för att skapa en hållbar psykosocial arbetsmiljö. Cheferna använder sig bland annat av systematiskt arbetsmiljöarbete och de främjar en psykosocial arbetsmiljö genom att bemöta medarbetarnas behov och ger möjligheter till diskussion, reflektion och dialog. De använder sig också av ett situationsanpassat ledarskap. Resultatet visar bland annat att hälsofrämjande arbete och ledarskap samspelar med varandra samt att närvaro och kommunikation är viktiga faktorer för ett effektivt ledarskap och hälsofrämjande arbete.

    Slutsats: Cheferna anser att de har bra förutsättningar för att arbeta utvecklande med den psykosociala arbetsmiljön. Deras upplevelser och intresse för arbetsmiljöarbetet och dess utveckling samt användandet av deras hälsofrämjande arbete och ledarskap är viktigt för att skapa en hållbar psykosocial arbetsmiljö. Det är väsentligt att engagera medarbetarna och skapa dialoger och diskussioner i det hälsofrämjande arbetet samt ta hänsyn till närvaro och kommunikation i ledarskapet.

  • 50.
    Blixt, Miranda
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Brun, Sara
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Föräldrastöd och hälsa hos svenska femtonåringar2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The health of human beings is affected by individual lifestyle factors but also by social, socioeconomic and cultural factors. Parents have the greatest responsibility for their children´s development and growth conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of perceived parental support among Swedish fifteen year olds, based upon the adolescents´ reported rate of verbal communication with their parents/step-parents, investigate the perceived health and how parents´ support relate to the adolescents´ perceived health. Data from the quantitative survey (n=3438) about health behavior in school-aged children, from the Swedish National Public Health Institute, were used to enable analysis and generalization of the result. The result showed that fifteen year olds that could talk to their parents/step-parents had parents that worked, a better family economy and a later alcohol debut. Furthermore, they were more physically active and liked school better. Adolescents with perceived parental involvement in school liked school better and also felt less stressed from their schoolwork. In the result and literature a good communication between child and parent/step-parent has showed to be important in several fields, which is brought up in the discussion. This verbal interaction in the home has an impact on how the child is affected by social values, the child´s own choice of lifestyle and it can also effect the child´s self-image positively. As a conclusion the result indicates the importance of society´s investment in parent-child support. Promoting interventions could prevent many of the psycho-social problems that cost the society a lot of money. It could also help the child to a safer socialization into society, which positively effects the child´s health.

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