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  • 1.
    Andersson, Sebastian
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Lipemi-interferens vid mätning av Hb på Sysmex XN-10 och HemoCue Hb 201+2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Anemia can arise from either loss of erythrocytes or impaired production of new erythrocytes. In order to discover and evaluate the treatment of anemic patients, correct Hb measurements are important. A common method to measure Hb concentration is photometry in combination with chemical conversion of the Hb. Like all light-dependent methods this suffers from a vulnerability to turbidity that scatters light. Lipemia is a common cause of turbidity caused by e.g. recent intake of high fat foods, diabetes mellitus, liver or kidney disease, alcoholism and some drugs. Manufacturers of Hb analyzers use different methods to counter the influence of interference from lipemia on measurements. Sysmex XN-10 analyzers use a fat dissolving sheath fluid in its photometric channel (HGB) and HemoCue measures absorbance at a second wavelength to compensate for turbidity. Sysmex XN-10 also has an optic channel (HGB-O) for counting reticulocytes by measuring their nucleic acid and Hb content. At the same time this channel measures Hb equivalents of erythrocytes and gives a calculated value of Hb content in the entire sample. The aim of this study was to compare the photometric and the optical channels for measuring Hb concentration in whole blood. Both the Sysmex XN-10 channels were compared with HemoCue Hb 201+ when measuring Hb concentrations in lipemic samples. Plasma Hb concentration was determined for the corresponding samples in order to investigate correlation between elevation in Hb concentration with and without simulated lipemia and in the plasma after centrifugation. Samples analyzed at Skånes University Hospital in Lund during the month of November 2018 (n = 392) using both HGB and HGB-O on XN-10 were compared using Spearman's signed correlations coefficient. Lipemia was simulated by using the fat emulsion Intralipid in a total of 32 samples. Samples collected and analyzed on the previous day was used for the study. Each sample was split into one part with added Intralipid to form a lipemic sample and one part with NaCl-solution of the same volume as Intralipid in the lipemic sample. The differences between lipemic and non lipemic samples was tested for significance by the non-parametric Wilcoxons signed ranks test for each of the methods. Significance between the three methods was tested by using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. Level of significance was set to p < 0.05. The results showed good correlation between earlier test run on both HGB and HGB-O with a Spearman correlation score of 0,982.  A significant difference was found between lipemic and non lipemic samples with the photometric method (p < 0,001) but not the optical method (p = 0,11) on XN10. HemoCue Hb 201+ also showed a significant difference (p < 0,001) between lipemic and non lipemic samples but a lower median than HGB and less deviation than HGB-O. The median of HGB-O indicated that it was influenced the least by lipemia of the three methods but had the greatest deviation of the differences. The greater deviation of HGB-O values may have been caused by hemolysis since the method measures intra cellular Hb. HemoCue shows according to this study the slightest deviation of the three methods and a less heightened median value compared to HGB which confirms the methods suitability as complement to HGB when dealing with lipemic samples.

  • 2. Katsoulis, Joannis
    et al.
    Lang, Niklaus P
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Proportional distribution of the red complex and its individual pathogens after sample storage using the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique.2005In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 628-633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Information on the impact of sample storage prior to analysis by DNA methods is limited.

    AIMS: To investigate the effect of microbial sample storage on bacterial detection and proportional distribution of the red complex and its individual pathogens.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Subgingival plaque samples were analysed by (1) immediate processing, (2) after storage at +4 degrees C for 6 weeks, (3) after storage at -20 degrees C for 6 months or (4) after storage at -20 degrees C for 12 months using the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization.

    RESULTS: Proportional distribution of the red complex did not differ between the first three protocols. However, the total bacterial DNA for pathogens studied decreased significantly in protocols 3 and 4. Relative amounts of Tannerella forsythensis, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola remained stable in the second protocols and changed in an unpredictable way if stored for 6 or 12 months.

    CONCLUSIONS: Results from samples stored for maximum 6 months at -20 degrees C with high proportional amounts of the red complex and T. denticola may be used as an indicator of persistence. All bacterial samples for DNA extraction should be processed following a standardized storage protocol (i.e. samples stored at +4 degrees C for maximum 6 weeks) in order to get comparable qualitative and quantitative results for total DNA, bacterial complexes and individual pathogens. Most representative results are yielded if processing and hybridization could be performed immediately after sampling.

  • 3.
    Olsson, Oskar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Jämföra Protrombinkomplex International Normalized Ratio, PK (INR)- värdet, för plasma och helblod för kapillärt tagna PK-prover på instrumentet STA R Max (Stago)2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Warfarin is a drug used to prevent high-risk patients such as those with atrial fibrillation from thromboembolisms. This effect is achieved by suppressing vitamin-K dependent factors VII, X and prothrombin and therefore decreasing the bloods ability to clot. Finding the right dosage of the drug for warfarin treated patients has proven difficult, as it demands regular blood draws to monitor their prothrombin complex level, which is affected by dietary and living habits. The most common way to measure prothrombin complex levels is by using venous plasma but it is also possible to use capillary plasma. Whole blood can be used for mechanical methods, which don’t use optical detection. The benefit is that whole blood doesn’t require centrifugation. The aim of this study was to investigate if there was a significant difference (p≤0,05) between using whole blood and plasma which is the existing method for capillary sample and also if there is any differences between the stability of these samples. Double samples from 30 warfarin treated patients and 5 non-treated persons were taken. One of the samples were centrifuged and analyzed on plasma and the other analyzed on whole blood. The results showed that there was a significant difference (p≤0,05) between the methods. Bland-Altman plot comparison showed that 95 % of the whole blood samples would not be higher than 0,25 INR and lower than 0,14 INR. This has low clinical impact. The samples were stored at room temperature for up to 24 hours and reanalyzed. No changes over 10 % in INR values were observed. This study showed that even though there is a significant difference, it is possible to replace the existing method which using plasma with the whole blood instead.

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