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  • 1.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Rehabilitering vid långvarig smärta2010In: Smärta och smärtbehandling / [ed] Mads Werner, Ido Leden, Stockholm: Liber , 2010, 2, p. 401-409Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Aupée, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Lunds universitet.
    Age-related changes of phasic heart rate responses to affective pictures2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 325-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined age differences in phasic heart rate in response to neutral, negative and positive pictures. Heart rate changes and subjective ratings were analyzed in 22 middle-aged (40-55 years) and 30 older (56-78 years) participants. The effects of valence on the HR pattern across time were similar to that obtained by Bradley and co-workers. Conversely to previous studies, we did not report any age-related reduction in cardiac reactivity. Instead, when viewing positive pictures, the triphasic wave form appeared in the group of older adults, but for younger participants, it was replaced by a sustained deceleration. These results were interpreted in the light of the socioemotional selectivity theory.

  • 3.
    Barclay, C J
    et al.
    Australien.
    Widén, Cecilia
    Australien.
    Mellors, L J
    Australien.
    Initial mechanical efficiency of isolated cardiac muscle2003In: Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0022-0949, E-ISSN 1477-9145, Vol. 206, no Pt 16, p. 2725-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the initial mechanical efficiency (ratio of work output to initial metabolic cost) of isolated cardiac muscle is over 60%, as has been reported previously, or whether it is approximately 30%, as suggested by an estimate based on the well-established net mechanical efficiency (ratio of work output to total, suprabasal energy cost) of 15%. Determination of initial efficiency required separation of the enthalpy output (i.e. heat + work) into initial and recovery components. The former corresponds to energy produced by reactions that use high-energy phosphates and the latter to energy produced in the regeneration of high-energy phosphates. The two components were separated mathematically. Experiments were performed in vitro (30 degrees C) using preparations dissected from rat left ventricular papillary muscles (N=13). Muscle work output and heat production were measured during a series of 40 contractions using a contraction protocol designed to mimic in vivo papillary muscle activity. Net mechanical efficiency was 13.3+/-0.7%. The total enthalpy output was 2.16 times greater than the initial enthalpy output, so that initial mechanical efficiency was 28.1+/-1.2%.

  • 4.
    Bredie, Wender L. P.
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen.
    Tan, Hui Shan Grace
    University of Copenhagen.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen. Kristianstad University, Resrarch environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    A comparative study on facially expressed emotions in response to basic tastes2014In: Chemosensory Perception, ISSN 1936-5802, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Facially expressed emotions play a role in communication between individuals. They form another means of expressing oneself besides verbal expressions or self-reporting of feelings and perceptions on psychometric scales and are implicit in nature. This study aimed to evaluate the extent and specificity of evoking facial expressed emotions by basic tastes and to evaluate if facially expressed emotions provide additional information to explicit measures. The emotions were characterised upon tasting the five basic tastes in aqueous solutions at three different concentrations levels. The sensory and emotional responses reported were obtained from a 21-membered taste panel. Facial reactions and facially expressed emotions depended on the taste quality and taste intensity. However, the facially expressed emotions were generally weak even for the relatively strong taste intensities. Bitter (caffeine), sour (citric acid) and salty (sodium chloride) lead to clear disgust and surprise responses, whereas, sweet (sucrose) and umami (glutamic acid monosodium salt) taste gave weakly noticeable facially expressed emotions. Although correlations between the expressed emotions and hedonic responses were observed, the affective experience had a limited predictive ability for the facially expressed emotion at the individual level. In conclusion, psychometric rating of the hedonic response is easier to assess than facially expressed emotions although it may not completely represent the dimensions of the emotional experience.

  • 5.
    Hansson-Sandsten, Maria
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Lunds universitet.
    Multiple window correlation analysis of HRV power and respiratory frequency2007In: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, ISSN 0018-9294, E-ISSN 1558-2531, Vol. 54, no 10, p. 1770-1779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we evaluate the correlation estimate, based on multiple window spectrum analysis, between the respiratory center frequency and the high-frequency band of the heartrate variability (HRV) power. One aim is to examine whether a more restricted frequency range would better capture respiratory related HR variation, especially when the HR variation is changing rapidly. The respiratory peak is detected and a narrow-banded measure of the high-frequency (HF) band of the HRV is defined as the respiratory frequency +/-0.05 Hz. We compare the mean square error of the correlation estimate between the frequency of the respiratory peak and the power of the HRV with the power in the usual 0.12-0.4 Hz frequency band. Different multiple window spectrum techniques are used for the estimation of the respiratory frequency as well as for the power of the HRV. We compare the peak-matched multiple windows with the Welch method while evaluating the two different HF-power estimates mentioned above. The results show that using a more narrow band for the power estimation gives stronger correlation which indicates that the estimate of the power is more robust.

  • 6.
    Hartvig, Ditte L.
    et al.
    Danmark.
    Hausner, Helene
    Danmark.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen. Kristianstad University, Resrarch environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Ritz, Christian
    Danmark.
    Bredie, Wender L. P.
    Danmark.
    Initial liking influences the development of acceptance learning across repeated exposure to fruit juices in 9–11 year-old children2015In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 39, p. 228-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In several studies, it has been found that repeated exposure to a novel food increases children’s acceptance of the exposure food. The present study, investigated how repeated exposure influences the acceptance of two Nordic berry juices, and whether the development depends on initial liking of the product, in 9–11 year-old children. The study had 317 participants. Two groups of children were exposed to either sea-buckthorn (n = 92) or aronia (n = 105) juice eight times, and performed two follow-up sessions 3 and 6 months after the 8th exposure. A third group (n = 120) served as controls. During pre and post-test sessions all participating children evaluated acceptance of both juices.

    Intake of sea-buckthorn juice increased significantly over the eight exposures (55.1 ± 7.3 till 108.8 ± 12.3) and remained high after 6 months (131.1 ± 13.2). Intake of aronia juice was only increased at follow-up sessions. Liking did not develop significantly for any of the juices across exposures. When children were grouped by their initial liking increased intake across exposures was observed regardless of initial liking of sea-buckthorn. Liking developed similarly for both juices. A significant increase was found for the ‘initial dislikers’ only. This study demonstrates how exposure effects are influenced by initial liking; it appears that changes in familiarity explain the changes seen for sea-buckthorn among ‘dislikers’. ‘Initial dislikers’ had the most benefit from repeated exposures, but did not reach ‘initial likers’ across eight exposures; more exposures in the group of ‘initial dislikers’ had possibly led to even higher liking and intake. The increased intake observed for ‘neutral likers’ and ‘initial likers’ of sea-buckthorn was not explained by increased familiarity or increased liking.

  • 7.
    Henriksson, Olle
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Rasmusson, Margareta
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Fysiologi: med relevant anatomi2007 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Jönsson, Peter
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Wallergård, Mattias
    Osterberg, Kai
    Hansen, Ase Marie
    Johansson, Gerd
    Karlson, Björn
    Cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity and habituation to a virtual reality version of the Trier Social Stress Test: a pilot study2010In: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 35, no 9, p. 1397-1403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is a widely used protocol to induce stress in laboratory settings. Briefly, in the TSST, the test participant is asked to hold a speech and to do an arithmetic task in front of an audience. In the present pilot study, we examined endocrine and autonomic reactivity and habituation to repeated stress provocations using a virtual reality (VR) version of TSST. The VR system was a CAVE™ system with three rear projected walls (4 m×3 m), and one floor projection. The system also included a head tracking system and passive stereoscopy. The virtual audience consisted of one woman, and two men. Ten healthy men, mean age 28.3 years (24-38 years), were confronted with the test twice (1 week between sessions), during which salivary cortisol, heart rate (HR), high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV, parasympathetic activity), and T-wave amplitude (TWA, suggested to be related to sympathetic influence on myocardial performance) were assessed. Cortisol secretion showed a marked increase (88% vs. baseline) during the first stress provocation, but habituated in the second session. The magnitude of HR and TWA reactivity during stress provocation was approximately the same at both sessions, implying a stable increase in sympathetic activity. Heart rate showed a maximum increase of 40% at the first session, and 32% at the second. TWA showed a maximum decrease of 42% at the first session, and 39% at the second. The results resemble those obtained in prior studies using the real-life TSST. If these results can be replicated with larger samples, VR technology may be used as a simple and standardized tool for social stress induction in experimental settings.

  • 9.
    Magnusson, Elin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Distal och proximal placering av armelektroder: påverkan på EKG och klinisk betydelse2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Elektrokardiogram (EKG) är en av de viktigaste undersökningsmetoderna för upptäckt och diagnostisering av hjärt- och kärlsjukdomar. Med hjälp av elektroder som placeras på kroppen efter väldefinierade system kan hjärtats elektriska aktivitet registreras och observeras i ett EKG. Syftet med studien var att undersöka om EKG påverkades om man använde distal eller proximal armelektrodplacering, om skillnaderna var kliniskt signifikanta och om skillnader uppstod mellan mjukvarans respektive läkarens tolkning av EKG. EKG togs på 100 patienter med medelålder på 66 år, 44 kvinnor och 56 män. Sex elektroder placerades på bröstkorgen och extremitetselektroderna placerades distalt för ett EKG och förflyttades därefter upp proximalt för ytterligare ett EKG. Utifrån erhållna EKG jämfördes den distal och proximala placeringen för R-amplitud, PQ-tid, QRS-duration, elaxel, mjukvarutolkning, läkartolkning och muskelstörningar. Jämförelse gjordes för helgrupp (n=100) och i undergrupperna: normala (n=28), grenblock (n=19), repolarisationsavvikelser (n=14) och hypertrofi (n=15). Statistiskt signifikanta skillnader observerades för R-amplitud i avledning I och III, för PQ-tid och elaxel. 80% av mjukvarutolkningarna erhöll samma tolkning respektive 98% för läkartolkade EKG. Muskelstörningar blev oförändrade för 78%, mer störningar uppstod distalt för 21% och mer störningar proximalt uppstod för 1% I denna och andra liknande studier erhölls större R- amplitud i avledning III vid en proximal placering av extremitetselektroderna vilket kan bero på placeringen närmre hjärtat. En större R-amplitud kunde även observeras i avledning I, men vid distal placering jämfört med proximal för denna studie vilket är svårförklarat. Mindre muskelstörningar observerades vid en proximal armelektrodplacering vilket troligtvis beror på den kortare mätsträckan. Slutsatsen blir att för en proximal armelektrodplacering uppstod statistiskt signifikanta skillnader, men som endast har ringa klinisk betydelse i den studerade populationen då avvikelserna låg inom normalvärden och att placeringen gav reducering av muskelstörningar. 

  • 10.
    Magnusson, Emma
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Grundsmaksperception hos 4-6-åriga förskolebarn: Förmåga att identifiera smaker i livsmedel före och efter träning med grundsmaklösningar.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Individual experiences of taste differs greatly and is partially due to both the ability to detect basic taste and the intensity at which it is interpreted. Compared to grown-ups, children tend to show a higher preference toward sweet and a greater aversion towards bitter. The purpose of this study was to examine 4-6-year old pre-school children’s ability to identify basic tastes in food before and after training with basic taste solutions. The children’s ability to articulate their taste experiences were also studied before basic taste training. The research were conducted at a single pre-school, eleven children participated in the study which involved four different parts. A group discussion about (basic) tastes, testing of ten different foods accompanied by continued conversations about what the food tasted like. The third part was training with basic taste solutions where the children got to practice recognizing sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami. The last part were a basic taste test in which the children were asked to answer what basic tastes they could identify in each food. The results showed a significant difference in the children’s ability to identify salty tastes compared to other basic tastes, also a notably improved ability to detect and articulate all basic tastes after basic taste training. The children went from naming “tasty” and “disgusting” as tastes, to being able to put words on, and identify, many of the basic tastes in each food. A short training session with basic tastes is a simple method which can benefit young children by contributing to a more positive and curious approach towards new flavours and food in general. 

  • 11.
    Widén, Cecilia
    et al.
    Australien.
    Barclay, C J
    Australien.
    ATP splitting by half the cross-bridges can explain the twitch energetics of mouse papillary muscle2006In: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793, Vol. 573, no Pt 1, p. 5-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to quantify the fraction of cross-bridges that cycle during a cardiac twitch. Measurements of the energetics of contracting left ventricular mouse papillary muscle were made in vitro (27 degrees C) using the myothermic technique. Enthalpy output was partitioned into force-dependent and force-independent components using 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM) to selectively inhibit cross-bridge cycling. For isometric contractions and a contraction frequency of 2 Hz the net enthalpy output was 5.7 +/- 0.8 mJ g(-1) twitch(-1) and initial enthalpy output was 2.3 +/- 0.3 mJ g(-1) twitch(-1) (n = 11). Assuming that low concentrations of BDM did not affect Ca2+ cycling, force-independent enthalpy output was 18.6 +/- 1.9% (n = 7) of the initial enthalpy output. Enthalpy output decreased with increased contraction frequency but was independent of shortening velocity. On the basis of these values, it was calculated that the twitch energetics were consistent with ATP splitting by half the cross-bridges and the pumping of one Ca2+ into the sarcoplasmic reticulum for every three cross-bridge cycles. The simplest interpretation is that half the cross-bridges completed one ATP-splitting cycle in each twitch. The lack of influence of shortening velocity on energy cost supports the idea that the amount of energy to be used is determined early in a twitch and is not greatly influenced by events that occur during the contraction.

  • 12.
    Widén, Cecilia
    et al.
    Australien.
    Barclay, C J
    Australien.
    Resting metabolism of mouse papillary muscle2005In: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0031-6768, E-ISSN 1432-2013, Vol. 450, no 4, p. 209-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to measure the resting metabolic rate of isolated mouse papillary muscles and to determine whether diffusive O2 supply is adequate to support the resting metabolism. Resting metabolism of left ventricular papillary muscles was measured in vitro (27 degrees C) using the myothermic technique. The rate of resting metabolism declined exponentially with time towards a steady value, with a time constant of 18+/-2 min (n=13). There was no alteration in isometric force output during this time. The magnitude of the resting metabolism, which depended inversely on muscle mass, more than doubled following a change in substrate from glucose to pyruvate and was increased 2.5-fold when the osmolarity of the bathing solution was increased by addition of 300 mM sucrose. Addition of 30 mM 2, 3-butanedione monoxime affected neither the time course of the decline in metabolic rate nor the eventual steady value. Analysis of the diffusive oxygen supply to the isolated preparation indicated that small papillary muscles (mass <1 mg), which have a very high resting metabolic rate early in an experiment, are unlikely to be adequately oxygenated.

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