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Influence of the menstrual cycle on the oral microbial flora in women: a case-control study including men as control subjects.
University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Washington.
University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Washington, Seattle, WA.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3620-5978
2008 (English)In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, Vol. 79, no 10, 1966-1973 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

UNLABELLED: Changes in the levels of female sex hormones during the menstrual cycle may cause cyclic differences in subgingival bacterial colonization patterns. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that hormonal changes in the menstrual cycle cause changes in the oral microbiota.

METHODS: Bacterial plaque samples were collected in 20 systemically and periodontally healthy women using no hormonal contraceptives (test group) over a period of 6 weeks. Twenty age-matched systemically and periodontally healthy men were assigned to the control group. Samples were processed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization assay, and 74 species were analyzed.

RESULTS: No cyclic pattern of bacterial colonization was identified for any of the 74 species studied in women not using hormonal contraceptives. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (previously Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans) (Y4) was common at the beginning of menstruation (mean: 32%) and increased during the following 2 weeks (36%) in women (P <0.05). No cyclic differences in bacterial presence were found among the men (P values varied between 0.14 and 0.98). Men presented with significantly higher bacterial counts for 40 of 74 species (P <0.001), including Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa but not Porphyromonas gingivalis (P = 0.15) or Tannerella forsythia (previously T. forsythensis) (P = 0.42).

CONCLUSIONS: During a menstruation period, cyclic variation in the subgingival microbiota of periodontally healthy women of child-bearing age who were not using oral hormonal contraceptives could not be confirmed. Male control subjects presented with higher levels of many species but also without a cyclic pattern.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 79, no 10, 1966-1973 p.
Keyword [en]
recruitment, recruitment attempt, science, scientists, reproduction, identity
National Category
Dentistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-12223DOI: 10.1902/jop.2008.080057ISI: 000260142100019PubMedID: 18834253OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hkr-12223DiVA: diva2:728479
Available from: 2014-06-24 Created: 2014-06-24 Last updated: 2014-09-18Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
  • apa
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