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You Can Check Out any Time You Like, But You Can Never Leave: Psychological Control of Teens Predicts Young Adults’ Depression
Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön ForFame. Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5233-2467
2011 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Parental support predicts low levels of depression in teenagers, and psychological control high levels. However, this pattern holds true for cross-sectional research only whereas longitudinal support is mixed at best. Moreover, few studies have investigated long-term effects into young adulthood. This study explores effects of teenagers’ experienced parental support and psychological control on depression and parent-child relationships in young adulthood, three and five years later. It also explores parental behaviors as outcomes of teen depression. Out of 1,319 U.S. American adolescents aged 11-19 in 2002, those who had reached young adulthood by 2005 (n = 575) and 2007 (n = 878), respectively, were re-interviewed. Also the youngest participants, who still were in adolescence, took part in 2007 (n = 224). In cross-lagged panel regressions, maternal psychological control predicted depression and low well-being over time whereas maternal support predicted close parent-child relationships. For the youngest participants, effects on parenting were tested, and depression predicted increased maternal psychological control after five years. Only few effects were found for fathers. These findings suggest that psychological control does not make young adults withdraw from the relationship, despite their increased independence. Instead, they still expose themselves to this parenting behavior, resulting in increased depression. Depression also contributes to psychological control, resulting in a vicious circle of maternal psychological control and youth depression. Parental support in contrast is linked to relationship closeness over time, but largely unrelated to both depression and psychological control. The differential roles of psychological control and support will be discussed further.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011.
Keyword [en]
Depression, Parenting styles, Parent-adolescent relations
Keyword [sv]
Depressiva symptom, uppfostransstilar, föräldra-barnrelation
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-10202OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hkr-10202DiVA: diva2:605315
Conference
15th European Conference on Developmental Psychology (ECDP), 23-27 August 2011, Bergen, Norway
Projects
Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), Child Development Supplement (CDS) & Transition into Adulthood Study
Note

The Panel Study of Income Dynamics is primarily sponsored by the National Science Foundation, the National Institute of Aging, and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and is conducted by the University of Michigan.

Available from: 2013-02-13 Created: 2013-02-13 Last updated: 2015-02-23Bibliographically approved

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Masche, J. Gowert

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
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More styles
Language
  • de-DE
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  • en-US
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  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
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  • asciidoc
  • rtf