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Enhance your workplace!: a dialogue tool for workplace health promotion with salutogenic approach
Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. (Tema Människa Hälsa Samhälle, Folkhälsovetenskap)
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis was to develop and make a quality assessment of a tool, which includes a questionnaire and a dialogue process that could be useful for workplace health promotion from a salutogenic point of view. The studies have been performed within two health care organizations between 2005 and 2009, together with hospital staff. Two questionnaire studies were conducted (n=446 n=505, respectively). A focus group interview study was performed (n=78), and meetings were held in an action research process for applying a questionnaire process at two wards (n=69). The result shows a development process for a multi-dimensional questionnaire, the Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS), which can be used to measure work experiences from a salutogenic perspective. WEMS was shown to be a functional workplace health promotion questionnaire with the ability to discriminate between groups. Its psychometric properties support its applicability in health care settings and offer a possibility to measure trends over time regarding employees´ work experiences. A dialogue structure for progress in the questionnaire process is presented. It describes what to precede and how to proceed through a workplace questionnaire process to foster applicability, meaningfulness, and sustainability. Through WEMS, the outcome of work-related Specific Enhancing Resources (SER) may be highlighted and strengthened in workplace activities. When used as a dialogue tool in a continuous questionnaire process, WEMS has the potential of being a useful assessment tool in workplace health promotion. Such a dialogue tool is useful in discussions and tangible for the work of enhancing positive human capabilities and resources (SER) that improve work performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö: Institution of Clinical Science, Malmö, Lund University , 2010. , 159 p.
Series
Lund University, Faculty of Medicine Doctoral Dissertation Series, ISSN 1652-8220 ; 2010:112
Keyword [en]
workplace health promotion, Salutogenesis, Sense of Coherence, Work Experience Measurement Scale, Specific Enhancing Resources, questionnaire process
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-7484ISBN: 978-91-86671-28-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hkr-7484DiVA: diva2:373822
Public defence
2010-11-19, Jubileumsaulan, Medicinskt forskningscentrum, ingång 59, SUS, Malmö, 09:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-12-02 Created: 2010-12-01 Last updated: 2014-10-01Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Development and quality analysis of the Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development and quality analysis of the Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS)
2010 (English)In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 35, no 2, 153-161 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Instruments related to work are commonly illuminated from an ill-health perspective. The need for a concise and useable instrument in workplace health promotion governed the aim of this paper which is to present the development process and quality assessment of the Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS). A survey, using a questionnaire based on established theories regarding work and health, and a focus group study were performed in hospital settings in 2005 and 2006 respectively. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to statistically develop a model, and focus group interviews were made to compare quantitative and qualitative results for convergence and corroboration. The PCA resulted in a six factor model of dimensions containing items regarding management, reorganization, internal work experience, pressure of time, autonomy and supportive working conditions. In the analysis of the focus group study three themes appeared and their underlying content was compared to, and matched, with the dimensions of the PCA. The reliability, shown by weighted kappa values, ranged from 0.36 to 0.71, and adequate Cronbach's Alpha values of the dimensions were all above 0.7. The study validity, indicated by discriminant validity, with correlation values that ranged from 0.10 to 0.39, in relation to the content validity appeared to be good when the theoretical content of the WEMS was compared to the content of similar instruments. The WEMS presents a multidimensional picture of work experience. Its theoretical base and the psychometric properties give support for applicability and offer a possibility to measure trends in the work experience over time in health care settings. One intention of the WEMS is to stimulate the ability of organizations and the employees themselves to take action on improving their work experience. The conciseness of the instrument is intended to increase its usability.

Keyword
Work, experience, measurement, scale
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-5526 (URN)10.3233/WOR-2010-0967 (DOI)000275284100006 ()20164610 (PubMedID)
Projects
Sluta Plåstra - Hälsoskapande arbetsplatser inom hälso- och sjukvården
Available from: 2009-12-14 Created: 2009-12-14 Last updated: 2014-10-01Bibliographically approved
2. Workplace health resources based on sense of coherence theory
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Workplace health resources based on sense of coherence theory
2012 (English)In: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, Vol. 5, no 3, 156-167 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – In workplace health promotion, enhancing resources are less explored than risk factors. The aim of this paper is to explore the usability of the sense of coherence (SOC) theory to identify considerable and positively perceived work-related factors and processes.

Design/methodology/approach – The study had a salutogenic approach to workplace health promotion. A total of 13 focus group interviews were conducted with hospital employees in Sweden. A deductive analysis was made with the SOC theory as a framework.

Findings – Work-related specific enhancing resources (SER) were identified and analysed into the three components of SOC: comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness. SER's implication in daily performance is explained by employee expressions. Through increased understanding and awareness, SER could contribute to savoring positive experiences, and enhance SOC among employees. Antonovsky's concept Generalized Resistance Resources is suggested to be enlarged based on the expressed significance of concrete daily positive work occurrences to increase one's SOC.

Research limitations/implications – Not all hospital professions were represented in the study. Further studies are required to involve physicians, paramedics, managers, as well as other settings, to compare and complement with additional experiences of workplace resources.

Practical implications – The study presents an opportunity to explore, understand, and foster workplace resources through assistance from the SOC theory. The SER presented in this study may serve as initial examples in workplace discussions about work-related resources contributing to a sense of coherence.

Originality/value – This study contributes to public health research and workplace health promotion with a salutogenic focus on how to explore enhancing work-related resources with the assistance of the practical SOC theory.

Keyword
Sense of coherence, Specific enhancing resources, Hospital employees, Hospitals, Resources, Workplace, Health services, Sweden
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-7486 (URN)10.1108/17538351211268809 (DOI)
Funder
AFA Insurance
Available from: 2010-12-02 Created: 2010-12-02 Last updated: 2014-01-15Bibliographically approved
3. How to make a workplace health promotion questionnaire process applicable, meaningful, and sustainable
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How to make a workplace health promotion questionnaire process applicable, meaningful, and sustainable
2011 (English)In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 19, no 7, 906-914 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background  In workplace health promotion, a questionnaire could be of great use. Unfortunately, fatigue regarding answering questionnaires has recently become greater than before. An action research approach could be a possible way of increasing employee participation.

Aim  This study reports an attempt to explore key aspects for participation in, and commitment to, a workplace health promotion questionnaire process.

Method  The study was conducted at two wards in a Swedish hospital. Data was collected during an action research process. Data were analysed with regard to a framework of questions.

Findings  The three key aspects for participation in, and commitment to, a workplace health promotion questionnaire process were: an applicable questionnaire, a meaningful questionnaire process and a continuous and sustainable questionnaire process. A structure is presented as practical advice to managers, describing how such a process could be established to be applicable, meaningful and sustainable.

Conclusion  This study has identified key aspects and prerequisites for questionnaire processes. The prerequisites – share decision-making, involve a core group and follow a structure – are discussed and proposed for managers and workgroups to consider in further workplace health promotion questionnaire processes.

Implications for nursing management  The key aspects and prerequisites presented could provide a stimulating standpoint or advice, useful for planning and accomplishing workplace questionnaire processes.

Keyword
action research, participation, workplace health promotion, workplace questionnaire
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-7487 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2834.2011.01257.x (DOI)000296250000009 ()21988438 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-12-02 Created: 2010-12-02 Last updated: 2014-10-01Bibliographically approved
4. The work experience measurement scale (WEMS): a useful tool in workplace health promotion
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The work experience measurement scale (WEMS): a useful tool in workplace health promotion
2013 (English)In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 45, no 3, 379-387 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: To present validity data for the Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS), an instrument measuring multifaceted work experience from a salutogenic health resource perspective as a contrast to the more common pathogenic risk perspective, by exploring WEMS relationship to established measurements that are positively related to health and work. A salutogenic perspective focuses on finding conditions and resources in life, for example at work, that can enhance the individual's health and strength, instead of those causing illness and weakness.

METHOD: This study was carried out in 2009 at a Swedish hospital with a web-based survey (WEMS) to 770 employees. Different occupational groups at the hospital participated. Additional questionnaires used at the same time were the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), the Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale (SHIS), the General Self-Efficacy scale (GSE), and three questions about self-rated health, general well-being, and quality of life.

RESULTS: Cronbach's Alpha of WEMS sub-indices were in the interval of 0.85—0.96. Convergent validity and discriminant validity of WEMS and its sub-indices were shown to be satisfying by correlations. In addition, WEMS demonstrated the ability to discriminate between groups. WEMS sub-indices discriminated even better between groups than the total index.

CONCLUSION: The WEMS proved to be a workplace health promotion questionnaire that was able to measure experiences of work from a salutogenic perspective. The WEMS has a potential of being a useful tool in workplace health promotion to enhance positive human capabilities and resources to improve work performance.

Keyword
Work experience, measurement, scale, salutogenic, workplace health promotion
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-7488 (URN)10.3233/WOR-121541 (DOI)000323484000012 ()23324702 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-12-02 Created: 2010-12-02 Last updated: 2014-10-01Bibliographically approved

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