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Young today - adult tomorrow!: studies on physical status, physical activity, attitudes, and self-perception in children and adolescents
Kristianstad University College, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim was to gain knowledge of young people's physical status and physical activity, and to further the understanding of the role of school physical education in a salutogenic public health perspective. Two studies were performed in southern Sweden. Study 1 was performed in 1996 among 301 adolescents aged 16-19 in upper secondary school. It comprised three parts: a questionnaire, seven physical tests, anthropometrical measures and information on every student's grades. Study 2, with a longitudinal design and annual measurements, was performed in 2000-2003 (n=205- 275) among children aged 6-12 in two primary schools, one intervention school with expanded physical education lessons, and one norm school which followed the stipulated curricular time. The study comprised a questionnaire, eleven physical tests and anthropometrical measures. In Study 1, students in practical education for occupations such as industrial and building workers, mechanics, assistant nurses and hairdressers, all of which are occupations involving physical effort, had lower physical capacity than students in theoretical education among both boys and girls. A correlation was found between physical capacity and grades. An interrelation between Sense of Coherence (SOC) and attitudes to physical education was found, indicating that past experiences of physical activity and physical education could contribute to the development of SOC, and actual levels of SOC could influence the persistent attitudes to physical education and be important for lifelong physical activity. Study 2 showed high self perceived competence in physical education among children to be associated with high physical performance, male gender, low age, living with both parents, high self perceived physical fitness and enjoying physical education. Children who followed an expanded physical education programme during the three-year follow up showed positive changes in physical performance compared to children in the norm school. The number of children with increasing body mass index (BMI) rose in both schools, but a lower increase in BMI could be seen in the intervention school. In both Study 1 and 2, the highest physical capacity was found among children and adolescents who reported a high level of physical activity in leisure time. This thesis shows it is possible to achieve improvement in physical status among young people with an increase of physical education lessons in school. Differences in physical capacity between prospective blue-collar and white-collar workers already in adolescence during education emphasize the need for early interventions to increase physical activity and capacity in young people. Physical education in the school setting could be seen as an important arena for improving physical capacity, positive self-perceptions and positive attitudes to physical activity, which could be important for public health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Faculty of Medicine, Lund University , 2006. , 126 p.
Series
Lund University, Faculty of Medicine doctoral dissertation series, ISSN 1652-8220 ; 2006:51
Keyword [sv]
Hälsofrämjande arbete, Ungdomar, hälsa, Skolidrott
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-6223ISBN: 91-85481-76-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hkr-6223DiVA: diva2:296662
Public defence
(English)
Note
Diss. Lund : Lunds universitet, 2006 S. 1-76: sammanfattning, s. 77-126: 4 uppsatserAvailable from: 2010-03-03 Created: 2010-02-18 Last updated: 2010-03-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Low physical capacity among adolescents in practical education
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low physical capacity among adolescents in practical education
1999 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 9, no 5, 249-256 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to obtain better knowledge about teenagers' physical capacity and physical activity. The study group consisted of 301 students in upper secondary school, 191 students in practical education (74 girls and 117 boys) and 110 students in theoretical education (57 girls and 53 boys). The adolescents were 16-19 years old and lived in southern Sweden. The study comprised three parts: a questionnaire, seven physical tests (one test to predict maximal oxygen uptake, three strength tests, two flexibility tests and one balance test) and information on each pupil's grades. Pupils in practical education for occupations like industrial- and building workers, mechanics, assistant nurses and hairdressers, all of which are occupations involving physical effort, had lower physical capacity than pupils in theoretical education among both girls and boys. A correlation was found between physical capacity and grades.

Keyword
physical education, physical activity, physical capacity, adolescence, physical tests, questionnaire
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-5354 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0838.1999.tb00242.x (DOI)000082806900001 ()10512204 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-12-04 Created: 2009-12-04 Last updated: 2013-06-04Bibliographically approved
2. Predictors of strong sense of coherence and positive attitudes to physical education in adolescents
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predictors of strong sense of coherence and positive attitudes to physical education in adolescents
2005 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 33, no 5, 334-342 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AIMS: The aim of this study was to find variables related to positive attitudes to physical education (PE) and strong sense of coherence (SOC) among adolescents. METHODS: The study included three parts: seven physical tests; a questionnaire which included ways of living, attitudes to PE, and subjective health, the 13-question version of SOC; and information on every student's grades. The study group comprised 301 teenagers (131 girls and 170 boys, aged 16-19 years) attending upper secondary school. Positive odds ratio was used in the logistic regression analyses with SOC and attitudes to PE as dependent variables. RESULTS: Variables related to positive attitudes to PE were strong SOC, high physical capacity, high leisure-time physical activity (PA), high grades in PE, and little time spent watching TV. Variables related to strong SOC were positive attitudes to PE, high grades in PE, very good subjective health, and feeling comfortable in school. Highest physical capacity, highest mean grades, and highest grades in PE were found among adolescents who reported exercise four times or more per week. CONCLUSIONS: An interrelation between attitudes to PE and SOC was shown. The relation between positive attitudes to PE and high scores in SOC indicated that past experiences of PA and PE could contribute to the development of SOC, and actual levels of SOC could influence the persistent attitudes to PE and be important for lifelong PA. One means of identification of favourable or unfavourable health behaviour among young people might be through PA patterns, and relations between attitudes to PE and SOC.

Keyword
adolescence, enjoyment, physical activity, physical education, physical fitness, positive attitudes, sense of coherence ( SOC), subjective health
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-5353 (URN)10.1080/14034940510005833 (DOI)000232467300002 ()16265800 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-12-04 Created: 2009-12-04 Last updated: 2013-06-04Bibliographically approved
3. Factors associated with young children's self-perceived physical competence and self-reported physical activity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factors associated with young children's self-perceived physical competence and self-reported physical activity
2008 (English)In: Health Education Research, ISSN 0268-1153, E-ISSN 1465-3648, Vol. 23, no 1, 125-136 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with self-reported physical activity (PA), self-perceived physical fitness and competence in physical education (PE) among young children. The study included physical tests, anthropometric measures and a questionnaire. The study group comprised 206 children (114 boys and 92 girls, aged 8-12 years). Positive Odds Ratio was used in the logistic regression analyses. High level of self-reported PA was associated with membership of sport clubs and high self-perceived physical fitness. Variables associated with high self-perceived competence in PE were low age, high physical performance, living with both parents, high self-perceived physical fitness, male gender and enjoying PE. Variables associated with high self-perceived physical fitness were low age, high performance in endurance running, high self-reported PA, positive self-perceived body function and high self-perceived competence in PE. Correlations between children's self-perceived competence in PE and actual measured physical performance, between the self-perceived fitness and endurance performance and between self-reported PA and physical performance could be seen as a form of concurrent validity. One implication of the study for practitioners might be that children's own perceptions of their physical competence and activity levels could be used to roughly identify groups of children who are at risk of remaining physically inactive and therefore more prone to be unhealthy.

Keyword
CARDIOVASCULAR RISK, PERCEPTION PROFILE, ELEMENTARY-SCHOOL, MOTOR COMPETENCE, FITNESS, MOTIVATION, HEALTH, YOUTH, WAIST, ADOLESCENCE
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-44 (URN)10.1093/her/cym010 (DOI)000252543600012 ()17347524 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-12-22 Created: 2008-12-22 Last updated: 2013-06-04Bibliographically approved
4. Physical benefits of expanded physical education in primary school: findings from a 3-year intervention study in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical benefits of expanded physical education in primary school: findings from a 3-year intervention study in Sweden
2008 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 18, no 1, 102-107 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to assess whether a school-based program with expanded physical education lessons was effective in increasing children's physical capacity and in preventing excessive weight gain in children. The study performed in 2000-2003 comprised 132 children, 73 boys and 59 girls at baseline 6-9 years and in follow-up 9-12 years, attending two different schools with a similar size, appearance and structure in a rural area. The norm school (N-school) followed the stipulated curricular time, one to two physical education lessons a week, while the intervention school (I-school) increased it to four lessons. More positive changes in physical index (the sum of the age-standardized results in 11 physical tests) were found among children in the I-school than in the N-school. The number of children who increased body mass index (BMI) increased in both schools, but a lower increase in BMI could be seen in the I-school. Expanded physical education lessons could increase physical status among both overweight and normal-weight children, in particular aerobic fitness. The weekly dose of physical activity must be higher than 40 min a day and must start earlier in children's life to be more effective in combating BMI increase.

Keyword
Physical education, intervention, children, physical status, endurance running, weight gain, BMI
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-41 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0838.2007.00636.x (DOI)000253484400014 ()17490464 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-12-22 Created: 2008-12-22 Last updated: 2013-06-04Bibliographically approved

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