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Pre-school children's food habits and meal situation: factors influencing the dietary intake at pre-school in a Swedish municipality
Institutionen för hushållsvetenskap, Uppsala universitet. (Mat- och måltidsvetenskap)
2002 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A pre-school-based dietary survey, using seven-day records, focus group interviews and semi-structured interviews, was carried out in a suburban area of Stockholm. The overall objective was to investigate the individual food and nutrient intake of pre-school children at all meals during the day, as well as factors that might influence children’s intake. The average energy and nutrient intake per day for the whole week was satisfactory for the 109 pre-school children, but the temporal distribution throughout the day was skewed. The energy and nutrient intakes of food at the pre-school were lower than recommended. This was, however, compensated for by meals eaten at home. The children had a more varied food intake during weekdays than weekend days. This study has not provided any evidence to support the selection of water versus milk as a preferable lunch beverage in terms of pre-school children's total milk consumption and general dietary quality. However, the dietary analyses showed that there could be a reason to limit pre-school children’s daily milk and fermented milk intake to half a litre, according to the existing guidelines. The children associated food and eating with rules and norms. They did not categorise food as good or bad, as adults often do, but as "food" and "non-food"; for example, sweets were not food. The method used in this study, the focus group interview, was judged to be a useful tool for exploring how children think about and jointly reflect upon food. The role of the teacher had changed over the past years and they had not yet found a solid ground for integrating food and meals into their everyday work.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2002. , 64 p.
Series
Comprehensive summaries of Uppsala dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 0282-7492 ; 114
Keyword [sv]
Nutrition, förskolebarn, mat och matvanor, Sverige
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-6212ISBN: 91-554-5240-X (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hkr-6212DiVA: diva2:296648
Public defence
(English)
Note
Diss. (sammanfattning) Uppsala : Univ., 2002Available from: 2010-03-03 Created: 2010-02-18 Last updated: 2010-12-07Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Children's nutrient intake at preschool and at home
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children's nutrient intake at preschool and at home
2001 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 90, no 5, 483-491 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A preschool-based dietary survey, using 7-d records, was carried out in a suburb of Stockholm. The aim was to assess the intake of food and the quality of the diet of preschool children aged 3-5 y at preschool and at home, and to compare the dietary intake with the Swedish dietary recommendations for preschool children. The respective mean intakes of protein, fat, carbohydrates and sucrose, expressed as a percentage of total energy intake were 14, 38, 50 and 9 at preschool, and at home 14, 36, 52 and 12 on weekdays, 14, 34, 55 and 16 on weekend days. The mean intakes of seven vitamins and minerals were low only for selenium as compared with the recommended level. No differences were found in nutrient density between diet at preschool and diet at home, with the exception of dietary fibre (higher at preschool). On weekdays there was a significantly higher nutrient density for calcium, zinc, selenium, vitamin A, riboflavin, vitamin C and dietary fibre compared with weekend days. CONCLUSION: The average intakes of energy and nutrients per meal at preschool compared with the recommended levels for children aged 4-6 y were low for all meals (breakfast, lunch and afternoon snack). This, however, was compensated for by home meals.

Keyword
Attitudes, children, food, interviews, pre-school, staff
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-6328 (URN)10.1111/j.1651-2227.2001.tb00786.x (DOI)000169071600003 ()11430705 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-03-03 Created: 2010-03-03 Last updated: 2010-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. The contribution of food groups to the nutrient intake and food pattern among pre-school children
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The contribution of food groups to the nutrient intake and food pattern among pre-school children
2002 (English)In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, Vol. 13, no 2, 107-116 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A pre-school-based dietary survey, using 7-day records, was carried out in Sweden in the Stockholm area at 12 pre-schools; the survey included 109 of 131 participating children. The present study was designed to describe weekday and weekend food patterns, i.e. the frequency of consumption of food items and the contribution of energy and nutrient intake from different food groups, and to explore how foods are related in pre-school children's diet. At pre-school, all children except one ate vegetables and fruits about once a day, and all children consumed, on average, milk and cheese, meat products, bread and breakfast cereals and fats more than once a day. Milk and cheese products, bread and breakfast cereals and meat products were the primary source of energy and protein. The main source of dietary fibre was bread and breakfast cereals, potatoes and fruits. The “low-nutrient foods”, e.g. confectionery, buns, and soft drinks, contributed 20% of the energy during the weekdays and 33% during the weekend days. When all food groups (g/MJ) were analysed simultaneously in a Principal Components Analysis (PCA), 52% of the variation was explained. The food consumption data were described using four food clusters: milk and cheese products; bread and breakfast cereals; meat, potatoes and cooked cereals; confectionery, buns and soft drinks. In conclusion, the PCA seems to be a useful visual tool for elucidating how foods are related in the diet.

Keyword
Children, Energy, Food pattern, Nutrients, PCA, Pre-school
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-6329 (URN)10.1016/S0950-3293(01)00071-4 (DOI)000173829000006 ()
Available from: 2010-03-03 Created: 2010-03-03 Last updated: 2010-12-07Bibliographically approved
3. The role of milk in Swedish pre-school children's diet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of milk in Swedish pre-school children's diet
2001 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition/Næringsforskning, ISSN 1102-6480, Vol. 45, 131-136 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: A pre-school-based dietary survey, was carried out in Sweden in the Stockholm area. The aim was to study the role of milk in pre-school children's diet, especially the effect of milk versus water as lunch beverage at pre-school. Design: Food and nutrient intake were quantified using seven day-records in order to compare two serving systems at pre-schools, one offering milk as lunch beverage, the other water and to analyse the quality of the diet of low and high consumers of milk. Results: No significant differences between the children's food, nutrient or energy intake were attributable to the serving system at the pre-school. The low milk consumers had a more even distribution of energy intake from different food groups than did the high milk consumers. Conclusions: This comparative study has provided no evidence to support the selection of water versus milk as a preferable lunch beverage in terms of pre-school children's total milk consumption and general dietary quality. The dietary analyses showed that there might be a reason to limit pre-school children's daily milk and fermented milk intake to half a litre if the refined sugar level is limited.

Keyword
Children, energy, milk, nutrient, pre-school, water
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-5418 (URN)
Available from: 2009-12-07 Created: 2009-12-07 Last updated: 2016-04-01Bibliographically approved
4. Swedish preschool children's experience of food
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Swedish preschool children's experience of food
2002 (English)In: International Journal of Consumer Studies, ISSN 1470-6423, E-ISSN 1470-6431, Vol. 26, no 4, 264-271 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Focus group interviews were carried out at 12 preschools. The aim was to investigate children's perceptions and experiences of food, and the possibility of using focus group techniques with children aged 3–5 years. A total of 103 children participated. The children associated food and eating with rules and norms. Most children described these rules and norms as well as what they were and were not allowed to do. They knew very well the difference between acceptable and non-acceptable mealtime behaviour, and were especially aware of what they were not allowed to do. When children were asked to rate foods they 'disliked', they spoke instead about their favourite foods. They did not categorize food as good or bad, as adults often do, but as 'food' and 'non-food', for example, sweets were not food. The method used in this study, the focus group interview, was judged to be a useful tool for exploring how children think about and jointly reflect upon food.

Keyword
Children, focus groups, behaviour, attitudes, preschool
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-5417 (URN)10.1046/j.1470-6431.2002.t01-1-00227.x (DOI)
Available from: 2009-12-07 Created: 2009-12-07 Last updated: 2010-12-07Bibliographically approved
5. Pre-school staff’s attitudes toward foods in relation to the pedagogic meal
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pre-school staff’s attitudes toward foods in relation to the pedagogic meal
2006 (English)In: International Journal of Consumer Studies, ISSN 1470-6423, E-ISSN 1470-6431, Vol. 30, no 2, 224-232 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study, with the pedagogic meal in focus, was to identify pre-school staff members' attitudes to the role of food and meals as part of daily activities at pre-school. Interviews were carried out at 12 pre-schools and a total of 34 pre-school staff participated. The staff revealed strong opinions as well as ambivalence towards how food and meals should best be integrated into their daily work and pedagogic activities. The pre-school staffs' lack of or insufficient education and knowledge regarding food and nutrition resulted in an ambivalent and uncertain situation with respect to how they should see themselves as teachers in the meal situation. Nevertheless, most of the staff had a clear perception of what it meant to practice a pedagogic meal. It meant helping and encouraging the children to help themselves and serving as an adult model for the children at table, though this pedagogic activity was uncommon. While the staff were satisfied with the pre-schools' role of catering for the children, they expressed concern about or even mistrust towards the children's parents. Despite, or perhaps due to, their inadequate knowledge about food and nutrition and the lack of specific aims for the pedagogic meal, they assumed that the public sector was a better educational institution regarding foods and a better guarantor for children's food habits and dietary intake. As the teachers' identities have changed over the past years they have not yet found a solid ground for determining how food and meals could be integrated into their everyday work as pre-school teachers and childminders.

Keyword
Attitudes, children, food, interviews, pre-school, staff
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-5370 (URN)10.1111/j.1470-6431.2005.00481.x (DOI)
Available from: 2009-12-07 Created: 2009-12-07 Last updated: 2016-04-01Bibliographically approved

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