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Omvårdnadsåtgärder som kan minska patienters preoperativa oro
Kristianstad University College, Department of Health Sciences.
Kristianstad University College, Department of Health Sciences.
2008 (Swedish)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund: Patienter som ska genomgå elektiva operationer kan uppleva preoperativ oro och ångest. Preoperativ oro kan grundas i bristande information, tanken på att mista kontrollen samt vistelse i okänd miljö. Det vilar ett stort ansvar på sjuksköterskan då hon ska möjliggöra optimal delaktighet i vård och behandling för patienten samt uppmärksamma patienter som inte själva uttrycker ett omvårdnadsbehov. Syfte: Att sammanställa kunskap om vilka omvårdnadsåtgärder som kan minska patienters preoperativa oro vid elektiva operationer. Metod: Litteraturstudie, baserad på två kvalitativa och åtta kvantitativa artiklar. Tidsbegränsning mellan år 2000-2007. Resultat: Fyra huvudkategorier med omvårdnadsåtgärder framkom; bemötande, information, kognitiv distraktion och musik. Alla dessa omvårdnadsåtgärder kan leda till att preoperativ oro och ångest samt postoperativ smärta minskas.

Diskussion och slutsats: För att genom omvårdnadsåtgärder lindra preoperativ oro och ångest är utbildning av sjuksköterskor av stor betydelse. Kunskapen krävs i alla omvårdnadsåtgärder som presenterats i litteratursammanställningens resultat. Detta medför att alla sjuksköterskor har samma möjlighet att ge likvärdig omvårdnad preoperativt för att på så sätt öka patienternas förtroende för vården. Om sjuksköterskor blir bättre på att förebygga preoperativ oro kan vinster ses så som ökad delaktighet i sin vård, kortare sjukhusvistelser men framförallt nöjdare patienter.

Nyckelord: preoperativ, oro, omvårdnadsåtgärder, bemötande, information

Patients about to undergo elective surgery may experience preoperative anxiety. The reasons for preoperative anxiety may be based on a lack of information, the idea of losing control and being in an unfamiliar environment. A great responsibility lies with the nurse as she needs the ability to give patients the means to enable optimal participation in care and treatment procedures and also to pay attention to patients who not themselves are able to express their needs. Aim: To compile knowledge about nursing interventions that may reduce patients’ preoperative anxiety before elective surgery. Method: Literature study, based on two qualitative and eight quantitative articles. The time frame is between the years 2000-2007. Results: Four main categories of nursing interventions have emerged; treatment, information, cognitive distraction and music. All these interventions may lead to the reduction of preoperative anxiety as well as postoperative pain. Discussion and conclusion: In order to alleviate patient’s preoperative anxiety through nursing interventions, education of nurses is of significant importance. Acquaintance with all the nursing measures that have been presented in the results section of the literature study is necessary. This gives all nurses the same opportunity to provide similar preoperative care and thereby enhances patients' confidence in health care. If nurses become better at preventing pre-operative anxiety, an increase in patient participation and shorter hospital stays will be gained, as well as the reduction of preoperative sedation and postoperative analgesia consumption. The most important gain however, will be more satisfied patients.

Keywords: preoperative, anxiety, nursing interventions, nurse-patient meeting, information

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-4628Local ID: oai:eprints.bibl.hkr.se.oai2:2207OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hkr-4628DiVA: diva2:231092
Uppsok
Medicine
Available from: 2008-01-01 Created: 2008-01-01 Last updated: 2008-07-08

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