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Chronic pain in a geographically defined general population: studies of differences in age, gender, social class, and pain localization.
Department of Community Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9283-5096
Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
Department of Medicine, Rheumatology section, Central Hospital, Kristianstad.
Simrishamn Health Care Centre.
1993 (English)In: The Clinical Journal of Pain, ISSN 0749-8047, E-ISSN 1536-5409, Vol. 9, no 3, 174-182 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: To establish basic epidemiological data on chronic pain (duration > 3 months) in a defined population. Relationships between age, gender, and social class were tested. DESIGN: A survey of pain symptoms, including location, intensity, duration, and functional capacity, was conducted by means of a mail questionnaire. SETTING: General populations in two Swedish primary health care districts. Medical care was provided in a state health system. SUBJECTS: A random sample (from the population register) of 15% of the population aged 25-74 (n = 1,806). The response rate was 90%. OUTCOME MEASURES: Descriptive epidemiologic data in relation to objectives of the study. RESULTS: Without sex differences, 55% (95% confidence interval, 53-58%) of the population had perceived persistent pain for 3 months and 49% for 6 months. Among individuals with chronic pain, 90% localized their pain to the musculoskeletal system to a variable extent. Women experienced more multiple localizations of pain and had pain in the neck, shoulder, arm, and thigh to a greater extent than men. Prevalence of pain increased by age up to 50-59 years for both genders and then slowly decreased. The neck-shoulder area was the most common site of pain (30.2%), followed by the lower back (23.2%). Even in the youngest age groups more than one of four reported chronic pain. Blue-collar workers and employers (including farmers) reported chronic pain to a greater extent than other groups. In 13% of the population, manifest pain problems were associated with reduced functional capacity. CONCLUSION: Chronic pain symptoms are common but unevenly distributed in a general population. The results may influence planning and consultation in primary health care as well as warranting selective prevention activities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
1993. Vol. 9, no 3, 174-182 p.
Keyword [en]
epidemiology, chronic pain, gender
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-957PubMedID: 8219517OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hkr-957DiVA: diva2:224812
Available from: 2009-06-22 Created: 2009-06-22 Last updated: 2014-01-15Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Chronic pain: epidemiological studies in a general population
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chronic pain: epidemiological studies in a general population
1998 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim was to study the epidemiology of chronic pain (> 3 months duration) and factors associated to pain prevalence, prognosis, health care and medication in a general population. A cross-sectional mailed survey to a random population sample (n = 1806) was followed by a clinical examination and a prospective study of three selected groups. Pain related diagnoses from primary health care was monitored and compared with pain prevalence. The most important findings were: - a high total prevalence of chronic pain, 55.2%, without gender difference but varying by age and socioeconomic level. About one fourth (12.8%) reported high pain intensity and functional impairments. Women experienced pain at more locations and with higher intensity. - in a multivariate analysis increasing age, female gender, low education, high work strain, depression and insomnia were associated with chronic pain. - widespread pain showed a worse 2- year prognosis compared with neck shoulder pain. - musculoskeletal location of pain dominated, myalgia and myofascial pain being the most common symptom descriptions. - co-morbidity with chronic pain was common. More hypertensives and an increased level of serum uric acid associated to widepread pain indicated possible metabolic connections to pain. - smoking (current and previous) was associated with low-back and widespread pain. - chronic pain had a substantial influence of primary health care-seeking and medication; high pain intensity being the most important predictor of care and medication. - pain related diagnoses in primary health care increased between 1987 and 1996. Chronic pain, mainly with musculoskeletal location, is a community health problem. A multi-factorial approach in prevention and treatment on the basis of present knowledge is necessary.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Univ., 1998. 142 p.
Keyword
chronic pain, epidemiology, health care
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-968 (URN)91-628-2935-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
1998-04-29, Segerfalksalen, Wallenberg Neuro Centre, Lunds Universitet, Lund, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

ISRN LUMEDW/MECH-1025-SE

Available from: 2009-06-24 Created: 2009-06-23 Last updated: 2014-01-15Bibliographically approved

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