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Att finna sin egen kraft: hälsopromotion på arbetsplatsen utifrån BELE – ett program för att främja ett salutogent livspussel bland kvinnlig vård-, stöd- och omsorgspersonal
Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
2018 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

The overall aim of this thesis was threefold; first, to explore resources associated with work-life balance (WLB), with a focus on the work and private lives of human service employees. Second, to develop a workplace health promotion (WHP) intervention with a WLB focus. Third, to explore the participants’ experiences of the developed WHP intervention done in the workplace. A mixed method approach was used to answer the research questions. The thesis is based on two qualitative studies, one quantitative study and one paper that describe the content and development process of the intervention. The qualitative studies were based on individual interviews and focus group interviews (I, IV). Thirteen semi-structured individual interviews and two focus group interviews were conducted with home help service nurses in Sweden (I). Eight focus group interviews and eight semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with participants in the intervention (IV). A qualitative content analysis was used for the analyses in the qualitative studies. The quantitative study was based on a questionnaire survey to a population of two municipality departments (n = 631, response rate 76%) (II). A linear regression model and logistics regressions models were used for the analyses. The planning and development of the intervention was done using an intervention mapping approach (III). The findings showed a complex picture of resources related to WLB. Resources could be found in the work domain, the private domain and the individual domain (I, II). In the work domain, it seems to be important to have a positive time experience and a meaningful job, but also to work part-time and do shift work. In the private domain, a positive time experience and social support was highlighted. Individual resources such as good health, well-being, reflection and satisfaction with one´s life situation were seen as essential to WLB. The development process of the intervention resulted in the “Balance in Everyday Life Empowerment” (BELE) program (III). The findings showed that a majority of the participants taking part in the BELE program experienced a process of change, often enhanced by an increased awareness, support and inner strength, which promoted well-being and balance in their everyday life (IV). In conclusion, it seems important to use a holistic approach where resources in the employees’ overall life situation are included for the enhancement of WLB. The BELE program was an attempt to contribute to WHP with a WLB focus, and the result indicates that the program was effective with regard to promoting employee well-being.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö: Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Lund University , 2018. , p. 95
Keywords [en]
Woman´s health, Workplace health promotion, Work-life balance, Human service employees, Intervention
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-19271Libris ID: 22666731ISBN: 9789176196298 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hkr-19271DiVA, id: diva2:1314302
Available from: 2019-05-13 Created: 2019-05-08 Last updated: 2019-05-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Shift work to balance everyday life: a salutogenic nursing perspective in home help service in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shift work to balance everyday life: a salutogenic nursing perspective in home help service in Sweden
2015 (English)In: BMC Nursing, ISSN 1472-6955, E-ISSN 1472-6955, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 2-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Nurses in Sweden have a high absence due to illness and many retire before the age of sixty. Factors at work as well as in private life may contribute to health problems. To maintain a healthy work–force there is a need for actions on work-life balance in a salutogenic perspective. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of resources in everyday life to balance work and private life among nurses in home help service.

Methods: Thirteen semi-structured individual interviews and two focus group interviews were conducted with home help service nurses in Sweden. A qualitative content analysis was used for the analyses.

Result: In the analyses, six themes of perceptions of recourses in everyday life emerged; (i) Reflecting on life. (ii) Being healthy and taking care of yourself. (iii) Having a meaningful job and a supportive work climate. (iv) Working shifts and part time. (v) Having a family and a supporting network. (vi) Making your home your castle.

Conclusions: The result points out the complexity of work-life balance and support that the need for nurses to balance everyday life differs during different phases and transitions in life. In this salutogenic study, the result differs from studies with a pathogenic approach. Shift work and part time work were seen as two resources that contributed to flexibility and a prerequisite to work-life balance. To have time and energy for both private life and work was seen as essential. To reflect on and discuss life gave inner strength to set boundaries and to prioritize both in private life and in work life. Managers in nursing contexts have a great challenge to maintain and strengthen resources which enhance the work-life balance and health of nurses. Salutogenic research is needed to gain an understanding of resources that enhance work-life balance and health in nursing contexts.

Keywords
Salutogenesis, Nursing, Home help service, Health promotion, Work-life balance
National Category
Work Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-13416 (URN)10.1186/s12912-014-0054-6 (DOI)25620885 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-01-19 Created: 2015-01-19 Last updated: 2019-05-08Bibliographically approved
2. The complexity of resources related to work-life balance and well-being: a survey among municipality employees in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The complexity of resources related to work-life balance and well-being: a survey among municipality employees in Sweden
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Human Resource Management, ISSN 0958-5192, E-ISSN 1466-4399, Vol. 28, no 16, p. 2351-2374Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Increasing sickness absence rates among care and service employees in Sweden motivate health-promoting activities. It is crucial to employers and key stakeholders, like HRM departments, to have knowledge of resources related to employees' work life balance (WLB) to increase well-being at work. The aim of the study was to explore resources associated with WLB, with focus on work and private lives among care and service employees. A questionnaire survey to a total population of two municipality departments (n = 631, response rate 76%) was conducted. A linear regression model showed five significant main resources related to WLB: a positive life situation, recovery, a positive time experience at work, a positive time experience in private life and wellbeing. Logistics regression models further exploring the main resources showed essential sub-resources such as health-promoting leadership, supportive home environment and reflection on everyday life. This two-step analysis with a salutogenic perspective points out a holistic and complex picture of possibilities to promote employees' WLB and wellbeing. These findings can be used as a supportive framework for HR departments in charge of competence development for managers. Moreover, the results are important in both policy-making and as a foundation for workplace health promotion (WHP) interventions.

Keywords
Salutogenesis, workplace health promotion, work-life balance, municipality employees, management, policy-making
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-17110 (URN)10.1080/09585192.2017.1340323 (DOI)000406630100006 ()
Available from: 2017-08-21 Created: 2017-08-21 Last updated: 2019-05-08Bibliographically approved
3. "The importance of awareness, support and inner strength to balance everyday life": a qualitative study about women's experiences of a workplace health promotion program in human service organizations in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"The importance of awareness, support and inner strength to balance everyday life": a qualitative study about women's experiences of a workplace health promotion program in human service organizations in Sweden
2019 (English)In: BMC Women's Health, ISSN 1472-6874, E-ISSN 1472-6874, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: In many European countries, women have a higher sickness absence rate than men. Women also report higher levels of work-life conflict, which has a negative impact on women's self-perceived health. Interventions studies on work-life balance literature are scarce. This research adds knowledge about work-life balance by examining female employees' experiences of a newly developed intervention program, the BELE program (Balance in Everyday Life Empowerment program), aiming to enhance the work-life balance and wellbeing of female employees.

METHODS: All participants in the BELE program were included in the sample (n = 55) of the study. The methods used for gathering data were focus group interviews (n = 8) and semi-structured individual interviews (n = 8). A qualitative content analysis was used for the analyses.

RESULTS: The results showed that a majority of the participants experienced a process of change for enhancement of wellbeing and balance in their everyday life when taking part in the BELE program. In the analyses, three main themes emerged. Reflecting and strengthening inner resource, Trying to change everyday patterns and habits and Experiencing more balance and well-being.

CONCLUSIONS: The results point out the importance of awareness and reflection on everyday life to promote work-life balance and wellbeing. The BELE program was described as a wakeup call to one's own life and as an enhancer of empowerment processes and equality in the homes. Moreover, the results showed the need for health education in the workplace focusing on both work and private life to enhance balance and wellbeing among female employees'. The findings indicate that it is important to work at individual and group levels in work-life balance interventions and not merely at the organizational level or in the workplace setting.

Keywords
Human service employees, Intervention, Well-being, Woman’s health, Work-life balance, Workplace health promotion
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-18948 (URN)10.1186/s12905-018-0704-z (DOI)000455493400001 ()30630484 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-01-16 Created: 2019-01-16 Last updated: 2019-05-08Bibliographically approved

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Törnquist Agosti, Madelaine

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