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Therapeutic jurisprudence in investigative interviews: the effects of a humanitarian rapport-orientated and a dominant non-rapport orientated approach on adult’s memory performance and psychological well-being
Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Psykologi. Åbo Akademi University.
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) sees the law as a social force with the underlying idea that legal procedures should promote the psychological well-being (PWB) of individuals involved in juridical actions; for example, individual police interviewers could act as therapeutic agents. Investigative interviewing is guided by a truth-seeking and ethical framework; in this view, rapport is an important component for gaining trust and effective communication. Previous research shows that rapport-orientated and non-rapport orientated interview styles result in differences in interviewees’ memory performance and PWB. In the present thesis, a humanitarian rapport-orientated and a dominant non-rapport orientated approach were operationalised based on previous explorative findings of authentic crime victims’ and offenders’ perception of their interviewers as acting in either a humanitarian or dominant manner (Holmberg, 2004; Holmberg & Christianson, 2002). The studies in the present thesis were based on an experimental data collection that consisted of three phases: exposure, interview I (N = 146) and interview II (N = 127; one week and six-month retention period, respectively). Participants were randomly assigned to be interviewed in either a humanitarian rapport-orientated or a non-rapport orientated approach. Basically, it was hypothesised that a humanitarian rapport-oriented approach would increase interviewees’ recall and PWB, and that a dominant non-rapport oriented approach would decrease interviewees’ recall and PWB. Study I assessed the effects of an empirically based model of rapport and a dominant non-rapport orientated approach on adults’ memory performance in an (mock) investigative interview context. Adopting a TJ perspective, Study II described, defined, and measured interviewees’ PWB (Sense of coherence; STAI-S), while Study III investigated the impact of interviewees’ personality (Five-factor model; STAI-T) on their memory performance and PWB. Study IV explored previous findings (Studies I and III) for potential indirect effects of the interview approach on interviewees’ recall, and potential interaction effects between the interview approach and interviewees’ recall as moderated by their personality. Main results showed that a humanitarian rapport-orientated approach, in all essential parts, facilitated interviewees’ recall as well as their psychological well-being, whereas a non-rapport orientated approach, also in all essential parts, hampered interviewees’ recall and contributed to their decreased psychological well-being.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Åbo, 2017. , 102 p.
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-17347ISBN: 978-952-12-3565-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hkr-17347DiVA: diva2:1147221
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-10-05 Created: 2017-10-05 Last updated: 2017-10-23Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Rapport operationalized as a humanitarian interview in investigative interview settings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rapport operationalized as a humanitarian interview in investigative interview settings
2014 (English)In: Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, ISSN 1321-8719, E-ISSN 1934-1687, Vol. 21, no 4, 591-610 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study describes and tests an empirical-based theoretical model of rapport in an investigative interview context. Essential in this study is whether rapport, operationalized as the humanitarian interview, in two interviews with a six-month retention interval, had any causal effects on the respective memory performance of 146 and 127 interviewees. Independent-samples t‐tests revealed, on both occasions, that a humanitarian rapport interview led to a larger amount of reported information altogether, with more central and peripheral information, than a dominant non-rapport interview did. Regardless of the interview approach, mixed between-within analysis of variance showed a substantially larger amount of reported information in the first interview than the second. The amount of false information reported in both interviews was statistically invariable, regardless of interviewing style.

Keyword
humanitarian interview, interrogation, investigative interviewing, memory, rapport
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-11718 (URN)10.1080/13218719.2013.873975 (DOI)000342135700011 ()
Available from: 2014-02-05 Created: 2014-02-05 Last updated: 2017-10-05Bibliographically approved
2. Personality affects memory performance and psychological well-being in investigative interviews: a therapeutic jurisprudential approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Personality affects memory performance and psychological well-being in investigative interviews: a therapeutic jurisprudential approach
2015 (English)In: Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, ISSN 1321-8719, E-ISSN 1934-1687, Vol. 22, no 5, 740-755 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) aims to execute legal procedures in ways that promote the psychological well-being (PWB) of the individuals involved. This experimental study investigates the impact of personality on interviewees’ memory performance and PWB from a TJ perspective. PWB was defined by state anxiety (STAI-S) and sense of coherence (SOC). Interviewees’ personalities were assessed using the 10-item short version of the Big Five Inventory (Rammstedt, B., & John, O. P. (2007). Measuring personality in one minute or less: a 10-item short version of the Big Five Inventory in English and German. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 203!212) and State!Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T; Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R., Lushene, P. R. Vagg, P. R., & Jacobs, G. A. (1983). State!Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press]. Participants (N D 146) were assigned to undergo either humanitarian rapport interviews or non-rapport interviews. Each group underwent one exposure (computer simulation) and two interviews separated by a 6-month interval. Regression analysis showed that neuroticism (N), openness to experience (O) and extraversion (E) predicted interviewees’ memory performance; N and O were moderated by interview style. Moreover, E and agreeableness (A) predicted higher SOC and lower STAI-S, that is, increased PWB, whereas N predicted lower SOC and elevated levels of STAI-S, that is, lower PWB. In Interviews I and II, STAI- T and a non-rapport approach were a stronger predictor of lower SOC. The results are discussed from a TJ perspective.

Keyword
Anxiety, Five-Factor Model, memory, psychological well-being, rapport
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-13406 (URN)10.1080/13218719.2014.986838 (DOI)000363705300009 ()
Available from: 2015-01-15 Created: 2015-01-15 Last updated: 2017-10-05Bibliographically approved
3. Interviewees' psychological well-being in investigative interviews: a therapeutic jurisprudential approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interviewees' psychological well-being in investigative interviews: a therapeutic jurisprudential approach
2015 (English)In: Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, ISSN 1321-8719, E-ISSN 1934-1687, Vol. 22, no 1, 60-74 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Therapeutic jurisprudence sees the law as a social force; its underlying idea is that legal procedures should promote the psychological well-being (PWB) of individuals involved in juridical actions. In this experimental study, 146 subjects were assigned to one of two groups: one undergoing humanitarian rapport interviews, the other undergoing non-rapport interviews. Each group underwent two interviews separated by a six-month interval. The causal effects of interview style on interviewees’ PWB were measured using sense of coherence and StateTrait Anxiety inventories, both pre and post interview at Interviews I and II. Analysis of covariance of scores from both interviews showed interaction effects between interview style and interviewees’ anxiety and sense of coherence, respectively. At Interview I, a non-rapport approach was related to increased anxiety, that is, decreased PWB when comparing pre- and post-interview testing. At Interview II, a humanitarian rapport approach promoted improved sense of coherence, thus, increased PWB. More empirical research on PWB in relation to therapeutic jurisprudence is needed. The discussion focuses on how PWB should be measured in a therapeutic jurisprudential context of investigative interviews.

Keyword
investigative interviewing; psychological well-being; rapport; sense of coherence; STAI
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-12310 (URN)10.1080/13218719.2014.918083 (DOI)000349630200004 ()
Available from: 2014-07-02 Created: 2014-07-02 Last updated: 2017-10-05Bibliographically approved

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