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Time trends in nutrient intake and dietary patterns among five birth cohorts of 70-year-olds examined 1971-2016: results from the Gothenburg H70 birth cohort studies, Sweden.
Göteborgs universitet.
Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3692-7014
Göteborgs universitet.
Skövde universitet.
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2019 (English)In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 66Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Nutrition is a key factor in healthy ageing but there are still gaps in knowledge about risk- and protective factors linking diet and healthy ageing. The aim of this study was to investigate time trends in dietary patterns and nutrient intake in an older population, in order to increase the understanding of whether dietary recommendations are followed and if nutrient needs are met.

METHODS: Cross-sectional data was derived from five samples of 70-year-olds examined 1971-72, 1981-83, 1992-93, 2000-02 and 2014-16 from the Gothenburg H70 birth cohort studies in Sweden. A total of 2246 individuals (56% women) participated. Dietary intake was determined by the diet history method, which is an interview including questions on usual frequencies and portion sizes of food intake during the preceding three months. Recommended values of nutrient intake and determinants of healthful dietary patterns were based on the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Statistical analyses were performed using general linear models, student's t-test and chi-square test, stratified by sex.

RESULTS: The intake of fruits and vegetables, fish and seafood, whole grain products and nuts and seeds increased during the study period (p < 0.0001), among both sexes. However, there was also an increase in alcohol intake (p < 0.0001), especially from wine and beer, and in 2014-16 more than 30% had an alcohol intake above recommendations. Protein intake increased (p < 0.0001 for women and p = 0.0004 for men), and 48% of the women and 37% of the men had a protein intake above recommended 1.2 g/kg body weight and day in 2014-16. The proportion of participants at risk of inadequate intake of vitamins C, D and folate decreased during the study period, among both sexes (p < 0.0001). However, vitamin D intake from diet was still below average requirement level of 7.5 μg/day for 49% of the women and 32% of the men in 2014-16.

CONCLUSIONS: Dietary patterns have changed among 70-year-olds during the past five decades, with an increase in healthful foods and a higher nutrient density in later born birth cohorts. However, the intake of alcohol increased, especially among women. Results from this study can be useful as a basis for dietary guidelines and used for prevention strategies involving older adults in population-based and health care settings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. Vol. 18, no 1, article id 66
Keywords [en]
Diet history, Dietary patterns, Energy intake, Macronutrients, Micronutrients, Nutrient intake, Older adults, Time trends
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-20098DOI: 10.1186/s12937-019-0493-8ISI: 000495631900001PubMedID: 31694635OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hkr-20098DiVA, id: diva2:1369448
Available from: 2019-11-12 Created: 2019-11-12 Last updated: 2019-11-28Bibliographically approved

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