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Co-creating democracy: conceptualizing co-creative media to facilitate democratic engagement in society
Stockholms Universitet.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9740-2609
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Internet-based information and communication technology (ICT) have increasingly been used to facilitate and support democratic engagement in society. A growing body of research has demonstrated that the Internet and, in particular, social media have given citizens the opportunity to participate, interact, network, collaborate, and mobilize themselves within communities. While these media have broadened the means of exercising citizenship in many forms of participatory democracy, the technological prerequisites exist to go beyond the standard uses of social media (e.g., social networking, entertainment) and towards proactive and co-creative democratic engagement. Such engagement includes, but is not limited to, participatory activities for democratic purposes. Further, some researchers have argued that representative democracy is in decline and has several limitations related to citizens’ trust in politicians and engagement with representative institutions. There is a recognition among scholars to infuse representative democracy with participatory bottom-up processes by employing ICT in an attempt to bridge these limitations. In order to further facilitate and support participatory as well as co-creative processes, this thesis elaborates a concept of co-creative media. The process of this work was guided by the following question: How can co-creative media be theoretically anchored and conceptualized in order to facilitate and support citizen engagement within democratic processes? A concept-driven design research approach was adopted to address this research question, and this resulted in five interconnected articles. Firstly, based on the results from each article, four design guidelines were formulated to further guide the design of co-creative media for democratic engagement. These design guidelines may support future participatory design processes in which stakeholders collectively contribute to the development and evaluation of co-creative media. The guidelines constitute a resource that stakeholders may use to develop adaptations of co-creative media for the purposes of facilitating democratic engagement. Secondly, the results from each article were fed forward into the concept-driven research process as theoretical and empirical insights, which were used to inform and elaborate the main contribution of this thesis, namely the concept of co-creative media. The concept of co-creative media in its form outlined by this thesis seeks to broaden citizens’ democratic engagement by means of creating virtual spaces in which new ideas, initiatives, knowledge, solutions, and digital tools could emerge. The implications of co-creative media could be to create, develop, and strengthen partnerships between communities and local services, extend digital skills in society through community-engaged practitioners, and propagate as well as coordinate large-scale co-creative practices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Stockholm University, 2018.
Keywords [en]
co-creative media, democracy, concept-driven design research, socio-technical systems, consensus-seeking, internet voting, mobilization, open so
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-18397DOI: oai:DiVA.org:su-153968Libris ID: 22648990ISBN: 978-91-7649-113-3 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7797-215-0 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hkr-18397DiVA, id: diva2:1232637
Available from: 2018-08-29 Created: 2018-07-12 Last updated: 2019-08-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. From mobilization to consensus: innovating cross-media services to organize crowds into collaborative communities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From mobilization to consensus: innovating cross-media services to organize crowds into collaborative communities
2013 (English)In: CeDEM13: Conference for E-Democracy and Open Government, Edition Donau-Universität Krems , 2013, p. 13-227Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of the current paper is to contribute to the field of e-participation by presenting a design concept for mediating technology that incorporates current information technology such as social and collaborative media designed for the purposes of civic engagement in society. Such technology could empower people to mobilize and engage themselves in proactive consensus-seeking and co-creation. Social media are broadly adopted in the reactive mobilization of citizen-initiated participatory activity in society such as protests like the London riots and the Occupy movements. In our view, there is a demand to organize mobilized crowds to collaborate in a consensus-seeking manner. For instance, there does not yet exist online applications that specifically serve the purposes of massive simultaneous co-editing of documents by citizens seeking consensus in societal issues. However, as we argue, there is no reason for such not to be integrated from existing technological components that are commonly accessible.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Edition Donau-Universität Krems, 2013
Keywords
bottom-up democracy, e-participation, grassroots, social media, consensus-seeking, digital engagement, micro-democracies
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-18177 (URN)
Conference
Conference for E-Democracy and Open Government
Available from: 2018-05-31 Created: 2018-05-31 Last updated: 2019-08-16Bibliographically approved
2. Positive but skeptical: a study of attitudes towards Internet voting in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Positive but skeptical: a study of attitudes towards Internet voting in Sweden
2015 (English)In: CeDEM Asia 2014: Proceedings of the International Conference for E-Democracy and Open Government, 2015, p. 191-205Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study explored the attitudes of a broad sample of politically interested Swedish voters towards Internet voting. A total of 5683 participants completed a web-based survey concerning participation and security aspects of Internet voting. Attitudes towards Internet voting were positive on the whole and the acceptance of participation in democratic elections using Internet voting was spearheaded by: women, groups with relatively short education, the unemployed and the self-employed. Unlike previous studies, it was found that age was not a significant factor in determining the attitudes towards participation in elections by means of Internet voting. Concerning the security challenges of Internet voting, men were more optimistic than women and participants’ confidence in security increased with age and education length.

Keywords
Internet voting, electronic participation, security, democracy, digital engagement
National Category
Media and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-18179 (URN)
Available from: 2018-05-31 Created: 2018-05-31 Last updated: 2019-08-16Bibliographically approved
3. Political campaigning 2.0: the influence of online news and social networking sites on attitudes and behavior
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Political campaigning 2.0: the influence of online news and social networking sites on attitudes and behavior
2014 (English)In: eJournal of eDemocracy & Open Government, ISSN 2075-9517, E-ISSN 2075-9517, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 231-247Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aimed to examine differences in influence between online news (e.g., New York Times) and social networking sites (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) on attitudes in political campaigns. In a web-based experiment, campaign, polls and election between two fictitious candidates were simulated. Participants’ explicit and implicit attitudes as well as voting behavior were assessed using self-report items and the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The results reveal that information emanating from online news had a significant influence on explicit and implicit attitudes while that of social networking sites did not. Overall, negative items had a stronger impact than positive ones, more so in online news compared to social networking sites. Negative information from either type of media was more likely to change participants’ explicit attitudes in a negative direction and as a consequence also change their vote. Practical implications of the findings and limitations of the study are discussed.

Keywords
online news, social networking sites, attitudes, political campaign, Implicit Association Test, Facebook, Twitter
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-13347 (URN)
Available from: 2014-12-27 Created: 2014-12-27 Last updated: 2019-08-16Bibliographically approved
4. Using circumventing media to counteract authoritarian regimes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using circumventing media to counteract authoritarian regimes
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference ICT, Society and Human Beings 2011, 2011, p. 251-254Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to reflect on how potential circumventing media and communication technologies could potentially assist the information flow when authoritarian regimes decide to block the main channels, such as the Internet and the mobile phone networks. The point of departure is the recent Internet blackouts in countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), such as Egypt, Bahrain and Libya. We discuss several applications that were developed as a response to state repression in these countries, and their future potential that would allow people to communicate more freely despite Internet and mobile network blackouts.

Keywords
Circumventing media, decentralization, social media, citizen empowerment, uprising, revolution, kringgående medier, decentralisering, sociala medier, medborgardelaktighet, uppror, revolution
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-18180 (URN)
Note

Section I: Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference on ICT, Society and Human Beings 2011. Section II: Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference e-Democaracy, Equity and Social Justice 2011.

Available from: 2018-05-31 Created: 2018-05-31 Last updated: 2019-05-08Bibliographically approved
5. Concept-driven design for democracy: advancing co-creative media to support citizen participation and democratic engagement
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Concept-driven design for democracy: advancing co-creative media to support citizen participation and democratic engagement
2018 (English)In: eJournal of eDemocracy & Open Government, ISSN 2075-9517, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 23-49Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article elaborates a concept of co-creative media that aims to support citizens’ democratic engagement by facilitating participatory and co-creative processes. The research adopts a concept-driven design approach to theoretically underpin and empirically inform the concept. This was accomplished by adopting theoretical resources from the framework of actor-network theory (ANT), identifying criteria in an analysis of existing socio-technical systems for democratic engagement, and building on the results from four research studies. The main contribution of the article, namely the concept of co-creative media, could serve as a basis for further theoretical reflections and a point of departure to support future participatory design processes where relevant stakeholders collectively contribute to the implementation and evaluation of co-creative media. Co-creative media have the potentials to provide citizens with a new approach to democracy and could broaden citizens’ democratic engagement by means of creating virtual spaces in which new ideas, initiatives, knowledge, and solutions could emerge.

Keywords
co-creative media, democracy, actor-network theory, concept-driven design, socio-technical systems
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-18178 (URN)10.29379/jedem.v10i1.490 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-05-31 Created: 2018-05-31 Last updated: 2019-08-16Bibliographically approved

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