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Nilsson, L.-E., Eklöf, A. & Kullenberg, T. (2017). Categorizing students, categorizing texts: will plagiarism detection leave blood on the tracks?. In: : . Paper presented at Earli 2017 Biennal conference.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Categorizing students, categorizing texts: will plagiarism detection leave blood on the tracks?
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Within research on examination cheating, a common assumption is that plagiarism in the context of examination is increasing epidemically. A uniform definition of plagiarism does not exist, but plagiarism is the category most frequently used when students at Swedish universities are notified and sanctioned for deception. Text Comparison is frequently presented as an effective technology for addressing plagiarism. Plagiarism Detection Services (PDS) are used for detecting text overlaps, particularly in higher education. While Higher Education Institutions in some countries appear to have uncritically accepted the use of text comparison technology, the reception in other countries have been ambivalent or even critical. The present project studies consequences of the use of text comparison through teachers meaning making regarding the pedagogical task to grade students and the moral task, to report students that try to deceive. We hypothesize that teachers’ epistemological views are contingent on technology and discourses on technology. Text comparison technology, therefore, runs the danger of introducing consequential biases to the assessment of student performance. The material has been gathered in four focus group conversations. Focus has been introduced through the presentation of reports from a Plagiarism Detection System. A topical analysis has been performed on the transcribed conversations. From our results, we conclude that teachers’ epistemological views are contingent on technology and discourses on technology. Text comparison, therefore, runs the danger of introducing a consequential bias to the assessment of student performance leaving students open to the accusation about deception.

 

National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-17505 (URN)
Conference
Earli 2017 Biennal conference
Available from: 2017-10-16 Created: 2017-10-16 Last updated: 2017-10-16Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, L.-E., Eklöf, A. & Kullenberg, T. (2017). Cathegorizing student, cathegorizing texts: will plagiarism detection leave blood on the tracks?. In: Education in the crossroads of economy and politics: role of research in the advancement of public good : book of abstracts. Paper presented at 17th Biennial EARLI Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction, EARLI, Finland, Tampere. Tampere: University of Tampere
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cathegorizing student, cathegorizing texts: will plagiarism detection leave blood on the tracks?
2017 (English)In: Education in the crossroads of economy and politics: role of research in the advancement of public good : book of abstracts, Tampere: University of Tampere , 2017Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Within research on examination cheating, a common assumption is that plagiarism in the context of examination is increasing epidemically. A uniform definition of plagiarism does not exist, but plagiarism is the category most frequently used when students at Swedish universities are notified and sanctioned for deception. Text Comparison is frequently presented as an effective technology for addressing plagiarism. Plagiarism Detection Services (PDS) are used for detecting text overlaps, particularly in higher education. While Higher Education Institutions in some countries appear to have uncritically accepted the use of text comparison technology, the reception in other countries have been ambivalent or even critical.

The present project studies consequences of the use of text comparison through teachers meaning making regarding the pedagogical task to grade students and the moral task, to report students that try to deceive. We hypothesise that teachers’ epistemological views are contingent on technology and discourses on technology. Text comparisont echnology, therefore, runs the danger of introducing consequential biases to the assessment of student performance. The material has been gathered in five focus group conversations. Focus has been introduced through the presentation of reports from a Plagiarism Detection System. A topical analysis has been performed on the transcribed conversations. From our results, we conclude that teachers’ epistemological views are contingent on technology and discourses on technology. Text comparison, therefore, runs the danger of introducing a consequential bias to the assessment of student performance leaving students open to the accusation about deception.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Tampere: University of Tampere, 2017
Keywords
Morality, Social interaction, Technology, Writing/Literacy
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-17478 (URN)
Conference
17th Biennial EARLI Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction, EARLI, Finland, Tampere
Available from: 2017-10-15 Created: 2017-10-15 Last updated: 2017-10-16Bibliographically approved
Eklöf, A. & Kullenberg, T. (2017). ”Det är bra att hon liksom har suttit och liksom verkligen kollat oss”: gymnasieelevers tal om självständigt arbete. In: : . Paper presented at Dialogkonferens - Pedagogisk forskning i Skåne, Högskolan Kristianstad, 21/8, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>”Det är bra att hon liksom har suttit och liksom verkligen kollat oss”: gymnasieelevers tal om självständigt arbete
2017 (Swedish)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

I en pågående studie om gymnasieskolans kurs "gymnasiearbete" undersöks hur 20 svenska gymnasieelever resonerar kring sin undervisning och sitt självständiga arbete mot bakgrund av de förändringar som blev en följd av Lgy11. Vårt syfte är att utforska vilka värden, normer och premisser som ligger till grund för deras föreställningar om kursen. Detta gör vi genom att iscensätta och analysera fokusgruppssamtal samt klassrumsobservationer. Under denna presentation belyses forskningsprojektet såväl empiriskt som teoretiskt. Ett av våra huvudresultat visar att eleverna ser sig beroende av sin lärare i hög grad. De tillskriver henne en strukturerande roll, bland annat med avseende på tidsramarna i arbetsprocessen. Detta är intressant att diskutera och problematisera i relation till såväl deras ambitionsnivå som beskrivna arbetsinsats. Vidare pekar resultatet på att elevernas uppfattning om hur arbetet bedöms blir avgörande för synen på det egna lärandet.

National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-17480 (URN)
Conference
Dialogkonferens - Pedagogisk forskning i Skåne, Högskolan Kristianstad, 21/8, 2017
Projects
Gymnasieelevers projektarbete
Available from: 2017-10-15 Created: 2017-10-15 Last updated: 2017-10-23Bibliographically approved
Kullenberg, T., Eklöf, A. & Nilsson, L.-E. (2017). Independenceor interdependence?: dialogue-theoretical problems of "independent" learning. In: Education in the crossroads of economy and politics: role of research in the advancement of public good: book of abstracts. Paper presented at 17th Biennial EARLI Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction, EARLI, Finland, Tampere. Tampere: University of Tampere
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Independenceor interdependence?: dialogue-theoretical problems of "independent" learning
2017 (English)In: Education in the crossroads of economy and politics: role of research in the advancement of public good: book of abstracts, Tampere: University of Tampere , 2017Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper is a theoretical paper that highlights some implications of a dialogic ontology in educational research. However, for the sake of clarity we will very succinctly setting off to describe the background which is our empirical point of departure. The aim of our current empirical study is to explore how 12 adult students in a Swedish secondary school interpret the school task of doing ‘independent’ project works, addressing the questions of how students talk and reason about their own processes and values of the activity-specific task. In brief, the method is focus group conversations (three participant groups) and the result reveals the fact that the participants appreciated their common teacher, who was considered as a very successful guide. The teacher systematically provided orders, instruction, feedback and, most importantly, planning and staging in a stepwise fashion. In doing so she paradoxically also indirectly fostered her students to be even less independent, that is, more easily adapted to the institutional requirements without bothering too much about how to manage the tasks themselves. Project work is commonly described as a self-regulated form of the task; a common mode of student work in Swedish schools (Eklöf, Nilsson & Ottosson, 2014). As Bergqvist & Säljö (2004) highlight, it could further be conceived of as a disciplining, student-centered practice that is widely used to produce self-organizing learners. Although the students are supposed to work independently, they are considerably dependent on the instructional, organizational and evaluative work of the teachers (Åberg, 2015).

 

Drawing on a sociocultural perspective on learning, as we do, the notion of individualistic independency is well-known as a problematic stance (e.g., Wertsch, 1998). In the sociocultural version of dialogism social interdependence is a dialogic premise on both the epistemological and ontological level (Linell, 2009). Wegerif (2008) describes how the functional role of difference between learners’ voices is of significance to the Bakhtin-influenced take on multi-voiced dialogue (cf. Kullenberg & Pramling, 2016; Lefstein & Snell, 2014). In such a dialogic framing the teacher is not striving to overcome these differences between, for example, the student’s and the teacher’s opinions. Such recognition holds interpersonal difference seriously and moreover address a fairly uncommon approach to the educational notion of intersubjective agreements (Matusov, 1996, 2015; Wegerif, 2011).

 

This dialogic approach stresses the issue of student agency and, thus, democratic values of teaching acts. When respecting and promoting students’ own voices a genuine interaction of consciousnesses is possible to create throughout the pedagogical dialogues (cf. Bakhtin, 2004; Matusov, 2015). Hence, what constitutes a genuine interaction is the other-orientation toward the difference of the other, recognizing the learning potentials of the gap between distinct consciousnesses. Philosophically speaking, it further suggests the conceptual need to stress alterity in other-orientation (cf. Linell, 2009).

 

Recalling our examined students, they report a situated learning that is basically grounded in a “teacher-pleasing relationship” (Matusov, 2011). While working successfully they are heavily dependent on their teacher’s agency rather than developing their own. Indeed, as sociocultural scholars we might notice that there exists a considerably confined teacher agency as well; an agency which is clearly bound to pre-determined institutional goals. This contextual condition did not facilitate the student (and teacher) opportunity to learn and experience something radically unpredicted, for example, being dialogically surprised or challenged by the genuine other. The students in our study do not neither regard themselves as truly independent nor creatively personalized. Due to a Bakhtinian approach to education, independency is an illusion anyhow, but being personalized, rather than socialized, in and through education is a central dialogue theoretical issue (Lobok, 2014).

 

In our fully elaborated paper we will dwell upon the dialogue philosophical issue on other-orientation and the role of alterity, briefly described above. In addition we intend to provide a more detailed sketch of our study and the implications for dialogic pedagogy, informed by Bakhtin and educational scholars within the field.

 

 

 

 

References

 

Åberg, M. (2015). Doing project work: the interactional organization of tasks, resources, and instructions. Diss. Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet.

Bakhtin, M. M. (2004). Dialogic origin and dialogic pedagogy of grammar: Stylistics in teaching Russian language in secondary school. Journal of Russian & East European Psychology, 42(6), 12-49.

Bergqvist, K. & Säljö, R. (2004). Learning to plan: A study of reflexivity and discipline in modern pedagogy. In J.V.D. Linden & P. Renshaw (Eds.) Dialogic learning: Shifting perspectives to learning, instruction and teaching (pp. 109-124). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Eklöf, A., Nilsson, L.-E., & Ottosson, T. (2014). Instructions, Independence and Uncertainty: student framing in self-regulated project work. European Educational Research Journal, 13(6), 646-660.

Kullenberg, T & Pramling, N. (2016). Learning and knowing songs: a study of children as music teachers. Instructional Science, 44(1), 1-23.

Lefstein, A., & Snell, J. (2014). Better than best practice: Developing teaching and learning through dialogue. London: Routledge.

Linell, P. (2009). Rethinking language, mind, and world dialogically : interactional and contextual theories of human sense-making. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publ.

Lobok, A. (2014). Education/obrazovanie as an experience of an encounter. Dialogic    Pedagogy: An International Online Journal, 2, S1-S5. DOI: 10.5195/dpj.2014.84.

Matusov, E. (1996). Intersubjectivity without agreement. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 3(1), 25-45.

Matusov, E. (2011). Authorial teaching and learning. In E. J. White & M. A. Peters (Eds.), Bakhtinian pedagogy: Opportunities and challenges for research, policy and practice in education across the globe (pp. 21–46). New York: Peter Lang.

Matusov, E. (2015). Comprehension: A dialogic authorial approach. Culture & Psychology,   21(3), 392-416.

Wegerif, R. (2008). Dialogic or dialectic? The significance of ontological assumptions in research on educational dialogue. British Educational Research Journal, 34(3), 347–361.

Wegerif, R. (2011). Towards a dialogic theory of how children learn to think. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 6, 179-190

Wertsch, J. V. (1998). Mind as action. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

 

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Tampere: University of Tampere, 2017
Keywords
Cultural psychology, Learning approaches, Social aspects of learning and teaching, Teaching/instruction
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-17476 (URN)
Conference
17th Biennial EARLI Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction, EARLI, Finland, Tampere
Available from: 2017-10-15 Created: 2017-10-15 Last updated: 2017-10-16Bibliographically approved
Eklöf, A., Kullenberg, T. & Nilsson, L.-E. (2017). "It is great she is really checking she wants us to pass": facilitating student project work. In: Education in the crossroads of economy and politics: role of research in the advancement of public good: book of abstracts. Paper presented at 17th Biennial EARLI Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction, EARLI, Finland, Tampere. Tampere: University of Tampere
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"It is great she is really checking she wants us to pass": facilitating student project work
2017 (English)In: Education in the crossroads of economy and politics: role of research in the advancement of public good: book of abstracts, Tampere: University of Tampere , 2017Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

All students in Swedish upper secondary school have to do one mandatory project work course aimed at developing general skills such as independence, initiative, creativity and imagination. The students have to pass the course to receive their upper secondary diploma. Our study aims to investigate how students talk about the task of doing ‘independent’ project works in the diploma course.

Three focus group conversations of totaling twelve students are filmed and analyzed through topic analysis, an analytical approach based on dialogism as theoretical framework. The empirical material is analyzed from a perspective of how the design of the project course and the assessment regime influences the students work. Findings indicate that the students rely heavily on help and instruction from the teacher. They perceive of this help as a crucial asset in passing the diploma course. They state that the kind of help they receive are strongly focused towards the dividing line between pass and fail. Help is hardwired towards the scientific form and the content of their essays are treated as almost uninteresting. Support for independence therefore seems to be significantly restricted in practice. The teacher is in fact working as a facilitator guiding students towards dependence. This is accomplished through framing doing project work as doing template science.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Tampere: University of Tampere, 2017
Keywords
Collaborative Learning, Conversation / Discourse analysis, Social aspects of learning and teaching, Teaching/instruction
National Category
Educational Sciences Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-17477 (URN)
Conference
17th Biennial EARLI Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction, EARLI, Finland, Tampere
Projects
Gymnasieelevers projektarbete
Available from: 2017-10-15 Created: 2017-10-15 Last updated: 2017-10-16Bibliographically approved
Eklöf, A., Kullenberg, T. & Nilsson, L.-E. (2017). It is great she is really checking she wants us to pass: facilitating student project work. In: : . Paper presented at Earli 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>It is great she is really checking she wants us to pass: facilitating student project work
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

All students in Swedish upper secondary school have to do one mandatory project work course aimed at developing general skills such as independence, initiative, creativity and imagination. The students have to pass the course to receive their upper secondary diploma. Our study aims to investigate how students talk about the task of doing ‘independent’ project works in the diploma course.

Three focus group conversations of totaling twelve students are filmed and analyzed through topic analysis, an analytical approach based on dialogism as theoretical framework. The empirical material is analyzed from a perspective of how the design of the project course and the assessment regime influences the students work. Findings indicate that the students rely heavily on help and instruction from the teacher. They perceive of this help as a crucial asset in passing the diploma course. They state that the kind of help they receive are strongly focused towards the dividing line between pass and fail. Help is hardwired towards the scientific form and the content of their essays are treated as almost uninteresting. Support for independence therefore seems to be significantly restricted in practice. The teacher is in fact working as a facilitator guiding students towards dependence. This is accomplished through framing doing project work as doing template science.

National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-17430 (URN)
Conference
Earli 2017
Available from: 2017-10-12 Created: 2017-10-12 Last updated: 2017-10-24Bibliographically approved
Eklöf, A. & Nilsson, L.-E. (2015). Project work and the grade perspective: a dilemma for the 21st century learner. In: : . Paper presented at 16th Biennial EARLI Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction, Limasol, Cyprus, August 25-29, 2015..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Project work and the grade perspective: a dilemma for the 21st century learner
2015 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper engages in a discussion about an aspect of what it means to become a 21st century learner. Our aim is to discuss ways in which students realize their subjectivity by using a number of positions derived from the empirical material such as independent critical students, subject oriented authors and risk conscious instruction followers, all resulting from project oriented education. The empirical material consists of approximately 60 hours of filmed group interactions collected over a period of three years in a Swedish upper secondary school during a period of three years. The material are analyzed with content categorization and interaction analysis Four different positions regarding approaches towards instructions, the assessed situation and the use of different cues were identified and used to discuss how different approaches to risk forms as us citizens. In our study, positions have been derived using Goffman’s frame theory and takes a stand in Becker, Geer, & Hughes and Miller & Parlett’s classical studies on assessment. The four positions describe different types of relations towards the demands of 21st century learners. The positions have been scrutinized with the aid of Beck’s “manufactured uncertainty” and the emphasis that Biesta puts on trust and resistance in the educational relation. We conclude that today/s students cannot effort to be cue deaf and are expected to be cue choosing facing the danger of making incorrect choices.

Keywords
reflective society, competencies, social aspects of learning, social sciences, secondary education, cooperative/collaborative learning
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-14650 (URN)
Conference
16th Biennial EARLI Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction, Limasol, Cyprus, August 25-29, 2015.
Available from: 2015-09-21 Created: 2015-09-21 Last updated: 2016-04-01Bibliographically approved
Eklöf, A., Nilsson, L.-E. & Ottosson, T. (2014). Instructions, independence, and uncertainty: student framing in self-regulated project work. European Educational Research Journal (online), 13(6), 646-660
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Instructions, independence, and uncertainty: student framing in self-regulated project work
2014 (English)In: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 646-660Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study presents an approach to student interaction in self-regulated project work. By combining frame analysis and socio-cultural risk theory, the authors explore the importance of students' framing activities as a basis for their understanding of tasks. The increase in self-regulated work in Swedish schools can be seen as being in line with developments in Europe towards more individualisation. The authors argue that their data provide examples of how the global discourse imposes itself on local discourses. This mode of work, as it appears in the material presented in this article, exemplifies how complex assessment ideas have penetrated the school context. The authors emphasise the concepts of uncertainty, risk and complexity in analysing the framing process, and claim that the focus on these concepts is essential in analysing self-regulated work, contributing to better understanding of self-regulated learning processes.

National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-12309 (URN)10.2304/eerj.2014.13.6.646 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-07-02 Created: 2014-07-02 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Eklöf, A. (2014). Project work, independence and critical thinking. (Doctoral dissertation). Göteborg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Project work, independence and critical thinking
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis studies how students do projects in a Swedish upper secondaryschool. The students have to produce products and at the same time provethem self as independent in relation to the teachers, and negotiate therequirements of the project setting and the written instructions within thegroup. The study focuses on what comes out as problematic for the students,how they solve these dilemma situations and what resources are used in orderto do so.A choice was made only to analyse student group interaction in parts ofthe project process where the teachers were not physically present thus fillinga research gap.The empirical material was collected during three years in sex secondaryschool classes through filmed sessions of groups or pairs working with theirproject.Each of the four articles primarily focuses a special dilemma; structure,independence, instructions and critical thinking. By combining Goffman’sframe analysis with the concepts of risk and uncertainty from a Risk – societyperspective, issues related to what it means to do project work asindependent, critical 21st-century learner are illustrated and discussed.The choice to look only at situations in which students have to managewithout the aid of a physically present teacher illuminates several practicalconsequences like an unwillingness to go to the teacher and ask questions andan increased concentration on and interpretation of the written instructions. Adevelopment of Miller and Parlett’s (1974) discussion of student approach tocues are suggested. The concept of the cue choosing student are constructedin order to better respond to demands from an individualised interactionsociety. The study also emphasises how the students have to balance differentframeworks in order to be both authors and assessed students. Byimplementing a risk society perspective new ways of analysing andunderstanding independence and classroom interaction is suggested and arecontextualization of critical thinking proposed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis, 2014. p. 216
Series
Gothenburg studies in educational sciences, ISSN 0436-1121 ; 353
Keywords
project work, independence, individualisation, critical thinking, frame analysis, risk, uncertainty, Risk-society, Goffman
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-12138 (URN)978-91-7346-793-3 (ISBN)978-91-7346-793-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-06-13, Aulan Högskolan Kristianstad (7:314), kristianstad, 09:19 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-07-02 Created: 2014-06-16 Last updated: 2016-04-01Bibliographically approved
Eklöf, A. (2013). A long and winding path: requirements for critical thinking in project work. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, 2(2), 61-74
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A long and winding path: requirements for critical thinking in project work
2013 (English)In: Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, ISSN 2210-6561, E-ISSN 2210-657X, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 61-74Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Be prepared for assessment, be independent, creative, connected, and critical — students doing assessed self-regulated project work face extensive demands. Such work requires considerable capacity to undertake source criticism and think critically. In this article, I examine how secondary school students relate to demands concerning source criticism and critical thinking. Drawing on Goffman's frame analysis and social/cultural risk theory, I discuss how various conceptions of “what's going on” are connected to choices to be made. Various frames that can be related to an overall notion of an opaque and ubiquitous assessment regime simultaneously come into play. In examining dilemmas and analyzing various ways of framing them, I will try to illuminate and understand the obstacles students experience connected with demands for source criticism and critical thinking in project work. Although student handling of these demands can be questioned in relation to how a critical approach is traditionally described, I claim that what we observe can also be interpreted as a rational adaptation to a different framing of what school and education are really about, that is, being a “good student” by doing what is most rewarding in terms of how the school system displays appreciation.

Keywords
Critical thinking, Frame analysis, Grade point average perspective, Risk, Self-regulated work, Source criticism
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-9988 (URN)10.1016/j.lcsi.2012.11.001 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-01-08 Created: 2013-01-08 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7494-6980

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