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Ejlertsson, Göran
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Ejlertsson, L., Heijbel, B., Ejlertsson, G. & Andersson, I. (2018). Recovery, work-life balance and work experiences important to self-rated health: a questionnaire study on salutogenic work factors among Swedish primary health care employees. Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation, 59(1), 155-163
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recovery, work-life balance and work experiences important to self-rated health: a questionnaire study on salutogenic work factors among Swedish primary health care employees
2018 (English)In: Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 155-163Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of information on positive work factors among health care workers.

OBJECTIVE: To explore salutogenic work-related factors among primary health care employees.

METHOD: Questionnaire to all employees (n = 599) from different professions in public and private primary health care centers in one health care district in Sweden. The questionnaire, which had a salutogenic perspective, included information on self-rated health from the previously validated SHIS (Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale), psychosocial work environment and experiences, recovery, leadership, social climate, reflection and work-life balance.

RESULTS: The response rate was 84%. A multivariable linear regression model, with SHIS as the dependent variable, showed three significant predictors. Recovery had the highest relationship to SHIS (1 = 0.34), followed by experience of work-life balance (1 = 0.25) and work experiences (1 = 0.20). Increased experience of recovery during working hours related to higher self-rated health independent of recovery outside work.

CONCLUSION: Individual experiences of work, work-life balance and, most importantly, recovery seem to be essential areas for health promotion. Recovery outside the workplace has been studied previously, but since recovery during work was shown to be of great importance in relation to higher self-rated health, more research is needed to explore different recoverystrategies in the workplace.

Keywords
Positive health, healthy work conditions, employee health, occupational health, health promotion
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-17878 (URN)10.3233/WOR-172659 (DOI)000424631000015 ()
Available from: 2018-02-13 Created: 2018-02-13 Last updated: 2018-03-05Bibliographically approved
Andruškienė, J., Kuzmienė, A., Martinkėnas, A., Jurgutis, A., Ejlertsson, G. & Andersson, I. (2015). Psychosocial work experiences related to health: a study of Lithuanian hospital employees. Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, 53(3), 669-677
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychosocial work experiences related to health: a study of Lithuanian hospital employees
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2015 (English)In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 669-677Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Research in the area of workplace health promotion from a salutogenic perspective is lacking in Eastern Europe.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between psychosocial work environment and health from a salutogenic perspective among Lithuanian hospital workers.

METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design a questionnaire was distributed to staff in a large hospital in Lithuania. Out of 811 employees, 714 completed the survey: 151 physicians, 449 nurses and 114 other staff members (e.g., psychologists, technicians, therapists). A response rate of 88.0% was achieved. The Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS) and the Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale (SHIS) were linguistically adapted and used for the first time in a Lithuanian context. Logistic and multiple linear regression models were used for the analyses.

RESULTS: Supportive working conditions, positive internal work experiences and time experience contributed the most to good health, defined as a high SHIS index. Having an executive post was significantly related to good work experiences, i.e. a high WEMS score, while being at the age of 40-54 years was associated with a low WEMS score. Physicians had the highest score on supportive working conditions; while nurses had the lowest scores on autonomy.

CONCLUSIONS: A salutogenic approach enables an organisation to identify how to improve working conditions for the employees by focusing on possibilities and resources. Individual activities for workplace health promotion among different work groups seem necessary.

Keywords
Salutogenic, workplace health promotion, evaluation, Eastern Europe, organisation
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-15417 (URN)10.3233/WOR-152171 (DOI)000373209500021 ()26519009 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-04-25 Created: 2016-04-25 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Törnquist Agosti, M., Andersson, I., Ejlertsson, G. & Janlöv, A.-C. (2015). Shift work to balance everyday life: a salutogenic nursing perspective in home help service in Sweden. BMC Nursing, 14(1), 2
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shift work to balance everyday life: a salutogenic nursing perspective in home help service in Sweden
2015 (English)In: BMC Nursing, ISSN 1472-6955, E-ISSN 1472-6955, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 2-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Nurses in Sweden have a high absence due to illness and many retire before the age of sixty. Factors at work as well as in private life may contribute to health problems. To maintain a healthy work–force there is a need for actions on work-life balance in a salutogenic perspective. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of resources in everyday life to balance work and private life among nurses in home help service.

Methods: Thirteen semi-structured individual interviews and two focus group interviews were conducted with home help service nurses in Sweden. A qualitative content analysis was used for the analyses.

Result: In the analyses, six themes of perceptions of recourses in everyday life emerged; (i) Reflecting on life. (ii) Being healthy and taking care of yourself. (iii) Having a meaningful job and a supportive work climate. (iv) Working shifts and part time. (v) Having a family and a supporting network. (vi) Making your home your castle.

Conclusions: The result points out the complexity of work-life balance and support that the need for nurses to balance everyday life differs during different phases and transitions in life. In this salutogenic study, the result differs from studies with a pathogenic approach. Shift work and part time work were seen as two resources that contributed to flexibility and a prerequisite to work-life balance. To have time and energy for both private life and work was seen as essential. To reflect on and discuss life gave inner strength to set boundaries and to prioritize both in private life and in work life. Managers in nursing contexts have a great challenge to maintain and strengthen resources which enhance the work-life balance and health of nurses. Salutogenic research is needed to gain an understanding of resources that enhance work-life balance and health in nursing contexts.

Keywords
Salutogenesis, Nursing, Home help service, Health promotion, Work-life balance
National Category
Work Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-13416 (URN)10.1186/s12912-014-0054-6 (DOI)25620885 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-01-19 Created: 2015-01-19 Last updated: 2019-05-08Bibliographically approved
Ejlertsson, L., Heijbel, B., Ejlertsson, G. & Andersson, I. (2014). Salutogena arbetsfaktorer för friska medarbetare: en enkätstudie inom primärvården.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Salutogena arbetsfaktorer för friska medarbetare: en enkätstudie inom primärvården
2014 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund: En fungerande primärvård är viktig för invånarnas hälsa. Hälso- och sjukvården i Sverige är under stor press och sjukvårdspersonalens välbefinnande är ett omdiskuterat ämne. Många studier i primärvården lyfter fram stress och ohälsa bland personalen, medan s.k. salutogena studier, dvs. sådana som lyfter fram resurser och möjligheter, i princip saknas. Det övergripande syftet med denna studie var att belysa goda arbetsförhållanden i primärvården ur ett salutogent perspektiv.

Metod: En enkätstudie genomfördes vid samtliga 26 vårdcentraler, 18 offentliga och åtta privata, i sex kommuner i nordöstra Skåne. Enkäten riktade sig till alla anställda inom primärvården (n = 599). Frågorna omfattade olika dimensioner av arbetsförhållanden och hälsa. Som bas användes två salutogent inriktade mätinstrument: SHIS (Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale), som mäter indikatorer på hälsa, och WEMS (Work Experience Measurement Scale), med frågor om upplevelsen av arbetet och arbetssituationen. Dessa frågor kompletterades med nyskapade frågor. Dels gjordes en inledande intervjustudie, som resulterade i frågor av särskild relevans för primärvården, dels inkluderades frågor inspirerade av befintliga frågeinstrument. Index bildades utifrån de olika områdena, vilka skapades genom att frågor med logiskt samband slogs samman. Samtliga index presenteras i den här rapporten.

Resultat: Den totala svarsfrekvensen var 84 procent. Det fanns stora individuella variationer mellan de olika vårdcentralerna. Hälsotillståndet hos de anställda var i första hand associerat med återhämtning, följt av balans mellan arbete och privatliv samt individuella inre arbetsupplevelser, som t.ex. att kunna gå till jobbet med glädje och att uppleva arbetet som meningsfullt och utmanande. Egenskaper som präglar arbetsplatsen hade det tydligaste förhållandet till upplevelsen av energi på arbetet, och det mest signifikanta sambandet med feed-back var att ha en tillgänglig chef. Det fanns en positiv trend för den yngre åldersgruppen (<35 år) i upplevelsen av hälsa (SHIS). Samma grupp hade inom flera andra områden signifikant högre värden än resterande åldersgrupper, bl.a. gällande individuella inre upplevelser samt upplevelsen av feedback och arbetet som energigivare. Bland yrkesgrupperna var SHIS högt bland sköterskorna liksom upplevelsen av arbetet som energigivare. Den paramedicinska personalen upplevde självbestämmande såväl som möjlighet till reflektion på arbetet i störst utsträckning, medan den administrativa personalen tillsammans med läkarna upplevde högst grad av feedback på arbetet.

Slutsats: Studien ger en grund för arbetsrelaterade insatser i syfte att stärka de funna salutogena faktorerna, samt för att öka de anställdas deltagande i framtida hälsofrämjande arbete. Varje vårdcentral har genom studien goda möjligheter att arbeta vidare med de egna resultaten.

Publisher
p. 58
Series
Kristianstad University Press ; 2014:01
Keywords
primärvård, salutogenes, arbetssituation, hälsofrämjande
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-12952 (URN)
Note

Arbetet har delfinansierats av Region Skåne och Distriktsläkarföreningens Samfond.

Available from: 2014-09-22 Created: 2014-09-22 Last updated: 2015-02-05Bibliographically approved
Agosti, M., Andersson, I., Ejlertsson, G. & Erlandsson, L.-K. (2013). Främjar metoden "Livspussla - hälsa i vardagen" personalens upplevelse av hälsa och balans i vardagen?. In: : . Paper presented at Salus 2013 - En nationell samling kring forskning i hälsofrämjande salutogenes utifrån ett livscykelsperspektiv. 15-16/10 Högskolan Väst.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Främjar metoden "Livspussla - hälsa i vardagen" personalens upplevelse av hälsa och balans i vardagen?
2013 (Swedish)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-11805 (URN)
Conference
Salus 2013 - En nationell samling kring forskning i hälsofrämjande salutogenes utifrån ett livscykelsperspektiv. 15-16/10 Högskolan Väst
Available from: 2014-02-26 Created: 2014-02-26 Last updated: 2014-03-05Bibliographically approved
Sollerhed, A.-C., Andersson, I. & Ejlertsson, G. (2013). Recurrent pain and discomfort in relation to fitness and physical activity among young school children. European Journal of Sport Science, 13(5), 591-598
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recurrent pain and discomfort in relation to fitness and physical activity among young school children
2013 (English)In: European Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1746-1391, E-ISSN 1536-7290, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 591-598Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As an increase in pain symptoms among children has been shown in the last decades, the aim of this study was to describe perceptions of recurrent pain, measured physical fitness and levels of reported physical activity (PA) in children, and to investigate if any associations between PA, fitness and recurrent pain could be identified. A school-based study comprised 206 Swedish children 8?12 years old, 114 boys, 92 girls. A questionnaire with questions about perceived pain, self-reported PA and lifestyle factors was used. Health-related fitness was assessed by 11 physical tests. A physical index was calculated from these tests as a z score. High physical index indicated high fitness and low physical index indicated low fitness. ANOVA test, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to compare active and inactive children. The prevalence of one pain location (head, abdomen or back) was 26%, two 11% and three 4% (n=206). Female gender, living in single-parent families, low PA and low subjective health were associated with reported recurrent pain. Children reporting high levels of PA had high physical index and reported low prevalence of pain symptoms. The physical index and level of self-reported PA decreased gradually the more pain locations. Physically active children had higher fitness levels and reported less pain symptoms than inactive peers. Coping with pain is an integral part of PA, and active children learn to cope with unpleasant body sensations which together with high fitness may reduce the perception of pain. As an increase in pain symptoms among children has been shown in the last decades, the aim of this study was to describe perceptions of recurrent pain, measured physical fitness and levels of reported physical activity (PA) in children, and to investigate if any associations between PA, fitness and recurrent pain could be identified. A school-based study comprised 206 Swedish children 8?12 years old, 114 boys, 92 girls. A questionnaire with questions about perceived pain, self-reported PA and lifestyle factors was used. Health-related fitness was assessed by 11 physical tests. A physical index was calculated from these tests as a z score. High physical index indicated high fitness and low physical index indicated low fitness. ANOVA test, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to compare active and inactive children. The prevalence of one pain location (head, abdomen or back) was 26%, two 11% and three 4% (n=206). Female gender, living in single-parent families, low PA and low subjective health were associated with reported recurrent pain. Children reporting high levels of PA had high physical index and reported low prevalence of pain symptoms. The physical index and level of self-reported PA decreased gradually the more pain locations. Physically active children had higher fitness levels and reported less pain symptoms than inactive peers. Coping with pain is an integral part of PA, and active children learn to cope with unpleasant body sensations which together with high fitness may reduce the perception of pain.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-10331 (URN)10.1080/17461391.2013.767946 (DOI)000324569100021 ()24050478 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2013-03-21 Created: 2013-03-21 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, P., Andersson, I. H. & Ejlertsson, G. (2013). The work experience measurement scale (WEMS): a useful tool in workplace health promotion. Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, 45(3), 379-387
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The work experience measurement scale (WEMS): a useful tool in workplace health promotion
2013 (English)In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 379-387Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: To present validity data for the Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS), an instrument measuring multifaceted work experience from a salutogenic health resource perspective as a contrast to the more common pathogenic risk perspective, by exploring WEMS relationship to established measurements that are positively related to health and work. A salutogenic perspective focuses on finding conditions and resources in life, for example at work, that can enhance the individual's health and strength, instead of those causing illness and weakness.

METHOD: This study was carried out in 2009 at a Swedish hospital with a web-based survey (WEMS) to 770 employees. Different occupational groups at the hospital participated. Additional questionnaires used at the same time were the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), the Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale (SHIS), the General Self-Efficacy scale (GSE), and three questions about self-rated health, general well-being, and quality of life.

RESULTS: Cronbach's Alpha of WEMS sub-indices were in the interval of 0.85—0.96. Convergent validity and discriminant validity of WEMS and its sub-indices were shown to be satisfying by correlations. In addition, WEMS demonstrated the ability to discriminate between groups. WEMS sub-indices discriminated even better between groups than the total index.

CONCLUSION: The WEMS proved to be a workplace health promotion questionnaire that was able to measure experiences of work from a salutogenic perspective. The WEMS has a potential of being a useful tool in workplace health promotion to enhance positive human capabilities and resources to improve work performance.

Keywords
Work experience, measurement, scale, salutogenic, workplace health promotion
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-7488 (URN)10.3233/WOR-121541 (DOI)000323484000012 ()23324702 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-12-02 Created: 2010-12-02 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
Bringsén, Å., Andersson, H. I., Ejlertsson, G. & Troein, M. (2012). Exploring workplace related health resources from a salutogenic perspective: results from a focus group study among healthcare workers in Sweden. Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, 42(3), 403-414
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring workplace related health resources from a salutogenic perspective: results from a focus group study among healthcare workers in Sweden
2012 (English)In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 403-414Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: The aim of this study was to explore healthcare workers' opinions on workplace related health resources relevant to promotion of their health.

Participants: 16 registered nurses and 19 assistant nurses, from a medical emergency ward at a medium sized hospital in the south of Sweden, participated in the study.

Methods: Eight focus group interviews were conducted, the material was condensed and conventional qualitative content analysis was used to elicit and identify patterns in the expressed opinions of the participants.

Results: The analysis yielded four themes that were labelled the reward, the team, the mission and the context. An explanatory model was constructed consisting of concentric circles, with the reward at the core. The qualitative analysis also revealed two divergent patterns; some of the participants associated positive health with stability while others referred to flexibility.

Conclusions: The results from this study have contributed to the body of knowledge regarding salutogenic health indicators in the field of work and health research in particular as well as in health promotion in general. The findings show that individuals can have diverse responses to any given work situation, and this should be taken into account before implementation of salutogenic health promotion programs.

Keywords
Positive occupational health psychology, health promotion, subjective experiences, nursing
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-9623 (URN)10.3233/WOR-2012-1356 (DOI)000305896900012 ()22523019 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2012-08-23 Created: 2012-08-23 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Andersson, H. I., Nilsson, P., Bringsén, Å. & Ejlertsson, G. (2012). Positive work experience factors relate to salutogenic health-a survey among Swedish hospital employees. Paper presented at 5th European Public Health Conference All Inclusive Public Health Portomaso, St. Julian's, Malta, 8–10 November. European Journal of Public Health, 22(Suppl. 2), 156-156
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Positive work experience factors relate to salutogenic health-a survey among Swedish hospital employees
2012 (English)In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 22, no Suppl. 2, p. 156-156Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-9965 (URN)10.1093/eurpub/cks115 (DOI)000310370400386 ()
Conference
5th European Public Health Conference All Inclusive Public Health Portomaso, St. Julian's, Malta, 8–10 November
Available from: 2012-12-23 Created: 2012-12-23 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Edvardsson, I., Troein, M., Ejlertsson, G. & Lendahls, L. (2012). Snus user identity and addiction: a Swedish focus group study on adolescents. BMC Public Health, 12(1), 975
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Snus user identity and addiction: a Swedish focus group study on adolescents
2012 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 975-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND:The teenage years are the years when adolescents seek their identity, and part of this involves experimenting with tobacco. The use of tobacco as such, and norms among their friends, is more important to the adolescents than the norms of parents when it comes to using tobacco or not. The aim was to explore the significance of using snus for adolescents, and attitudes to snus, as well as the reasons why they began using snus and what maintained and facilitated the use of snus.METHODS:Adolescents who use snus were interviewed in focus groups. The material was analysed using content analysis.RESULTS:Four groups of boys and one group of girls were interviewed, a total of 27 students from the upper secondary vocational program. Three themes related to the students' opinions on and experiences of using snus were found: Circumstances pertaining to snus debut indicate what makes them start using snus. Upholding, which focuses on the problem of becoming addicted and development of identity, and approach, where the adolescents reflect on their snus habits in relation to those around them. A number of factors were described as relevant to behaviour and norm building for the development into becoming a snus user. Attitudes and actions from adults and friends as well as - for the boys - development of an identity as a man and a craftsman influenced behaviour.CONCLUSIONS:The results showed that development of identity was of major importance when adolescents start using snus. The adolescents were initially unable to interpret the early symptoms of abstinence problems, but subsequently became well aware of being addicted. Once they were stuck in addiction and in the creation of an image and identity, it was difficult to stop using snus. These factors are important when considering interventions of normative changes and tobacco prevention in schools as well as among parents.

Keywords
Adolescents, Addiction, Content analysis, Focus group, Snus user, Identity
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-9969 (URN)10.1186/1471-2458-12-975 (DOI)000311959900001 ()23148521 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2012-12-26 Created: 2012-12-26 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
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