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Jönsson, Peter
Publications (10 of 33) Show all publications
Davidson, P., Carlsson, I., Jönsson, P. & Johansson, M. (2018). A more generalized fear response after a daytime nap. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 151, 18-27
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A more generalized fear response after a daytime nap
2018 (English)In: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, ISSN 1074-7427, E-ISSN 1095-9564, Vol. 151, p. 18-27Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to examine how a daytime nap affected the consolidation of fear learning. Participants first underwent fear conditioning during which they were exposed to a large and a small circle. One of these was repeatedly paired with an electric shock (making it the CS+), whereas the other circle was never paired with the shock (the CS-). After a delay interval containing either a nap or wake, participants again viewed the CS+ and the CS- intermixed with eight novel circles that varied in size between the two stimuli seen before, as well as a blue triangle that served as a novel stimulus without prior fear relevance. We examined both fear retention (the difference between the CS+ and the CS-) as well as fear generalization (responses to the novel stimuli based on their similarity to the original CS+). Contrary to previous studies, results from the participants who acquired a differentiated fear response during the acquisition phase revealed that the wake group showed significantly larger skin conductance responses to the CS+ compared to the CS-, whereas no such difference was present in the sleep group. These results were not driven by differences in explicit memory or by differences in general reactivity. Analyzing responses to the novel stimuli revealed a tendency towards a more generalized response in the sleep group, with no differences between the CS+ and any other stimulus, whereas the wake group showed increased responses to the stimuli depending on their similarity to the original CS+. This effect was however only present when controlling for baseline differences in worry.

Keywords
Emotional Memory, Fear Conditioning, Fear Generalization, Skin Conductance Responses, Sleep
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-17942 (URN)10.1016/j.nlm.2018.03.005 (DOI)000433381800003 ()29551602 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-03-26 Created: 2018-03-26 Last updated: 2018-07-02Bibliographically approved
Khan, N. A., Jönsson, P. & Sandsten, M. (2017). Performance comparison of time-frequency distributions for estimation of instantaneous frequency of heart rate variability signals. Applied Sciences, 7(3), Article ID 221.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance comparison of time-frequency distributions for estimation of instantaneous frequency of heart rate variability signals
2017 (English)In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 7, no 3, article id 221Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The instantaneous frequency (IF) of a non-stationary signal is usually estimated from a time-frequency distribution (TFD). The IF of heart rate variability (HRV) is an important parameter because the power in a frequency band around the IF can be used for the interpretation and analysis of the respiratory rate but also for a more accurate analysis of heart rate (HR) signals. In this study, we compare the performance of five states of the art kernel-based time-frequency distributions (TFDs) in terms of their ability to accurately estimate the IF of HR signals. The selected TFDs include three widely used fixed kernel methods: the modified B distribution, the S-method and the spectrogram; and two adaptive kernel methods: the adaptive optimal kernel TFD and the recently developed adaptive directional TFD. The IF of the respiratory signal, which is usually easier to estimate as the respiratory signal is a mono-component with small amplitude variations with time, is used as a reference to examine the accuracy of the HRV IF estimates. Experimental results indicate that the most reliable estimates are obtained using the adaptive directional TFD in comparison to other commonly used methods such as the adaptive optimal kernel TFD and the modified B distribution.

Keywords
Time-frequency analysis, heart rate variability, respiratory signal, instantaneous frequency
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-16699 (URN)10.3390/app7030221 (DOI)000398718700012 ()
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2012-0711
Available from: 2017-05-03 Created: 2017-05-03 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Persson, R., Österberg, K., Viborg, N., Jönsson, P. & Tenenbaum, A. (2017). Two Swedish screening instruments for exhaustion disorder: cross-sectional associations with burnout, work stress, private life stress, and personality traits. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 45(4), 381-388
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Two Swedish screening instruments for exhaustion disorder: cross-sectional associations with burnout, work stress, private life stress, and personality traits
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2017 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 381-388Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AIMS: To examine the relationships of two screening instruments recently developed for assessment of exhaustion disorder (ED) with some other well-known inventories intended to assess ED-related concepts and self-reports of job demands, job control, job support, private life stressors, and personality factors.

METHODS: A cross-sectional population sample ( n = 1355) completed: the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), Self-reported Exhaustion Disorder Scale (s-ED), Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ), Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), Big Five Inventory (BFI), and items concerning family-to-work interference and stress in private life.

RESULTS: Compared to participants without any indication of ED, participants classified as having ED on KEDS or s-ED had higher scores on all four SMBQ subscales, lower scores on the UWES-9 subscales vigor and dedication, higher JCQ job demands scores, lower JCQ job support scores, higher degrees of family-to-work interference and stress in private life, and higher BFI neuroticism and openness scores. In addition, participants classified as having ED on KEDS had lower scores on the UWES-9 absorption subscale, the JCQ job control scale, and lower BFI extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness scores, compared to the subgroup not classified as having ED.

CONCLUSIONS: As expected, we observed an overall pattern of associations between the ED screening inventories KEDS and s-ED and measures of burnout, work engagement, job demands-control-support, stress in private life, family-to-work interference, and personality factors. The results suggest that instruments designed to assess burnout, work engagement, and ED share common ground, despite their conceptual differences.

Keywords
Burnout, KEDS, LUCIE, exhaustion disorder, personality traits, s-ED, stress
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-16637 (URN)10.1177/1403494817696182 (DOI)000402148400007 ()28367741 (PubMedID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2011-0236
Available from: 2017-04-26 Created: 2017-04-26 Last updated: 2017-11-13Bibliographically approved
Davidson, P., Carlsson, I., Jönsson, P. & Johansson, M. (2016). Sleep and the generalization of fear learning. Journal of Sleep Research, 25(1), 88-95
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sleep and the generalization of fear learning
2016 (English)In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 88-95Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fear conditioning is an important survival mechanism, as is the ability to generalize learned fear responses to stimuli that are similar to the original conditioned stimulus. Overgeneralization of fear learning, prominent in many anxiety disorders, is however highly maladaptive. Because sleep is involved in the consolidation of fear learning, and in active processing of information, the present study explored the effect of sleep on generalization of fear learning. Participants watched a random sequence of pictures of a small and a big circle, one of them coupled with an aversive sound. Then, after a delay period containing either a nap or wake, generalization was examined as participants watched the two circles again, together with eight novel circles that gradually varied in size between the former two. Results showed that the fear response increased as a function of similarity to the conditioned response. However, there was no difference in the degree of generalization between the sleep and the wake group.

Keywords
Daytime sleep, emotional memory consolidation, skin conductance responses
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-15237 (URN)10.1111/jsr.12339 (DOI)000367618900013 ()
Available from: 2016-01-28 Created: 2016-01-28 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Persson, R., Österberg, K., Viborg, N., Jönsson, P. & Tenenbaum, A. (2016). The Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion: a cross-sectional comparison of a new instrument with similar contemporary tools. BMC Public Health, 16(1), Article ID 350.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion: a cross-sectional comparison of a new instrument with similar contemporary tools
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2016 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 350Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Stress-related health problems (e.g., work-related exhaustion) are a societal concern in many postindustrial countries. Experience suggests that early detection and intervention are crucial in preventing long-term negative consequences. In the present study, we benchmark a new tool for early identification of work-related exhaustion-the Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion (LUCIE)-against other contextually relevant inventories and two contemporary Swedish screening scales.

METHODS: A cross-sectional population sample (n = 1355) completed: LUCIE, Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), Self-reported Exhaustion Disorder Scale (s-ED), Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ), Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), Big Five Inventory (BFI), and items concerning work-family interference and stress in private life.

RESULTS: Increasing signs of exhaustion on LUCIE were positively associated with signs of exhaustion on KEDS and s-ED. The prevalence rates were 13.4, 13.8 and 7.8 %, respectively (3.8 % were identified by all three instruments). Increasing signs of exhaustion on LUCIE were also positively associated with reports of burnout, job demands, stress in private life, family-to-work interference and neuroticism as well as negatively associated with reports of job control, job support and work engagement.

CONCLUSIONS: LUCIE, which is intended to detect pre-stages of ED, exhibits logical and coherent positive relations with KEDS and s-ED as well as other conceptually similar inventories. The results suggest that LUCIE has the potential to detect mild states of exhaustion (possibly representing pre-stages to ED) that if not brought to the attention of the healthcare system and treated, may develop in to ED. The prospective validity remains to be evaluated.

Keywords
Burnout, Exhaustion disorder, KEDS, LUCIE, Personality traits, Stress, s-ED
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-15474 (URN)10.1186/s12889-016-3001-5 (DOI)000374597100002 ()27099142 (PubMedID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2011-0236
Available from: 2016-06-02 Created: 2016-06-02 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Osterberg, K., Persson, R., Viborg, N., Jönsson, P. & Tenenbaum, A. (2016). The Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion: a prospective validation of the onset of sustained stress and exhaustion warnings. BMC Public Health, 16, Article ID 1025.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion: a prospective validation of the onset of sustained stress and exhaustion warnings
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2016 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 16, article id 1025Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The need for instruments that can assist in detecting the prodromal stages of stress-related exhaustion has been acknowledged. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion (LUCIE) could accurately and prospectively detect the onset of incipient exhaustion and to what extent work stressor exposure and private burdens were associated with increasing LUCIE scores. Methods: Using surveys, 1355 employees were followed for 11 quarters. Participants with prospectively elevated LUCIE scores were targeted by three algorithms entailing 4 quarters: (1) abrupt onset to a sustained Stress Warning (n = 18), (2) gradual onset to a sustained Stress Warning (n = 42), and (3) sustained Exhaustion Warning (n = 36). The targeted participants' survey reports on changes in work situation and private life during the fulfillment of any algorithm criteria were analyzed, together with the interview data. Participants untargeted by the algorithms constituted a control group (n = 745). Results: Eighty-seven percent of participants fulfilling any LUCIE algorithm criteria (LUCIE indication cases) rated a negative change in their work situation during the 4 quarters, compared to 48 % of controls. Ratings of negative changes in private life were also more common in the LUCIE indication groups than among controls (58 % vs. 29 %), but free-text commentaries revealed that almost half of the ratings in the LUCIE indication groups were due to work-to-family conflicts and health problems caused by excessive workload, assigned more properly to work-related negative changes. When excluding the themes related to work-stress-related private life compromises, negative private life changes in the LUCIE indication groups dropped from 58 to 32 %, while only a negligible drop from 29 to 26 % was observed among controls. In retrospective interviews, 79 % of the LUCIE indication participants confirmed exclusively/predominantly work stressors, while 6 % described a predominance of private life stressors. Conclusions: Negative changes in the work situation were the most prominent change related to a sustained increase in LUCIE scores. The findings seem to confirm that LUCIE is a potentially useful tool for clinical screening of incipient work-related exhaustion.

Keywords
Burnout, exhaustion disorder, KEDS, LUCIE, personality traits, stress
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-16200 (URN)10.1186/s12889-016-3720-7 (DOI)000384375000007 ()27686242 (PubMedID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2011-0236
Available from: 2016-10-20 Created: 2016-10-20 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Jönsson, P., Österberg, K., Wallergård, M., Hansen, Å. & Johansson, G. (2015). Burnout: cortisol reactivity and habituation to psychosocial stress. In: Work, stress and health 2015: sustainable work, sustainable health, sustainable organizations. Paper presented at The 11th International Conference on Occupational Stress and Health, Atlanta, Georgia, May 6-9, 2015..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Burnout: cortisol reactivity and habituation to psychosocial stress
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2015 (English)In: Work, stress and health 2015: sustainable work, sustainable health, sustainable organizations, 2015Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-14288 (URN)
Conference
The 11th International Conference on Occupational Stress and Health, Atlanta, Georgia, May 6-9, 2015.
Available from: 2015-07-28 Created: 2015-07-28 Last updated: 2015-09-16Bibliographically approved
Jönsson, P., Österberg, K., Wallergård, M., Hansen, Å. M., Garde, A. H., Johansson, G. & Karlson, B. (2015). Exhaustion-related changes in cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity to acute psychosocial stress. Physiology and Behavior, 151, 327-337
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exhaustion-related changes in cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity to acute psychosocial stress
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2015 (English)In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 151, p. 327-337Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Prior findings indicate that individuals scoring high on vital exhaustion show a dysfunctional stress response (DSR), that is, reduced cortisol reactivity and habituation to psychosocial stressors. The main aim of the present study was to examine whether a DSR may be a vulnerability factor in exhaustion disorder (ED). We examined whether a DSR is present during early stages of ED, and still is present after recovery. Three groups were studied: 1. Former ED patients (n=14); 2. Persons who during the past 6 month had experienced stress at work and had a Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ) score over 3.75, considered to indicate a pre-stage of ED (n=17); 3. Persons who had not experienced stress at work during the past 6 months and had a SMBQ score below 2.75 (n=20). The participants were exposed twice to a virtual version of Trier Social Stress Test (V-TSST), during which salivary cortisol samples were collected. In addition, high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), heart rate (HR), t-wave amplitude (TWA), and α-amylase were assessed to examine stress reactivity and habituation in the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The initial analyses showed clear hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activations in both V-TSST sessions, together with habituation of cortisol and heart rate in the second session, but without any significant group differences. However, the former ED patients showed considerable variation in self-reported signs of exhaustion (SMBQ). This led us to assign former ED patients with lower ratings into the low SMBQ group (LOWS) and those with higher ratings to the high SMBQ group (HIGHS). When repeating the analyses a different picture emerged; the HIGHS showed a lower cortisol response to the V-TSST than did the LOWS. Both groups' cortisol response habituated to the second V-TSST session. The ANS responses did not differ between the two groups. Thus, persons in a pre-stage of ED and unrecovered former ED patients showed signs of DSR, in contrast to healthy controls and recovered former ED patients. The results may be interpreted as indicating that DSR in the HPA axis is present early on in the stress process, but subsides after successful recovery.

Keywords
burnout, exhaustion, HPA axis, habituation, psychosocial stress, SAM system, TSST, virtual reality
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-14438 (URN)10.1016/j.physbeh.2015.07.020 (DOI)000362602600042 ()26210042 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-08-12 Created: 2015-08-12 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Fich, L. B., Jönsson, P., Kirkegaard, P. H., Wallergård, M., Garde, A. H. & Hansen, Å. (2014). Can architectural design alter the physiological reaction to psychosocial stress?: a virtual TSST experiment. Physiology and Behavior, 135, 91-97
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can architectural design alter the physiological reaction to psychosocial stress?: a virtual TSST experiment
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2014 (English)In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 135, p. 91-97Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It has long been established, that views to natural scenes can a have a dampening effect on physiological stress responses. However, as people in Europe, Canada and North America today spent 50-85% of their time indoors, attention might also be paid to how the artificial man-made indoor environment influences these mechanisms. The question that this study attempts to start addressing is therefore whether certain design, characteristics of indoor spaces can make a difference to the physiological stress response as well. Using a virtual version of the Trier Social Stress Test, in which the space is computer generated and properties of the space therefore can be systematically varied, we measured saliva cortisol and heart rate variability in participants in a closed room versus a room with openings. As shown by a significant linear contrast interaction between groups and TSST conditions, participants in the closed room responded with more pronounced cortisol reactivity to stress induction, and continued to show higher levels throughout recovery, compared to participants in the open room. No differences were found regarding any part of the autonomic nervous system.

National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-12913 (URN)10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.05.034 (DOI)000341556800011 ()24907691 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-09-16 Created: 2014-09-16 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Karlson, B., Jönsson, P. & Österberg, K. (2014). Long-term stability of return to work after a workplace-oriented intervention for patients on sick leave for burnout. BMC Public Health, 14, Article ID 821.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long-term stability of return to work after a workplace-oriented intervention for patients on sick leave for burnout
2014 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, article id 821Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND:

The period from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s saw a rapid increase in long-term sick leave in Sweden, primarily due to mental illness and often related to job burnout. This led to an urge for effective treatment programs that could prevent the often long sick leaves. In 2010 we presented a newly developed work-place intervention method, showing that 89% of the intervention group had returned to work at a 1.5 year follow-up, compared to 73% of the control group. The main aim of this study was to assess the long-term stability of these promising results.

METHODS:

Sick leave registry data from the Regional Social Insurance Office were analyzed for an additional year (50 weeks) beyond the original 1.5 year period (80 weeks). Data from 68 matched pairs of intervention participants (IP) and controls were available. The proportions of participants being on full-time sick leave versus having returned to work to any extent were computed for every 10th week. Generalized estimating equations were used with GROUP (IP versus controls) as between-subjects factor, WEEKS and AGE as covariates, and return-to-work (RTW) as dependent variable. Significant differences (Wald χ2 with α ≤ .05) was followed up with polynomial contrasts. Individual relapses to higher degrees of sick leave (e.g. from 50% to 100%) and whether partial RTW led to later full-time RTW, were also analyzed.

RESULTS:

The omnibus test over all 130 weeks showed a GROUP*WEEKS interaction effect (p = .02), indicating differential group developments in RTW, though similarly high at week 130 in both groups with 82.4% of the IP and 77.9% of the controls having RTW (p = .22; χ2-test). A significant interaction with age led to separate analyses of the younger and older subgroups, indicating a stable pattern of superior RTW only among younger IP (week 130: 88.6% vs. 69.7%, p = .054; χ2-test). There was no group difference in relapses into increased degree of sick leave. Part-time sick leave did not predict a later stable full-time RTW.

CONCLUSIONS:

The previously reported improvement in RTW with the newly developed workplace-oriented intervention showed a long-term stability only among younger participants.

Keywords
Sick leave, Return to work, Burnout, Exhaustion disorder, Workplace intervention, Follow-up
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-14604 (URN)10.1186/1471-2458-14-821 (DOI)000340957300001 ()25106094 (PubMedID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2010-0405
Available from: 2015-09-17 Created: 2015-09-17 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
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