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Olsson, C., Gunnarsson, G. & Elmberg, J. (2017). Field preference of Greylag geese Anser anser during the breeding season. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 63, Article ID 28.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Field preference of Greylag geese Anser anser during the breeding season
2017 (English)In: European Journal of Wildlife Research, ISSN 1612-4642, E-ISSN 1439-0574, Vol. 63, article id 28Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Few studies address food preference of geese on agricultural land (utilization related to availability) and only a handful so for the breeding season. We studied Greylag geese Anser anser during the breeding season in an intensively farmed area in southern Sweden. Few of 22 available field types were truly preferred. Pastureland was the most consistently preferred, by goslings (with parents) as well as by nonbreeders. In some sampling periods, goslings also preferred grazed hay, ley, and carrot fields. Non-breeders exploited a greater variety of crops/fields, feeding also on barley, fallow, grazed hay, lettuce, oats, potatoes, and carrots. Most of these crops were preferred on at least one sampling occasion, except for fallow, grazed hay, and wheat, which were always used less than expected from availability. GLMs revealed that goslings rested more than they fed and preferred shorter vegetation before higher. Moreover, goslings occurred in higher densities in younger age classes than in older and preferred nearshore areas. In contrast, density of non-breeders was only related to field type and sampling occasion (higher densities as the season progressed). The maximum number of broods observed (106) implies a breeding success of 34% based on311 active nests earlier in the season. Brood size decreased from 3.5 to 2.1 during the study period. Our study shows that goose management during the breeding season should consider goslings and their parents separately from non-breeders, and it implies little potential conflict between Greylag geese and agriculture during the breeding period.

Keywords
Agriculture, conflict, crop, damage, field type, gosling
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-16589 (URN)10.1007/s10344-017-1086-5 (DOI)000394211100028 ()
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, NV-01518-13Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, NV-01740-14
Available from: 2017-03-08 Created: 2017-03-08 Last updated: 2017-11-02Bibliographically approved
Pöysä, H., Elmberg, J., Gunnarsson, G., Holopainen, S., Nummi, P. & Sjöberg, K. (2017). Habitat associations and habitat change: seeking explanation for population decline in breeding Eurasian wigeon Anas penelope. Hydrobiologia, 785(1), 207-217
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Habitat associations and habitat change: seeking explanation for population decline in breeding Eurasian wigeon Anas penelope
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2017 (English)In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 785, no 1, p. 207-217Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We explored whether the recent large-scale population decline of Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope) in Europe may be linked to long-term vegetation changes in their boreal breeding wetlands. First, we assessed the importance of Equisetum, Phragmites, and Carex stands in lake selection by pairs and in foraging habitat selection by broods. Second, in 2013–2014 we revisited 58 lakes in Sweden and Finland studied in 1990–1991, to examine if there had been any long-term change in the abundance of habitat types preferred by wigeon. Finally, using continuous long-term data on breeding numbers of wigeon in 18 of the lakes studied in 1990–1991, we examined if wigeon numbers had changed at lakes where the habitat also had changed. We found that lake occupation of nesting wigeon pairs and foraging habitat use of broods were associated with the extent of Equisetum stands. The presence and abundance of this preferred habitat declined dramatically from 1990–1991 to 2013–2014 in the lakes from which the presence–absence data of wigeon emanate. Breeding numbers of wigeon showed a long-term declining trend in lakes where Equisetum has decreased. Our results imply that the recent population decline of wigeon in Europe may be linked to decrease of Equisetum habitat.

Keywords
Anas penelope, breeding, Equisetum fluviatile, habitat change, herbivory
National Category
Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-15934 (URN)10.1007/s10750-016-2922-4 (DOI)000388173000015 ()
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency
Available from: 2016-09-05 Created: 2016-09-05 Last updated: 2017-04-25Bibliographically approved
Bengtsson, D., Safi, K., Avril, A., Fiedler, W., Wikelski, M., Gunnarsson, G., . . . Waldenström, J. (2016). Does influenza A virus infection affect movement behaviour during stopover in its wild reservoir host?. Royal Society Open Science, 3(2), Article ID 150633.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does influenza A virus infection affect movement behaviour during stopover in its wild reservoir host?
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2016 (English)In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 3, no 2, article id 150633Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The last decade has seen a surge in research on avian influenza A viruses (IAVs), in part fuelled by the emergence, spread and potential zoonotic importance of highly pathogenic virus subtypes. The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is the most numerous and widespread dabbling duck in the world, and one of the most important natural hosts for studying IAV transmission dynamics. In order to predict the likelihood of IAV transmission between individual ducks and to other hosts, as well as between geographical regions, it is important to understand how IAV infection affects the host. In this study, we analysed the movements of 40 mallards equipped with GPS transmitters and three-dimensional accelerometers, of which 20 were naturally infected with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV), at a major stopover site in the Northwest European flyway. Movements differed substantially between day and night, as well as between mallards returning to the capture site and those feeding in natural habitats. However, movement patterns did not differ between LPAIV infected and uninfected birds. Hence, LPAIV infection probably does not affect mallard movements during stopover, with high possibility of virus spread along the migration route as a consequence.

Keywords
avian influenza A virus, effect of infection, mallard, movement, stopover, transmission
National Category
Ecology Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-15286 (URN)10.1098/rsos.150633 (DOI)000377969000024 ()26998334 (PubMedID)
External cooperation:
Funder
Swedish Research Council, (2010-3067Swedish Research Council, 2010-5399Swedish Research Council, 2011-3568Swedish Research Council Formas, 2009-1220Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, V-205-09Max Planck Society
Available from: 2016-02-18 Created: 2016-02-18 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Elmberg, J., Söderquist, P., Gunnarsson, G., Thulin, C.-G., Champagnon, J., Guillemain, M., . . . Kraus, R. H. (2016). Farmed European mallards are genetically different and cause introgression in the wild population following releases. In: : . Paper presented at The 7th North American Duck Symposium (NADS7), Annapolis, Maryland, 1-5 February 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Farmed European mallards are genetically different and cause introgression in the wild population following releases
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2016 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The practice of restocking already viable populations to increase harvest potential has since long been common in forestry, fisheries and wildlife management. The potential risks of restocking native species have long been overshadowed by the related issue of invasive alien species. However, during the last decade releases of native species with potentially non-native genome have received more attention. A suitable model to study genetic effects of large-scale releases of native species is the Mallard Anas platyrhynchos, being the most widespread duck in the world, largely migratory, and an important quarry species. More than 3 million unfledged hatchlings are released each year around Europe to increase local harvest. The aims of this study were to determine if wild and released farmed Mallards differ genetically, if there are signs of previous or ongoing introgression between wild and farmed birds, and if the genetic structure of the wild Mallard population has changed since large-scale releases started in Europe in the 1970s. Using 360 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) we found that the genetic structure differed among historical wild, present-day wild, and farmed Mallards in Europe. We also found signs of introgression in the wild Mallard population, that is, individuals with a genetic background of farmed stock are part of the present free-living population. Although only a small proportion of the released Mallards appears to survive to merge with the free-living breeding population, their numbers are still so large that the genetic impact may have significance for the wild population in terms of individual survival and longterm fitness.

National Category
Ecology Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-15340 (URN)
Conference
The 7th North American Duck Symposium (NADS7), Annapolis, Maryland, 1-5 February 2016
Available from: 2016-03-18 Created: 2016-03-18 Last updated: 2017-05-08Bibliographically approved
Kraus, R., Söderquist, P., Gunnarsson, G., Thulin, C.-G., Champagnon, J., Guillemain, M., . . . Elmberg, J. (2015). Freigelassenes Federwild führt zu kontinent-weiter genetischer Introgression: die sich ändernde genetische Landschaft der Stockente Anas platyrhynchos in Europa. In: : . Paper presented at 148. DO-G (Deutsche Ornithologen Gesellschaft) Jahresversammlung 2015 in Konstanz 30. September bis 05. Oktober 2015, Campus der Universität Konstanz.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Freigelassenes Federwild führt zu kontinent-weiter genetischer Introgression: die sich ändernde genetische Landschaft der Stockente Anas platyrhynchos in Europa
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2015 (German)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [de]

Es ist eine seit langem übliche Praxis in Forstwirtschaft, Fischerei und allgemeinem Wildtiermanagement, Wildtierbestände gezielt aufzustocken. In den letzten ca. zehn Jahren haben aber solche Programme Aufmerksamkeit erregt, in denen lokale Bestände von Tierarten mit Individuen der gleichen Art, aber aus anderen Regionen und damit potentiell nicht-nativen Genomen aufgestockt wurden. Die Stockente Anas platyrhynchos ist ein geeignetes Modell um die genetischen Effekte solcher großskaligen Freisetzungen auf den einheimischen Genpool zu untersuchen, weil sie die am weitesten verbreitete und zahlreichste Entenart der Welt ist, über weite Strecken migrieren kann und gleichzeitig global das wichtigste Federwild darstellt. In vielen europäischen Ländern wird die Stockente seit etwa den frühen 1970er Jahren auch auf speziellen Farmen gezüchtet und zu Jagdzwecken ausgesetzt. So gehen aktuelle Schätzungen davon aus, dass jährlich etwa drei Millionen junge Enten nur zum Zweck der Aufstockung zur Jagd an europäischen Gewässern ausgesetzt werden. Die Ziele unserer Studie waren herauszufinden, ob sich Enten von Farmpopulationen genetisch von wilden Enten unterscheiden lassen, ob es Anzeichen früherer oder anhaltender genetischer Introgression zwischen diesen beiden Gruppen gibt und ob sich die genetische Struktur der wilden Entenpopulationen seit der großskaligen Entenaufstockung verändert hat. Dazu verwendeten wir 360 SNP Marker (Single Nucleotide Polymorhpism) um die genetische Struktur von historischen wilden Stockenten (Museumsproben), zeitgenössischen wilden Stockenten und Farm-Enten zu vergleichen (N = 591). Wir fanden klare genetische Unterschiede zwischen wilden Stockenten und Farm-Enten in mehreren Ländern Europas. Ebenfalls konnten wir genetische Introgression von Genen der Farm-Enten in die wilde Stockentenpopulation zeigen. Die Vermischung scheint bisher zwar messbar aber noch gering zu sein, da auf Farmen gezüchtete Stockenten in der Wildnis geringe Überlebensraten aufweisen. Dennoch sollte die weitere Einkreuzung von Farm-Enten in die wilden Stockentenpopulationen so gering wie möglich gehalten werden, da durch anhaltende genetische Introgression möglicherweise in Zukunft lokale Anpassungen der wilden Stockenten geschwächt werden, was eine Bedrohung dieser Bestände darstellen könnte.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-16065 (URN)
Conference
148. DO-G (Deutsche Ornithologen Gesellschaft) Jahresversammlung 2015 in Konstanz 30. September bis 05. Oktober 2015, Campus der Universität Konstanz
Available from: 2016-09-22 Created: 2016-09-22 Last updated: 2016-09-22Bibliographically approved
Kraus, R. H., Söderquist, P., Gunnarsson, G., Thulin, C.-G., Champagnon, J., Guillemain, M., . . . Elmberg, J. (2015). Freigelassenes Federwild führt zu kontinent-weiter genetischer Introgression: die sich ändernde genetische Landschaft der Stockente (Anas platyrhynchos) in Europa. In: : . Paper presented at 148th Annual Meeting of the German Ornithologists´ Society.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Freigelassenes Federwild führt zu kontinent-weiter genetischer Introgression: die sich ändernde genetische Landschaft der Stockente (Anas platyrhynchos) in Europa
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2015 (German)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-15062 (URN)
Conference
148th Annual Meeting of the German Ornithologists´ Society
Available from: 2015-11-30 Created: 2015-11-30 Last updated: 2017-05-03Bibliographically approved
Holopainen, S., Arzel, C., Dessborn, L., Elmberg, J., Gunnarsson, G., Nummi, P., . . . Sjöberg, K. (2015). Habitat use in ducks breeding in boreal freshwater wetlands: a review. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 61(3), 339-363
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Habitat use in ducks breeding in boreal freshwater wetlands: a review
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2015 (English)In: European Journal of Wildlife Research, ISSN 1612-4642, E-ISSN 1439-0574, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 339-363Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Breeding habitats strongly influence duck reproduction and survival. The boreal biome harbours a large share of the worlds wetlands, which are important breeding sites for several duck species. Based on 98 studies in the peer-reviewed literature, we here synthesize and evaluate which habitat characteristics affect habitat use and reproduction of ducks breeding in boreal freshwater wetlands with respect to (1) species and guild (dabbling, diving and piscivorous ducks) and (2) breeding cycle stage (settling by pairs, nesting and brood rearing). We consider the following aspects related to habitat: wetland morphology and spatial aggregation, water characteristics, habitat structure and vegetation, and biotic interactions. Most of the peer-reviewed studies of duck habitat use in boreal wetlands are from North America and Fennoscandia, while nearly half of the boreal area lacks such studies. Few species dominate research thus far while several others have not been studied at all. Nest site use and success are mainly related to predator avoidance. Food resources and habitat structure are the key characteristics affecting habitat use by duck pairs and broods as well as breeding success, although there are differences between duck guilds. Among the commonly studied variables, there is little evidence that water characteristics affect duck habitat use or survival. The most notable knowledge gaps are found in the effects of anthropogenic activities on habitat use and breeding success of ducks. Because boreal breeding environments are increasingly affected by human activities, we underline the need for future studies combining climate variation with natural and anthropogenic disturbances.

Keywords
Anatidae, Duckling, Limitation, Management, Regulation, Waterfowl
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-13866 (URN)10.1007/s10344-015-0921-9 (DOI)000354195700001 ()
Available from: 2015-05-11 Created: 2015-05-11 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Gillman, A., Muradrasoli, S., Söderström, H., Holmberg, F., Latorre-Margalef, N., Tolf, C., . . . Järhult, J. D. (2015). Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Strain with an H274Y Mutation in Neuraminidase Persists without Drug Pressure in Infected Mallards. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 81(7), 2378-2383
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Strain with an H274Y Mutation in Neuraminidase Persists without Drug Pressure in Infected Mallards
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2015 (English)In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 81, no 7, p. 2378-2383Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Influenza A virus (IAV) has its natural reservoir in wild waterfowl and emerging human IAVs often contain gene segments from avian viruses. The active drug metabolite of oseltamivir (oseltamivir carboxylate (OC)), stockpiled as Tamiflu® for influenza pandemic preparedness, is not removed by conventional sewage treatment and has been detected in river water. There, it may there exert evolutionary pressure on avian IAV in waterfowl, resulting in development of resistant viral variants. A resistant avian IAV can circulate among wild birds only if resistance does not restrict viral fitness and if the resistant virus can persist without continuous drug pressure. In this in vivo Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) study we tested if an OC-resistant avian IAV strain (A(H1N1)/NA-H274Y) could retain resistance while drug pressure was gradually removed. Successively infected Mallards were exposed to decreasing levels of OC, and fecal samples were analyzed for neuraminidase sequence and phenotypic resistance. No reversion to wild-type virus was observed during the experiment, which included 17 days of viral transmission in 10 ducks exposed to OC concentrations below resistance induction levels. We conclude that resistance in avian IAV, induced by OC exposure of the natural host, can persist in absence of the drug. Thus, there is a risk that human pathogenic IAVs that evolve from IAVs circulating among wild birds may contain resistance mutations. An oseltamivir resistant pandemic IAV would be a substantial public health threat. Therefore, our observations underscore the need for prudent oseltamivir use, upgraded sewage treatment and resistance surveillance of IAV in wild birds.

Keywords
DNA analysis, microbiota, peri-implantitis
National Category
Microbiology Other Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-13492 (URN)10.1128/AEM.04034-14 (DOI)000351842000013 ()25616792 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-02-06 Created: 2015-02-06 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Söderquist, P., Elmberg, J., Gunnarsson, G., Thulin, C.-G., Champagnon, J., Guillemain, M., . . . Kraus, R. (2015). Released game birds cause introgression in European mallard. In: : . Paper presented at The fourth Pan-European Duck Symposium, Hanko/Hangö, Finland, April 7-11, 2015..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Released game birds cause introgression in European mallard
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2015 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The practice of restocking already viable populations to improve harvest has since long been common in forestry, fisheries and wildlife management. The potential risks with restocking of native species has for a long time been overshadowed by the related issue of invasive species. However, during the last decade releases of native species with a potential non-native genome have attained more attention. A suitable model species for studying genetic effects of large-scale releases of a native species is the Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos; it is the most widespread duck in the world, it is a migrating species, and an important game bird. In several European countries it is also farmed and released to increase the harvestable population, and more than 3 million unfledged hatchlings are released each year around Europe. The aims of this study were to determine if wild and released farmed Mallards differed genetically among subpopulations in Europe, if there are signs of previous or ongoing introgression between wild and farmed Mallards, and if the genetic structure of the wild Mallard population has changed since large-scale releases started in the 1970s. We used 360 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) to analyze the genetic structure of historical wild, present-day wild, and farmed Mallards. We found a clear genetic difference between wild and farmed Mallards in Europe. We also found signs of introgression of farmed genes in the wild Mallard population, however, the rate of hybridization is probably minor due to low survival of released farmed Mallards and a change of the wild population since the start of large-scale releases is therefore limited. A low level of hybridization between farmed and wild Mallard is desired as introgressed genes may be detrimental for wild Mallards, and efforts to increase survival of farmed Mallards should therefore not be encouraged.

National Category
Ecology Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-13803 (URN)
Conference
The fourth Pan-European Duck Symposium, Hanko/Hangö, Finland, April 7-11, 2015.
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency
Available from: 2015-04-14 Created: 2015-04-14 Last updated: 2017-05-03Bibliographically approved
Söderquist, P., Elmberg, J., Gunnarsson, G., Thulin, C.-G., Champagnon, J., Guillemain, M., . . . Kraus, R. (2015). Released gamebrds cause introgression in European mallard. In: 4th Pan-European Duck Symposium, Hangö, Finland: . Paper presented at 4th Pan-European Duck Symposium, Hangö, Finland, 7-11/4, 2015 (pp. 75).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Released gamebrds cause introgression in European mallard
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2015 (English)In: 4th Pan-European Duck Symposium, Hangö, Finland, 2015, p. 75-Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The practice of restocking already viable populations to improve harvest has since long been common in forestry, fisheries and wildlife management. The potential risks with restocking of native species has for a long time been overshadowed by the related issue of invasive species. However, during the last decade releases of native species with a potential non-native genome have attained more attention. A suitable model species for studying genetic effects of large-scale releases of a native species is the Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos; it is the most widespread duck in the world, it is a migrating species, and an important game bird. In several European countries it is also farmed and released to increase the harvestable population, and more than 3 million unfledged hatchlings are released each year around Europe. The aims of this study were to determine if wild and released farmed Mallards differed genetically among subpopulations in Europe, if there are signs of previous or ongoing introgression between wild and farmed Mallards, and if the genetic structure of the wild Mallard population has changed since large-scale releases started in the 1970s. We used 360 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) to analyze the genetic structure of historical wild, present-day wild, and farmed Mallards. We found a clear genetic difference between wild and farmed Mallards in Europe. We also found signs of introgression of farmed genes in the wild Mallard population, however, the rate of hybridization is probably minor due to low survival of released farmed Mallards and a change of the wild population since the start of large-scale releases is therefore limited. A low level of hybridization between farmed and wild Mallard is desired as introgressed genes may be detrimental for wild Mallards, and efforts to increase survival of farmed Mallards should therefore not be encouraged.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-16073 (URN)
Conference
4th Pan-European Duck Symposium, Hangö, Finland, 7-11/4, 2015
Available from: 2016-09-26 Created: 2016-09-26 Last updated: 2017-05-03Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2345-3953

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