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Guillemain, M., Elmberg, J., Pernollet, C. A., Arzel, C. & Eadie, J. M. (2017). Agent-based modeling may help to merge research traditions in foraging ecology in Europe and North America. Wildlife Society bulletin, 41(1), 170-176.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Agent-based modeling may help to merge research traditions in foraging ecology in Europe and North America
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2017 (English)In: Wildlife Society bulletin, ISSN 0091-7648, E-ISSN 1938-5463, Vol. 41, no 1, 170-176 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although ducks have long been popular research subjects in both North America and Europe, geographical divergences in research orientation have developed during the past several decades for studying foraging ecology. In North America, foraging studies largely focused on the population level with an emphasis on foraging energetics aimed at improving waterfowl production through increased carrying capacity of wetlands in breeding areas, an approach later expanded to nonbreeding grounds. In Europe, studies have instead focused on inter-individual differences in behavior of foraging ducks, with an emphasis on individual efficiency (e.g., methods, intake rate, patch choice) within the framework of optimal foraging theory. We suggest that agent-based models (also termed individual-based behavior models), which aim to predict habitat use from the heterogeneous behavior of different individual agents, can help to unify these approaches and would benefit considerably from increased collaboration and integration of the approaches of both North American and European researchers.

Keyword
Agent-based models, behavior, ducks, energetics, individual-based models, optimal foraging, wetland management
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-16998 (URN)10.1002/wsb.736 (DOI)000403332000023 ()
Available from: 2017-07-11 Created: 2017-07-11 Last updated: 2017-11-08Bibliographically approved
Fox, A. D., Elmberg, J., Tombre, I. M. & Hessel, R. (2017). Agriculture and herbivorous waterfowl: a review of the scientific basis for improved management. Biological Reviews, 92(2), 854-877.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Agriculture and herbivorous waterfowl: a review of the scientific basis for improved management
2017 (English)In: Biological Reviews, ISSN 1464-7931, E-ISSN 1469-185X, Vol. 92, no 2, 854-877 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Swans, geese and some ducks (Anatidae) are obligate herbivores, many are important quarry species and all contribute to a variety of ecosystem services. Population growth and shifting ranges have led to increasing proximity to man and thus increasing conflicts. We review and synthesize the role of these birds as herbivores on agricultural land (cropland, rotational grassland and pasture) and other terrestrial habitats where conflict with human interests may occur. A bibliographic analysis of peer-reviewed papers (N = 359) shows that publication activity peaked in 1991-2000 in North America and 2000-2010 in Europe, and has decreased since. Taxonomic and geographical biases are obvious in research to date: Snow Goose Chen caerulescens was the most studied species (N = 98), and Canada Branta canadensis, Barnacle B. leucopsis and Brent geese B. bernicla all featured in more than 40 studies; most studies originated in northwest Europe or North America, very few have been carried out in Asia and European Russia. On the basis of nutrient/energy budgets of herbivorous waterfowl, it is evident that dense single-species crops (such as rotational grassland, early-growth cereals and root crops) and spilled grain in agricultural landscapes offer elevated energetic and nutritional intake rates of food of higher quality compared to natural or semi-natural vegetation. Hence, although affected by seasonal nutritional demands, proximity to roost, field size, disturbance levels, access to water, food depletion and snow cover, agricultural landscapes tend to offer superior foraging opportunities over natural habitats, creating potential conflict with agriculture. Herbivorous waterfowl select for high protein, soluble carbohydrate and water content, high digestibility as well as low fibre and phenolic compounds, but intake rates from grazing varied with goose body and bill morphology, creating species-specific loci for conflict. Crop damage by trampling and puddling has not been demonstrated convincingly, nor do waterfowl faeces deter grazing stock, but where consumption of crops evidently reduces yields this causes conflict with farmers. Studies show that it is difficult and expensive to assess the precise impacts of waterfowl feeding on yield loss because of other sources of variation. However, less damage has been documented from winter grazing compared to spring grazing and yield loss after spring grazing on grassland appears more pronounced than losses on cereal fields. Although yield losses at national scales are trivial, individual farmers in areas of greatest waterfowl feeding concentrations suffer disproportionately, necessitating improved solutions to conflict. Accordingly, we review the efficacy of population management, disturbance, provision of alternative feeding areas, compensation and large-scale stakeholder involvement and co-management as options for resolving conflict based on the existing literature and present a framework of management advice for the future. We conclude with an assessment of the research needs for the immediate future to inform policy development, improve management of waterfowl populations and reduce conflict with agriculture.

Keyword
Agricultural conflict, conflict resolution, ecosystem service, food preference, grazing, habitat choice, herbivore, management toolbox, research needs, waterfowl, yield loss
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-15337 (URN)10.1111/brv.12258 (DOI)000398567200013 ()26946181 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 13/259
Available from: 2016-03-17 Created: 2016-03-17 Last updated: 2017-11-14Bibliographically approved
Olsson, C., Gunnarsson, G. & Elmberg, J. (2017). Field preference of Greylag geese Anser anser during the breeding season. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 63, Article ID 28.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Field preference of Greylag geese Anser anser during the breeding season
2017 (English)In: European Journal of Wildlife Research, ISSN 1612-4642, E-ISSN 1439-0574, Vol. 63, 28Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Few studies address food preference of geese on agricultural land (utilization related to availability) and only a handful so for the breeding season. We studied Greylag geese Anser anser during the breeding season in an intensively farmed area in southern Sweden. Few of 22 available field types were truly preferred. Pastureland was the most consistently preferred, by goslings (with parents) as well as by nonbreeders. In some sampling periods, goslings also preferred grazed hay, ley, and carrot fields. Non-breeders exploited a greater variety of crops/fields, feeding also on barley, fallow, grazed hay, lettuce, oats, potatoes, and carrots. Most of these crops were preferred on at least one sampling occasion, except for fallow, grazed hay, and wheat, which were always used less than expected from availability. GLMs revealed that goslings rested more than they fed and preferred shorter vegetation before higher. Moreover, goslings occurred in higher densities in younger age classes than in older and preferred nearshore areas. In contrast, density of non-breeders was only related to field type and sampling occasion (higher densities as the season progressed). The maximum number of broods observed (106) implies a breeding success of 34% based on311 active nests earlier in the season. Brood size decreased from 3.5 to 2.1 during the study period. Our study shows that goose management during the breeding season should consider goslings and their parents separately from non-breeders, and it implies little potential conflict between Greylag geese and agriculture during the breeding period.

Keyword
Agriculture, conflict, crop, damage, field type, gosling
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-16589 (URN)10.1007/s10344-017-1086-5 (DOI)000394211100028 ()
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, NV-01518-13Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, NV-01740-14
Available from: 2017-03-08 Created: 2017-03-08 Last updated: 2017-11-02Bibliographically approved
Pöysä, H., Elmberg, J., Gunnarsson, G., Holopainen, S., Nummi, P. & Sjöberg, K. (2017). Habitat associations and habitat change: seeking explanation for population decline in breeding Eurasian wigeon Anas penelope. Hydrobiologia, 785(1), 207-217.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Habitat associations and habitat change: seeking explanation for population decline in breeding Eurasian wigeon Anas penelope
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2017 (English)In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 785, no 1, 207-217 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We explored whether the recent large-scale population decline of Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope) in Europe may be linked to long-term vegetation changes in their boreal breeding wetlands. First, we assessed the importance of Equisetum, Phragmites, and Carex stands in lake selection by pairs and in foraging habitat selection by broods. Second, in 2013–2014 we revisited 58 lakes in Sweden and Finland studied in 1990–1991, to examine if there had been any long-term change in the abundance of habitat types preferred by wigeon. Finally, using continuous long-term data on breeding numbers of wigeon in 18 of the lakes studied in 1990–1991, we examined if wigeon numbers had changed at lakes where the habitat also had changed. We found that lake occupation of nesting wigeon pairs and foraging habitat use of broods were associated with the extent of Equisetum stands. The presence and abundance of this preferred habitat declined dramatically from 1990–1991 to 2013–2014 in the lakes from which the presence–absence data of wigeon emanate. Breeding numbers of wigeon showed a long-term declining trend in lakes where Equisetum has decreased. Our results imply that the recent population decline of wigeon in Europe may be linked to decrease of Equisetum habitat.

Keyword
Anas penelope, breeding, Equisetum fluviatile, habitat change, herbivory
National Category
Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-15934 (URN)10.1007/s10750-016-2922-4 (DOI)000388173000015 ()
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency
Available from: 2016-09-05 Created: 2016-09-05 Last updated: 2017-04-25Bibliographically approved
Guillemain, M., Champagnon, J., Pernollet, C. A., Devineau, O., Elmberg, J., Cavallo, F. & Massez, G. (2016). Combined effects of climate change and fluctuating habitat quality on the distribution of ducks in southern Europe. In: 7th North American Duck Symposium: waterfowl ecology and adaptive management. Paper presented at 7th North American Duck Symposium, Annapolis, MD, 2-5 February 2016. .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combined effects of climate change and fluctuating habitat quality on the distribution of ducks in southern Europe
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2016 (English)In: 7th North American Duck Symposium: waterfowl ecology and adaptive management, 2016Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Changes in waterfowl ranges over the last decades are increasingly reported, both in North America and in Europe. The relative importance of different winter quarters may fluctuate under the influence of changing local habitat conditions, as well as according to general trends caused by global climate change. Several European duck species have shifted their winter range to the North-East, i.e. the distance between breeding and wintering grounds was reduced, in a pattern consistent with a global temperature increase. In northern countries, this could also indicate an increasing proportion of sedentary birds. We compared the geographic distribution of recoveries of bands fitted to Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and Common Teal (A. crecca) in Camargue, southern France, over the last 60 years. Close to 75,000 ducks were banded since the early 1950s. Band recoveries occurred to a much greater extent in the Camargue area than in other parts of the flyways during the last decade compared to earlier years: as opposed to earlier studies, recoveries of Camargue-ringed ducks are increasingly made to the South-West. For migratory Teal, this indicates an increased faithfulness to the Camargue winter quarter. For Mallard, though, some birds may have become around-the-year residents: while the distance from banding site to recovery location was >400 km between the 1950s and 1970s, it is <75 km nowadays. Several hypotheses are proposed to explain these changes in European duck distributions. Survival analyses are also carried out, which help assessing whether changes in geographic distribution have also translated into altered demographic rates. Besides the overriding effects of climate change in the long-term, the present results suggest that local habitat management practices still have the potential to greatly affect the distribution of waterfowl.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-16060 (URN)
Conference
7th North American Duck Symposium, Annapolis, MD, 2-5 February 2016
Available from: 2016-09-19 Created: 2016-09-19 Last updated: 2016-09-19Bibliographically approved
Bengtsson, D., Safi, K., Avril, A., Fiedler, W., Wikelski, M., Gunnarsson, G., . . . Waldenström, J. (2016). Does influenza A virus infection affect movement behaviour during stopover in its wild reservoir host?. Royal Society Open Science, 3(2), Article ID 150633.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does influenza A virus infection affect movement behaviour during stopover in its wild reservoir host?
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2016 (English)In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 3, no 2, 150633Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The last decade has seen a surge in research on avian influenza A viruses (IAVs), in part fuelled by the emergence, spread and potential zoonotic importance of highly pathogenic virus subtypes. The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is the most numerous and widespread dabbling duck in the world, and one of the most important natural hosts for studying IAV transmission dynamics. In order to predict the likelihood of IAV transmission between individual ducks and to other hosts, as well as between geographical regions, it is important to understand how IAV infection affects the host. In this study, we analysed the movements of 40 mallards equipped with GPS transmitters and three-dimensional accelerometers, of which 20 were naturally infected with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV), at a major stopover site in the Northwest European flyway. Movements differed substantially between day and night, as well as between mallards returning to the capture site and those feeding in natural habitats. However, movement patterns did not differ between LPAIV infected and uninfected birds. Hence, LPAIV infection probably does not affect mallard movements during stopover, with high possibility of virus spread along the migration route as a consequence.

Keyword
avian influenza A virus, effect of infection, mallard, movement, stopover, transmission
National Category
Ecology Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-15286 (URN)10.1098/rsos.150633 (DOI)000377969000024 ()26998334 (PubMedID)
External cooperation:
Funder
Swedish Research Council, (2010-3067Swedish Research Council, 2010-5399Swedish Research Council, 2011-3568Swedish Research Council Formas, 2009-1220Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, V-205-09Max Planck Society
Available from: 2016-02-18 Created: 2016-02-18 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Elmberg, J., Söderquist, P., Gunnarsson, G., Thulin, C.-G., Champagnon, J., Guillemain, M., . . . Kraus, R. H. (2016). Farmed European mallards are genetically different and cause introgression in the wild population following releases. In: : . Paper presented at The 7th North American Duck Symposium (NADS7), Annapolis, Maryland, 1-5 February 2016. .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Farmed European mallards are genetically different and cause introgression in the wild population following releases
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2016 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The practice of restocking already viable populations to increase harvest potential has since long been common in forestry, fisheries and wildlife management. The potential risks of restocking native species have long been overshadowed by the related issue of invasive alien species. However, during the last decade releases of native species with potentially non-native genome have received more attention. A suitable model to study genetic effects of large-scale releases of native species is the Mallard Anas platyrhynchos, being the most widespread duck in the world, largely migratory, and an important quarry species. More than 3 million unfledged hatchlings are released each year around Europe to increase local harvest. The aims of this study were to determine if wild and released farmed Mallards differ genetically, if there are signs of previous or ongoing introgression between wild and farmed birds, and if the genetic structure of the wild Mallard population has changed since large-scale releases started in Europe in the 1970s. Using 360 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) we found that the genetic structure differed among historical wild, present-day wild, and farmed Mallards in Europe. We also found signs of introgression in the wild Mallard population, that is, individuals with a genetic background of farmed stock are part of the present free-living population. Although only a small proportion of the released Mallards appears to survive to merge with the free-living breeding population, their numbers are still so large that the genetic impact may have significance for the wild population in terms of individual survival and longterm fitness.

National Category
Ecology Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-15340 (URN)
Conference
The 7th North American Duck Symposium (NADS7), Annapolis, Maryland, 1-5 February 2016
Available from: 2016-03-18 Created: 2016-03-18 Last updated: 2017-05-08Bibliographically approved
Guillemain, M., Pernollet, C. A., Arzel, C., Elmberg, J. & Eadie, J. (2016). Foraging, nutrition, and energetics of waterfowl: a European perspective. In: 7th North American Duck Symposium: waterfowl ecology and adaptive management. Paper presented at 7th North American Duck Symposium, Annapolis, MD, 2-5 February 2016. .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Foraging, nutrition, and energetics of waterfowl: a European perspective
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2016 (English)In: 7th North American Duck Symposium: waterfowl ecology and adaptive management, 2016Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Much attention has historically been devoted to feeding ecology of waterfowl, providing an extensive research record for Europe and North America alike. However, research in this field has gradually followed different paths on the two continents. American scientists have adopted a more applied perspective, often aiming at assessing the extent to which food requirements of waterfowl can be fulfilled in different habitats, and how management of these can increase carrying capacity. As opposed to this "energetic" approach, European scientists have rather framed their studies in a "behavioral" perspective, using waterfowl as model species for more theoretical approaches to foraging ecology. Consequently, while North American research has most often been carried out at the scale of waterfowl populations, the individual bird has more frequently been the scale of study in Europe. We present three examples of such European studies: first, a detailed analysis of the trade-offs made by dabbling ducks between foraging and anti-predator vigilance, leading to divergent strategies to face gradual food depletion during the winter. Second, we do a flyway-scale analysis of duck foraging needs and behavior, from Mediterranean wintering grounds to breeding sites in the Boreal, and point out the main hurdles faced by these birds across their annual cycle. Such detailed European studies can provide useful parameter values to fuel modern agent-based models of habitat use and carrying capacity developed in North America, hence cross-fertilizing the approaches on the two continents. This is exactly what our third example is about; namely adapting the SWAMP model developed in California to better understand and predict the use of harvested rice fields by wintering ducks in southern France.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-16059 (URN)
Conference
7th North American Duck Symposium, Annapolis, MD, 2-5 February 2016
Available from: 2016-09-19 Created: 2016-09-19 Last updated: 2016-09-19Bibliographically approved
Dessborn, L., Hessel, R. & Elmberg, J. (2016). Geese as vectors of nitrogen and phosphorus to freshwater systems. INLAND WATERS, 6(1), 111-122.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Geese as vectors of nitrogen and phosphorus to freshwater systems
2016 (English)In: INLAND WATERS, ISSN 2044-2041, E-ISSN 2044-205X, Vol. 6, no 1, 111-122 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many goose populations have increased dramatically over the past decades, which may influence inland waters used as roost sites. We reviewed the role of geese in the influx of nitrogen and phosphorus to freshwater systems. Several methods have been used to estimate guanotrophication impacts of geese. Water and sediment analysis have been conducted in areas of high and low geese presence; however, productive wetlands tend to attract more birds, and the causality is therefore ambiguous. Faecal addition experiments have attempted to estimate the impacts of droppings on water chemistry, sediments, algal growth, or invertebrate densities. The most common method of estimating goose guanotrophication is by extrapolation, usually based on multiplication of faecal production and its nutrient content. Based on such studies and those including information about daily migration patterns, we developed an approach to improve estimates of the nutrient contribution of geese. The relative role of geese in wetland eutrophication is also affected by the influx from alternative sources. The greatest guanotrophication impacts are likely found in areas with few alternative nutrient sources and with large goose flocks. Limited inflow and outflow of a freshwater system or a scarcity of wetland roosts may also increase problems at a local scale. Although several studies have looked at the impacts of geese on, for example, water chemistry or soil sediments, the effects are often smaller than expected, in part because no study to date has assessed the ecosystem response by including impacts on all levels, including water nutrient levels, nutrient sedimentation, chlorophyll content, and zooplankton response.

Keyword
Anser, Branta, Chen, eutrophication, goose, guanotrophication, nutrient
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-15287 (URN)10.5268/IW-6.1.897 (DOI)000371809400010 ()
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, NV-01518-13Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, NV-01740-14
Available from: 2016-02-18 Created: 2016-02-18 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Elmberg, J., Hirschfeld, E., Cardoso, H. & Hessel, R. (2016). Passage patterns of seabirds in October at Cabo Carvoeiro Portugal, with special reference to the Balearic Shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus. Marine Ornithology, 44(2), 151-156.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Passage patterns of seabirds in October at Cabo Carvoeiro Portugal, with special reference to the Balearic Shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus
2016 (English)In: Marine Ornithology, ISSN 1018-3337, E-ISSN 2074-1235, Vol. 44, no 2, 151-156 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Land-based counts of migrating seabirds remain essential to increase knowledge about their numbers and movements. To assess the value of Cabo Carvoeiro (Peniche, Portugal) as a monitoring site in the East Atlantic, we studied seabird species composition, passage patterns and flock size during mid-October 2014. During standardized counts, we observed nearly 8 000 seabirds of 17 species. The ratio of individuals passing in a southerly to southwesterly direction was >96% in all species, showing that genuine migrants were counted. The passage rate (birds/hour) was higher for Northern Gannets Morus bassanus than for any other species, by a factor of approximately 50 (morning mean 906/h, afternoon mean 1 153/h). The globally endangered Balearic Shearwaters Puffinus mauretanicus, Great Skuas Stercorarius skua and Pomarine Skuas S. pomarinus had passage rates of 10–25/h. Flock size distribution in the 11 most numerous species showed that most migrated singly or in groups of two. Flock size was larger in Balearic Shearwaters than in both Cory’s Calonectris borealis and Manx Shearwaters P. puffinus. Among skuas, flock size was larger in Pomarine than in Great Skuas. The passage rate of Manx Shearwaters was positively correlated with that of Northern Gannets, Great Skuas and Sandwich Terns Sterna sandvicensis. Northern Gannets showed a positive co-variation with Pomarine Skuas. Balearic and Sooty Shearwaters Ardenna griseus were the only species that did not show any significant co-variation with another species. Morning and afternoon passage rates did not differ significantly in any of the six most numerous species (Northern Gannets, Cory’s and Balearic Shearwaters, Great and Pomarine Skuas, and Sandwich Terns), or in Sooty Shearwaters (less numerous). Thus, the passage rates at Cabo Carvoeiro in October of Balearic Shearwaters and five other species were as high or higher than those reported from any other seawatch in Portugal, indicating the international value of seabird monitoring at Cabo Carvoeiro during the autumn migration.

Keyword
Gannet, seabird migration, seabird monitoring, seawatch, shearwater, skua, tern
National Category
Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-15936 (URN)
Available from: 2016-09-05 Created: 2016-09-05 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2337-4155

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