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Dessborn, L. & Elmberg, J. (2018). Bidrar gäss och svanar  till övergödning av våtmarker?. In: Johan Elmberg & Johan Månsson (Ed.), Fakta för förvaltare: gäss och svanar: kunskapssammanställning om bete, övergödning, smittspridning och skyddsjakt (pp. 33-47). Stockholm: Naturvårdsverket
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bidrar gäss och svanar  till övergödning av våtmarker?
2018 (Swedish)In: Fakta för förvaltare: gäss och svanar: kunskapssammanställning om bete, övergödning, smittspridning och skyddsjakt / [ed] Johan Elmberg & Johan Månsson, Stockholm: Naturvårdsverket , 2018, p. 33-47Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

• Gäss och svanar förekommer idag i större antal nära fler människor än någonsin tidigare, i Sverige och i övriga Västeuropa.

• De ökande antalen leder ibland till problem och konflikter. På jordbruksmark kan gäss och svanar orsaka kostsamma skador på oskördade grödor. Hårt bete kan också påverka naturlig växtlighet och då bli ett naturvårdsproblem.

• Gäss och svanar är vegetarianer och äter enbart blad, stjälkar, frön och rotdelar från växter, både på land och i vatten.

• Bete på växande grödor kan också skapa intressekonflikter i områden där gäss samlas i stora antal, till exempel vid skyddade och restaurerade våtmarker.

• Samtidigt bidrar gässen med många ekosystemtjänster, bland andra i form av naturupplevelser, jakt och kött. GÄSS OCH SVANAR SOM NÄRINGSTRANSPORTÖRER

• Gäss och svanar har en relativt sett näringsfattig kost och en ganska ineffektiv matsmältning. Därför måste de äta mycket och producerar följaktligen stora  mängder avföring.

• Dessa fåglar hittar mycket av sin föda på land, men vilar en stor del av dygnet  på våtmarker, där de också bajsar.

• Under höst, vinter och vår gör gäss och svanar omfattande dagliga förflyttningar  mellan födoplatser och viloplatser. De blir därmed naturliga transportörer av näringsämnen till våtmarker och sjöar.ÖVERGÖDNING I VATTENDRAG

• Under häckningstiden på sommaren är de flesta gäss och svanar glest utspridda över stora områden, samtidigt som flera arter häckar i våtmarker och sjöar som är naturligt näringsfattiga. Under dessa omständigheter är fåglarnas näringstransport från land till vattenmiljöer en naturlig process som snarast bidrar till ett rikare växt- och djurliv.

• Våtmarker där gäss och svanar samlas i stora antal under höst, vinter och vår  är dock sällan näringsfattiga, och många av dem har redan problem med över- gödning genom näringsläckage från jordbruksmark. Övergödning kan leda till  algblomning, försämrad vattenkvalitet och andra oönskade förändringar i våtmarks- ekosystemet.

• I områden som redan har problem med övergödning kan gäss och svanar göra att problemen ökar. Särskilt känsliga är små vattensamlingar med begränsat till- och utflöde, men också de som sommartid har kraftig avdunstning i kombination med stora antal fåglar.

• En betydande del av den samlade näringstillförseln till våtmarker sker under den tid på året då växterna är inaktiva och alltså inte tar upp näringsämnen. Detta leder till att de senare antingen sedimenterar (och frigörs en annan årstid), eller att de transporteras nedströms och kan orsaka övergödning där.

• Ett räkneexempel visar att 2 000 gäss som uppehåller sig i en våtmark i fyra månader kan bidra med 160 kg kväve och 40–80 kg fosfor. I vilken mån detta är problematiskt beror på hur mycket samma område påverkas av näringsläckage från jordbruk och andra mänskliga källor.

• Kunskapssammanställningen ger exempel på åtgärder man kan vidta för att öka eller minska en våtmarks attraktivitet för gäss och svanar.

Abstract [en]

• Swans and geese occur in larger numbers near more people than ever before, in Sweden as well as in Western Europe.

• Increasing populations sometimes lead to problems and conflicts. On agricultural land geese and swans can cause costly damage to growing crops. Intense grazing by these birds may also affect natural vegetation, sometimes leading to conflict with conservation and biodiversity goals.

• Geese and swans are obligate herbivores, consuming leaves, stems, seeds and root parts of terrestrial and aquatic plants.

• Grazing on growing crops may cause conflicts of interest also when geese and swans congregate in large numbers in wetlands adjacent to cropland.

• Geese and swans provide a multitude of ecosystem services, for example viewing, hunting, meat, and eco-tourism revenues. GEESE AND SWANS AS VECTORS OF NUTRIENTS

• Geese and swans eat large amounts of plant material, have a relatively inefficient digestive system, and produce a lot of droppings.

• These birds find most of their food on land, but spend a large part of the day  resting on wetlands, where they also defecate.

• In autumn, winter and spring most geese and swans make daily flights between feeding and roost sites, thereby becoming vectors of nutrients to wetlands and lakes

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Naturvårdsverket, 2018
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-17964 (URN)978-91-620-8793-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-04-12 Created: 2018-04-12 Last updated: 2018-04-12Bibliographically approved
Dessborn, L., Hessel, R. & Elmberg, J. (2016). Geese as vectors of nitrogen and phosphorus to freshwater systems. INLAND WATERS, 6(1), 111-122
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Geese as vectors of nitrogen and phosphorus to freshwater systems
2016 (English)In: INLAND WATERS, ISSN 2044-2041, E-ISSN 2044-205X, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 111-122Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many goose populations have increased dramatically over the past decades, which may influence inland waters used as roost sites. We reviewed the role of geese in the influx of nitrogen and phosphorus to freshwater systems. Several methods have been used to estimate guanotrophication impacts of geese. Water and sediment analysis have been conducted in areas of high and low geese presence; however, productive wetlands tend to attract more birds, and the causality is therefore ambiguous. Faecal addition experiments have attempted to estimate the impacts of droppings on water chemistry, sediments, algal growth, or invertebrate densities. The most common method of estimating goose guanotrophication is by extrapolation, usually based on multiplication of faecal production and its nutrient content. Based on such studies and those including information about daily migration patterns, we developed an approach to improve estimates of the nutrient contribution of geese. The relative role of geese in wetland eutrophication is also affected by the influx from alternative sources. The greatest guanotrophication impacts are likely found in areas with few alternative nutrient sources and with large goose flocks. Limited inflow and outflow of a freshwater system or a scarcity of wetland roosts may also increase problems at a local scale. Although several studies have looked at the impacts of geese on, for example, water chemistry or soil sediments, the effects are often smaller than expected, in part because no study to date has assessed the ecosystem response by including impacts on all levels, including water nutrient levels, nutrient sedimentation, chlorophyll content, and zooplankton response.

Keywords
Anser, Branta, Chen, eutrophication, goose, guanotrophication, nutrient
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-15287 (URN)10.5268/IW-6.1.897 (DOI)000371809400010 ()
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, NV-01518-13Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, NV-01740-14
Available from: 2016-02-18 Created: 2016-02-18 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Dessborn, L., Rönkä, M., Arzel, C. & Elmberg, J. (2016). Sinisorsanpoikaset välttelevät synnynnäisesti erityyppisiä petoja. Soumen Riista, 62, 43-54
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sinisorsanpoikaset välttelevät synnynnäisesti erityyppisiä petoja
2016 (Finnish)In: Soumen Riista, ISSN 0355-0656, Vol. 62, p. 43-54Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-17106 (URN)
Available from: 2017-08-21 Created: 2017-08-21 Last updated: 2017-08-21Bibliographically approved
Holopainen, S., Arzel, C., Dessborn, L., Elmberg, J., Gunnarsson, G., Nummi, P., . . . Sjöberg, K. (2015). Habitat use in ducks breeding in boreal freshwater wetlands: a review. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 61(3), 339-363
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Habitat use in ducks breeding in boreal freshwater wetlands: a review
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2015 (English)In: European Journal of Wildlife Research, ISSN 1612-4642, E-ISSN 1439-0574, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 339-363Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Breeding habitats strongly influence duck reproduction and survival. The boreal biome harbours a large share of the worlds wetlands, which are important breeding sites for several duck species. Based on 98 studies in the peer-reviewed literature, we here synthesize and evaluate which habitat characteristics affect habitat use and reproduction of ducks breeding in boreal freshwater wetlands with respect to (1) species and guild (dabbling, diving and piscivorous ducks) and (2) breeding cycle stage (settling by pairs, nesting and brood rearing). We consider the following aspects related to habitat: wetland morphology and spatial aggregation, water characteristics, habitat structure and vegetation, and biotic interactions. Most of the peer-reviewed studies of duck habitat use in boreal wetlands are from North America and Fennoscandia, while nearly half of the boreal area lacks such studies. Few species dominate research thus far while several others have not been studied at all. Nest site use and success are mainly related to predator avoidance. Food resources and habitat structure are the key characteristics affecting habitat use by duck pairs and broods as well as breeding success, although there are differences between duck guilds. Among the commonly studied variables, there is little evidence that water characteristics affect duck habitat use or survival. The most notable knowledge gaps are found in the effects of anthropogenic activities on habitat use and breeding success of ducks. Because boreal breeding environments are increasingly affected by human activities, we underline the need for future studies combining climate variation with natural and anthropogenic disturbances.

Keywords
Anatidae, Duckling, Limitation, Management, Regulation, Waterfowl
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-13866 (URN)10.1007/s10344-015-0921-9 (DOI)000354195700001 ()
Available from: 2015-05-11 Created: 2015-05-11 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Elmberg, J., Dessborn, L. & Arzel, C. (2015). Så undviker andungarna rovdjuren. Svensk jakt, 153(6), 38-40
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Så undviker andungarna rovdjuren
2015 (Swedish)In: Svensk jakt, ISSN 0039-6583, Vol. 153, no 6, p. 38-40Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Svenska jägareförbundet, 2015
National Category
Behavioral Sciences Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-13858 (URN)
Available from: 2015-05-07 Created: 2015-05-07 Last updated: 2016-04-01Bibliographically approved
Elmberg, J., Dessborn, L. & Arzel, C. (2014). Andungar har bra koll när faran hotar. Vår fågelvärld, 73(3), 34-35
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Andungar har bra koll när faran hotar
2014 (Swedish)In: Vår fågelvärld, ISSN 0042-2649, Vol. 73, no 3, p. 34-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
National Category
Behavioral Sciences Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-13860 (URN)
Available from: 2015-05-07 Created: 2015-05-07 Last updated: 2016-04-01Bibliographically approved
Arzel, C., Dessborn, L., Pöysä, H., Elmberg, J., Nummi, P. & Sjöberg, K. (2014). Early springs and breeding performance in two sympatric duck species with different migration strategies. Ibis, 156(2), 288-298
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early springs and breeding performance in two sympatric duck species with different migration strategies
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2014 (English)In: Ibis, ISSN 0019-1019, E-ISSN 1474-919X, Vol. 156, no 2, p. 288-298Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The capacity of migratory species to adapt to climate change may depend on their migratory and reproductive strategies. For example, reproductive output is likely to be influenced by how well migration and nesting are timed to temporal patterns of food abundance, or by temperature variations during the brood rearing phase. Based on two decades (1988–2009) of waterfowl counts from a boreal catchment in southern Finland we assessed how variation in ice break-up date affected nesting phenology and breeding success in two sympatric duck species, Mallard Anas platyrhynchos and Eurasian Teal Anas crecca. In Fennoscandia these species have similar breeding habitat requirements but differ in migration distance; Teal migrate roughly seven times as far as do Mallard. Annual ice break-up date was used as a proxy of spring ‘earliness’ to test the potential effect of climate change on hatching timing and breeding performance. Both species were capable of adapting their nesting phenology, and bred earlier in years when spring was early. However, the interval from ice break-up to hatching tended to be longer in early springs in both species, so that broods hatched relatively later than in late springs. Ice break-up date did not appear to influence annual number of broods per pair or annual mean brood size in either species. Our study therefore does not suggest that breeding performance in Teal and Mallard is negatively affected by advancement of ice break-up at the population level. However, both species showed a within-season decline in brood size with increasing interval between ice break-up and hatching. Our study therefore highlights a disparity between individuals in their capacity to adjust to ice break-up date, late breeders having a lower breeding success than early breeders. We speculate that breeding success of both species may therefore decline should a consistent trend towards earlier springs occur.

Keywords
breeding success, breeding timing, brood size, climate change, ice break-up, Mallard, migration distance, sympatric breeders, Teal
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-11906 (URN)10.1111/ibi.12134 (DOI)000332792800003 ()
Available from: 2014-04-01 Created: 2014-04-01 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Hansson, L.-A., Ekvall, M. K., Ekvall, M. T., Ahlgren, J., Sidemo Holm, W., Dessborn, L. & Brönmark, C. (2014). Experimental evidence for a mismatch between insect emergence and waterfowl hatching under increased spring temperatures. Ecosphere, 5(9), 120
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental evidence for a mismatch between insect emergence and waterfowl hatching under increased spring temperatures
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2014 (English)In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 5, no 9, p. 120-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

By combining a large-scale experimental assessment on timing of insect emergence with longtermmonitoring of waterfowl hatching date, we here show that insect emergence is mainly driven bytemperature, whereas there is only a weak effect of increasing spring temperatures on inter-annualvariability in observations of waterfowl chicks. Hence, a change in timing of the mass-emergence of insectsfrom lakes and wetlands, which is the crucial food source for waterfowl chicks, will likely result in aconsumer/resource mismatch in a future climate change perspective. Specifically, we experimentally showthat a moderate increase in temperature of 38C above ambient, expected to occur within 25–75 years, leadsto a considerably (2 weeks) earlier, and more pronounced, peak in insect emergence (Chironomus sp).Moreover, by utilizing long-term Citizen Science databases, ranging over several decades, we also showthat common waterfowl species are unable to significantly adjust their reproduction to fit futuretemperature increase. Hence, based on our data we predict a future mismatch between insect emergenceand waterfowl species basing their reproduction on temperature. This will have a profound impact onreproductive success and population dynamics of many aquatic birds, as well as on freshwaterbiodiversity.

Keywords
Chironomus, citizen science, climate change, crowd sourcing, hatching, insect emergence, mismatch, waterfowl
National Category
Ecology Zoology Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-13116 (URN)10.1890/ES14-00133.1 (DOI)000345097000017 ()
Funder
FormasSwedish Research Council
Available from: 2014-10-16 Created: 2014-10-16 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Islam, K. Z., Islam, M. S., Lacoursière, J. O. & Dessborn, L. (2014). Low cost rainwater harvesting: an alternate solution to salinity affected coastal region of Bangladesh. American Journal of Water Resources, 2(6), 141-148
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low cost rainwater harvesting: an alternate solution to salinity affected coastal region of Bangladesh
2014 (English)In: American Journal of Water Resources, ISSN 2333-4819, Vol. 2, no 6, p. 141-148Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigated the prospect of rainwater harvesting as a low cost alternative potable water supply option along the coastal region of Bangladesh, which is considered as one of the most vulnerable countries in the world due to climate change and resulting sea level rise. Because of increasing salinity intrusion, potable water scarcity become severe at the south-western coastal region of the country. The study area for this investigation was Patkelghata in Satkhira district of Bangladesh located in the same zone. The Satkhira district averages nearly 1,710 mm rainfall per year. Based on rural housing pattern of the region, a rainwater harvesting system is proposed, which consists of roof catchment, gutters, down pipes, first flush devices, filter chamber and storage tank. The minimum catchment area was assumed to be 6 m2 and storage tank of 2000 liter capacity. Data was collected on the present state of freshwater supply, sources and quality, average rainfall in the region, dry spell period, family size, water use nature, rain water quality and material to be used for storage, etc. Rainwater quality was also tested and the parameters were found to be within Bangladesh’s standard limit. After a detail calculation, an approximate cost was assumed to be $171 for building and operation of the whole system. A questionnaire survey was also conducted on views and opinion of local people to understand the problems, prospects and the popularity of rainwater harvesting in Bangladesh.

Keywords
climate change impact, salinity intrusion, fresh water crisis, rainwater harvesting, design of storage tank, cost analysis, management options
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-13341 (URN)10.12691/ajwr-2-6-2 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-12-26 Created: 2014-12-26 Last updated: 2016-04-01Bibliographically approved
Gunnarsson, G., Elmberg, J., Pöysä, H., Sjöberg, K., Dessborn, L. & Arzel, C. (2013). Density dependence in ducks: a review of the evidence. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 59(3), 305-321
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Density dependence in ducks: a review of the evidence
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2013 (English)In: European Journal of Wildlife Research, ISSN 1612-4642, E-ISSN 1439-0574, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 305-321Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Density dependence (DD) is a central concept in population ecology and in the management of harvested populations. For example, DD underpins the idea of additive versus compensatory mortality and is a tenet in the paradigm of resource limitation and regulation. Yet the prevalence and importance of DD remains disputed in most organisms, including ducks, which are focal in game management, conservation and zoonotic diseases. Based on 154 data entries from 54 studies in the peer-reviewed literature, we here synthesize and evaluate the prevalence of DD in breeding ducks in relation to (1) species and guild (dabbling versus diving ducks), (2) stage in the breeding cycle (nesting, duckling, recruitment) or, alternatively, in terms of population dynamics, (3) study type (descriptive/nonmanipulative versus experimental), (4) continent (Europe versus North America), (5) spatial level (wetland, landscape, regional, continental) and (6) biome (tundra, boreal, nemoral, prairie, mediterranean). One conclusion from this review is that it is difficult to find general patterns about the prevalence of DD unless data are broken down to subsets, for example, to stage or spatial level. With respect to stage, DD effects occur at all stages of the breeding cycle. During the nesting and duckling stages, the frequency of cases detecting versus not detecting DD is roughly the same. However, in cases referring to the recruitment stage, i.e. to survival of fledged ducks until 1 year old at the most, DD was the rule, suggesting that DD processes may operate mainly outside the breeding season. Further subdivision of data shows that spatial scale is important to the prevalence of DD in nesting ducks—rare on the wetland level and more common on higher spatial levels. In studies of population dynamics (i.e. based on time series data only), DD was more often found in diving than in dabbling ducks. This corroborates previous suggestions that dabbling ducks largely should be considered as r-selected species, in contrast to more K-selected diving ducks, which start to reproduce at an older age and often breed in more stable wetland environments where resources may be easier to track and populations thus often are closer to carrying capacity. However, the picture of DD in ducks is far from complete, and knowledge gaps for future studies to address include: (a) data from Russia, which holds a large part of the breeding ducks in the Northern hemisphere, (b) experimental studies on more species to separate density-dependent factors from other drivers of population change and to tease apart spatial and temporal interactions in the underlying processes, (c) time series analyses addressing population dynamics, especially from outside North America, (d) studies relating duck numbers to limiting resources, which arguably is the most relevant measure of density, (e) the timing of DD processes in relation to harvest and natural mortality.

Keywords
Anatidae, Density dependent, Duckling, Hunting, Limitation, Nesting, Population dynamics, Recruitment, Regulation, Waterfowl
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-10082 (URN)10.1007/s10344-013-0716-9 (DOI)000321866400001 ()
Available from: 2013-01-24 Created: 2013-01-24 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2868-2210

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