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Svahn, O. & Björklund, E. (2019). Extraction Efficiency of a Commercial Espresso Machine Compared to a Stainless-Steel Column Pressurized Hot Water Extraction (PHWE) System for the Determination of 23 Pharmaceuticals, Antibiotics and Hormones in Sewage Sludge. Applied Sciences, 9(7), Article ID 1509.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Extraction Efficiency of a Commercial Espresso Machine Compared to a Stainless-Steel Column Pressurized Hot Water Extraction (PHWE) System for the Determination of 23 Pharmaceuticals, Antibiotics and Hormones in Sewage Sludge
2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, nr 7, artikkel-id 1509Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Two green chemistry extraction systems, an in-house stainless-steel column Pressurized Hot Water Extraction system (PHWE) and a commercially available Espresso machine were applied for analysing 23 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in sewage sludge. Final analysis was performed on UPLC-MS/MS using two different chromatographic methods: acid and basic. When analysing all 23 APIs in sewage sludge both extraction methods showed good repeatability. The PHWE method allowed for a more complete extraction of APIs that were more tightly bound to the matrix, as exemplified by much higher concentrations of e.g., ketoconazole, citalopram and ciprofloxacin. In total, 19 out of 23 investigated APIs were quantified in sewage sludge, and with a few exceptions the PHWE method was more exhaustive. Mean absolute recoveries of 7 spiked labelled APIs were lower for the PHWE method than the Espresso method. Under acid chromatographic conditions mean recoveries were 16% and 24%, respectively, but increased to 24% and 37% under basic conditions. The difference between the PHWE method and the Espresso method might be interpreted as the Espresso method giving higher extraction efficiency; however, TIC scans of extracts revealed a much higher matrix co-extraction for the PHWE method. Attempts were made to correlate occurrence of compounds in sewage sludge with chemical properties of the 23 APIs and there are strong indications that both the number of aromatic rings and the presence of a positive charge is important for the sorption processes to sewage sludge.

Emneord
espresso coffee machine extraction, pressurized hot water extraction, pharmaceuticals, antibiotics, hormones, sewage sludge, ion suppression, UPLC MS, MS, basic buffer
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-19472 (URN)10.3390/app9071509 (DOI)000466547500244 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-06-25 Laget: 2019-06-25 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-28bibliografisk kontrollert
Svahn, O. & Björklund, E. (2019). High flow-rate sample loading in large volume whole water organic trace analysis using positive pressure and finely ground sand as a SPE-column in-line filter. Molecules, 24(7)
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>High flow-rate sample loading in large volume whole water organic trace analysis using positive pressure and finely ground sand as a SPE-column in-line filter
2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Molecules, ISSN 1420-3049, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 24, nr 7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

By using an innovative, positive pressure sample loading technique in combination with an in-line filter of finely ground sand the bottleneck of solid phase extraction (SPE) can be reduced. Recently published work by us has shown the proof of concept of the technique. In this work, emphasis is put on the SPE flow rate and method validation for 26 compounds of emerging environmental concern, mainly from the 1st and 2nd EU Watch List, with various physicochemical properties. The mean absolute recoveries in % and relative standard deviations (RSD) in % for the investigated compounds from spiked pure water samples at the three investigated flow rates of 10, 20, and 40 mL/min were 63.2% (3.2%), 66.9% (3.3%), and 69.0% (4.0%), respectively. All three flow rates produced highly repeatable results, and this allowed a flow rate increase of up to 40 mL/min for a 200 mg, 6 mL, reversed phase SPE cartridge without compromising the recoveries. This figure is more than four times the maximum flow rate recommended by manufacturers. It was indicated that some compounds, especially pronounced for the investigated macrolide molecules, might suffer when long contact times with the sample glass bottle occurs. A reduced contact time somewhat decreases this complication. A very good repeatability also held true for experiments on both spiked matrix-rich pond water (high and low concentrations) and recipient waters (river and wastewater) applying 40 mL/min. This work has shown that, for a large number of compounds of widely differing physicochemical properties, there is a generous flow rate window from 10 to 40 mL/min where sample loading can be conducted. A sample volume of 0.5 L, which at the recommended maximum flow rate speed of 10 mL/min, would previously take 50 min, can now be processed in 12 min using a flow rate of 40 mL/min. This saves 38 min per processed sample. This low-cost technology allows the sample to be transferred to the SPE-column, closer to the sample location and by the person taking the sample. This further means that only the sample cartridge would need to be sent to the laboratory, instead of the whole water sample, like today's procedure.

Emneord
SPE, environmental analysis, flow rate, hormones, in-line filter, large volume, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, sand, trace analysis, whole water
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-19231 (URN)10.3390/molecules24071426 (DOI)000464952900022 ()30978956 (PubMedID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-04-16 Laget: 2019-04-16 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-28bibliografisk kontrollert
Svahn, O. & Björklund, E. (2019). Simple, fast and inexpensive large "whole water" volume sample SPE-loading using compressed air and finely ground sand. Analytical Methods, 11(7), 894-896
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Simple, fast and inexpensive large "whole water" volume sample SPE-loading using compressed air and finely ground sand
2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Analytical Methods, ISSN 1759-9660, E-ISSN 1759-9679, Vol. 11, nr 7, s. 894-896Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

In environmental trace analysis there is often a need to enrich the compounds of interest from a large sample volume, where the use of solid phase extraction (SPE) is more or less the standard technique. The presence of the sample matrix can cause clogging of the SPE-column, especially at the end of a sample load. Swedish surface waters are often humic rich making the use of traditional sample loading by a vacuum manifold very limited. This obstacle forced the development of a different sample loading technique, based on compressed air and sand as an in-line-filter, designed to load larger sample volumes as needed in trace level analysis of hormones in surface water. The developed technique, combined with a UPLC MS/MS method, showed promising reproducibility and accuracy, and enabled increased sensitivity for the analysis of hormones in humic rich surface water.

HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-19112 (URN)10.1039/c8ay02786b (DOI)000458808900003 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-02-28 Laget: 2019-02-28 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-28bibliografisk kontrollert
Abdel-Khalik, J., Björklund, E., Nielsen, F. K. & Hansen, M. (2017). Incorporation of (14)C-cholesterol in human adrenal corticocarcinoma H295R cell line and online-radiodetection of produced (14)C-steroid hormone metabolites. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 145, 569-575
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Incorporation of (14)C-cholesterol in human adrenal corticocarcinoma H295R cell line and online-radiodetection of produced (14)C-steroid hormone metabolites
2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, ISSN 0731-7085, E-ISSN 1873-264X, Vol. 145, s. 569-575Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

This study demonstrates the addition of (14)C-cholesterol to the human cell line H295R will in-situ form radiolabeled steroid hormones allowing for new mechanistic and metabolic insights. The aim of the present study was to in-situ radiolabel steroid hormones from cell line-incorporated (14)C-cholesterol using the OECD guideline 456, H295R steroidogenesis in-vitro assay. Radiodetection of the steroid metabolites of the steroidogenic pathway allows for an improved understanding of the various enzymatic mechanisms involved without necessarily being dependent on quantification. Generated radiolabeled steroids were analyzed using HPLC hyphenated with a Flow Scintillation Analyzer (FSA). H295R cells were incubated with radiolabeled cholesterol and cell media were collected and prepared by solid phase extraction and analyzed with HPLC-FSA. For successful radiolabeling of the steroids in the steroidogenesis of H295R cells, radioactive cholesterol may potentially only need to be added just before the cells are incubated for 72h in well plates. Based on the obtained HPLC-FSA chromatograms, and confirmation of the observations by studies in the literature, a qualitative time profile for the production of steroid hormones was estimated. Multiple radiolabeled steroid hormones were identified by means of analytical standards and UV (ultraviolet) co-chromatography, though the elucidation of multiple metabolites remains unresolved. Although online radiodetection proved to suffer from suboptimal sensitivity, the concept of radiolabeling the steroidogenesis in H295R cells with (14)C-cholesterol and detecting the radiolabeled steroid hormones online was proved and may assist in further toxicological studies.

Emneord
Flow scintillation analysis, NCI-H295R, OECD guideline 456, Online radiodection, Radiolabeling, Steroidogenesis
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-17079 (URN)10.1016/j.jpba.2017.06.058 (DOI)28777968 (PubMedID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-08-16 Laget: 2017-08-16 Sist oppdatert: 2019-07-03bibliografisk kontrollert
Svahn, O. & Björklund, E. (2017). Interkalibrerad läkemedelsanalys 2017: ett samarbetsprojekt för ökad analyskvalité. Kristianstad: Högskolan Kristianstad
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Interkalibrerad läkemedelsanalys 2017: ett samarbetsprojekt för ökad analyskvalité
2017 (svensk)Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [sv]

Läkemedelsverket gav i september 2015 ut en rapport med titeln ”Miljöindikatorer inom ramen för nationella läkemedelsstrategin (NLS)”. Rapporten indikerar bland annat stora kvalitetsbrister i tidigare utförda analyser av läkemedel i miljön under åren 2002-2013, men betonar också vikten av att samordna framtida nationella läkemedelsanalyser för att bättre använda våra offentliga resurser. I rapporten skriver man följande: ”Allra högst prioriterad ansåg arbetsgruppen att indikatorn ”mäta halter av läkemedelssubstanser i miljö” vara. Detta beroende på att det utöver att det är av stor vikt att följa utvecklingen av läkemedelsrester i miljön över tid för att utvärdera effekten av genomförda insatser, så ansåg arbetsgruppen att det finns stora möjligheter att optimera användningen av de offentliga resurserna genom en bättre samordning av mätningar i miljön. Många mätningar har gjorts historiskt av olika offentliga aktörer utan någon samordning.” Mot bakgrund av detta, och som svar på ett nationellt behov, åtog sig Högskolan Kristianstad (HKR) genom Ola Svahn och Erland Björklund, båda verksamma vid MoLab, Krinova Incubator and Science Park i Kristianstad, att leda denna interkalibreringsstudie för läkemedelsanalys i miljö-vattenprover av olika typ. Arbetet har skett på uppdrag av Havs- och Vattenmyndigheten som finansierat arbetet via bidrag ur havs- och vattenmiljöanslaget och i samarbete med fyra andra analyslaboratorier vid Umeå Universitet (UU), Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet Uppsala (SLU), Svenska miljöinstitutet Stockholm (IVL) samt Aarhus Universitet Danmark (AU). Total deltog därmed 5 laboratorier, alla med tidigare erfarenhet av läkemedelsanalys i miljöprover.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Kristianstad: Högskolan Kristianstad, 2017. s. 62
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-17643 (URN)
Prosjekter
Havs- och Vattenmyndigheten
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-11-28 Laget: 2017-11-28 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-28bibliografisk kontrollert
Svahn, O. & Björklund, E. (2017). Läkemedelsutsläpp från Skånska avloppsreningsverk 2017: ett uvecklings- och samarbetsprojekt på Högskolan Kristianstad i samarbete med Region Skåne och 6 skånska reningsverksaktörer. Kristianstad: Högskolan Kristianstad
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Läkemedelsutsläpp från Skånska avloppsreningsverk 2017: ett uvecklings- och samarbetsprojekt på Högskolan Kristianstad i samarbete med Region Skåne och 6 skånska reningsverksaktörer
2017 (svensk)Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [sv]

I projektet LUSKA (Läkemedelsutsläpp från Skånska Avloppsreningsverk) deltog 6 olika reningsverksorganisationer,    geografiskt fördelade över hela Skåne; Höganäs, Klippan, Höör/Hörby, Svedala, Kristianstad och Simrishamn. Provtagning utfördes i april 2017 på fyra platser vid varje reningsverk. Tre av dessa platser valdes enligt förslag från Länsstyrelsen Skånes tillsynsvägledning; uppströms, nedströms och utgående vatten från reningsverket. Dessutom ingick en fjärde provpunkt bestående av inkommande vatten till reningsverken. I studien analyserades total 21 av 22 läkemedel enligt Läkemedelsverkets föreslagna lista på ämnen från 2015. Analysresultaten från de 8 avloppsreningsverken, samt tillhörande recipient i form av åar och sjöar visar tydligt att stora mängder läkemedel hamnar i våra omgivande skånska vatten varje år. Detta sker som en konsekvens av att reningsverken inte förmår rena läkemedelsutsläpp med befintlig teknik baserad på aktivt slam. Studien visade att de 8 reningsverken släpper ut minst 71 kg läkemedel varje år till skånska vatten enbart av dessa 21 ämnen. Den stora bulken av de uppmätta ämnena utgjordes av blodtryckssänkaren metoprolol och smärtstillaren diklofenak. Men även ämnen som karbamazepin, losartan, naproxen och oxazepam förekom i betydande koncentrationer i avloppsvattnet. Dessa ämnen innefattar flera läkemedelstyper och representerar tre generella och relativt vanliga sjukdomstillstånd som högt blodtryck, inflammation och smärta, samt depression och ångest. Baserat på resultaten i LUSKA-projektet kan man uppskatta att när ett reningsverk behandlar en miljon kubikmeter (1 000 000 m3) avloppsvatten passerar det samtidigt ut ca 4 kg av de 21 läkemedel som Läkemedelsverket tagit upp på sin övervakningslista. Enligt en grov beräkning, innefattande en majoritet av de skånska reningsverken, skulle detta innebära att nästan 600 kg kilo läkemedel läcker ut varje år från skånska reningsverk av Läkemedelsverkets föreslagna ämnen. Samtidigt måste man beakta att dessa 21 ämnen endast utgör en liten del av flera hundra läkemedelssubstanser som används för behandling av sjukdomar. Med stor sannolikhet läcker ett till flera ton läkemedel ut årligen i skånsk recipient. Mätningar i åar och sjöar visar att även om koncentrationerna sjunker nedströms verken som  en konsekvens av företrädesvis utspädning så finns det lokaler där koncentrationerna är an-märkningsvärt höga utifrån ett hållbarhetsperspektiv.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Kristianstad: Högskolan Kristianstad, 2017. s. 58
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-17644 (URN)
Prosjekter
LUSKA
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-11-28 Laget: 2017-11-28 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-28bibliografisk kontrollert
Styrishave, B., Pedersen, K. E., Clarke, O., Hansen, M., Björklund, E., Sonne, C. & Dietz, R. (2017). Steroid hormones in multiple tissues of East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Polar Biology, 40(1), 37-49
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Steroid hormones in multiple tissues of East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)
Vise andre…
2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Polar Biology, ISSN 0722-4060, E-ISSN 1432-2056, Vol. 40, nr 1, s. 37-49Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is threatened by climate changes and also from persistent organic pollutants affecting polar bear endocrinology governing growth and reproduction. To provide further insight into basic polar bear endocrinology, we determined the levels of steroids in multiple tissues and plasma from East Greenland polar bears. Tissue samples from 10 polar bears, 5 males (2 adults, 3 juveniles) and 5 females (all juveniles) were obtained from the Inuit hunt in Scoresby Sound during springtime. Eleven steroids: pregnenolone, 17-hydroxypregnenolone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, 17 alpha-estradiol and 17 beta-estradiol were determined in brain, adrenal cortex, testis, testicular vein, plasma, and ovary using GC-MS/MS. In brain tissue, the neuroactive progestagen pregnenolone (11.9 +/- 4.4 ng/g ww) and dehydroepiandrosterone (2.26 +/- 0.43 ng/g ww) were found in high concentrations. Very high levels of testosterone and androstenedione were observed in testes (> 100 ng/g ww) and plasma from testicular vein (testosterone: 108 +/- 41 ng/ml; androstenedione: 35.2 +/- 11.1 ng/ml). Additionally, a strong correlation was found between the levels of steroids in testes and testicular vein plasma. Progestagens were found in very high levels in ovaries from juvenile females (> 100 ng/g ww). Finally, our study indicates that polar bears synthesize androstenedione via the a dagger-4 pathway. The present study adds new insight to our knowledge on polar bear endocrinology, which may be used in future studies on polar bear ecology and studies on some of the threats from pollution and climate changes that these animals are facing.

Emneord
Androgens, Estrogens, Progestagens, Sex steroids, Steroidogenesis, Testis, Testicular vein blood, Ovary, Brain, Neurosteroids
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-16542 (URN)10.1007/s00300-016-1922-1 (DOI)000391401900004 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-02-13 Laget: 2017-02-13 Sist oppdatert: 2019-07-03bibliografisk kontrollert
Weisser, J. J., Hansen, M., Björklund, E., Sonne, C., Dietz, R. & Styrishave, B. (2016). A novel method for analysing key corticosteroids in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) hair using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of chromatography. B, 1017, 45-51
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>A novel method for analysing key corticosteroids in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) hair using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry
Vise andre…
2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of chromatography. B, ISSN 1570-0232, E-ISSN 1873-376X, Vol. 1017, s. 45-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the development and evaluation of a methodology for extraction, clean-up and analysis of three key corticosteroids (aldosterone, cortisol and corticosterone) in polar bear hair. Such a methodology can be used to monitor stress biomarkers in polar bears and may provide as a useful tool for long-term and retrospective information. We developed a combined pressurized liquid extraction (PLE)-solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure for corticosteroid extraction and clean-up followed by high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) analysis. This procedure allows for the simultaneous determination of multiple steroids, which is in contrast to previous polar bear studies based on ELISA techniques. Absolute method recoveries were 81%, 75% and 60% for cortisol, corticosterone and aldosterone, respectively. We applied the developed method on a hair sample pooled from four East Greenland polar bears. Herein cortisol and corticosterone were successfully determined in levels of 0.32 +/- 0.02 ng/g hair and 0.13 +/- 0.02 ng/g hair, respectively. Aldosterone was below limit of detection (LOD<0.17 ng/g). The cortisol hair concentration found in these East Greenland polar bears was consistent with cortisol levels previously determined in the Southern Hudson Bay and James Bay in Canada using ELISA kits. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Emneord
PLE, SPE LC-MS/MS, polar bear hair, fur, cortisol, corticosterone, aldosterone
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-15965 (URN)10.1016/j.jchromb.2016.02.029 (DOI)000373547200006 ()26945133 (PubMedID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-09-12 Laget: 2016-09-12 Sist oppdatert: 2019-07-03bibliografisk kontrollert
Svahn, O. & Björklund, E. (2016). Increased electrospray ionization intensities and expanded chromatographic possibilities for emerging contaminants using mobile phases of different pH. Journal of chromatography. B, 1033-1034, 128-137
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Increased electrospray ionization intensities and expanded chromatographic possibilities for emerging contaminants using mobile phases of different pH
2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of chromatography. B, ISSN 1570-0232, E-ISSN 1873-376X, Vol. 1033-1034, s. 128-137Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work the habitual behaviour of low pH in environmental organic trace analysis is challenged by investigating the full potential of building a multi-component UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method adapted to cover common emerging contaminants of many different polarities, minimizing the elements of compromise in the performance of the final analytical separation and detection. Contributes have been made by taking advantage of common commercially available technology in understanding the impact from solvent components and the ionization of analytes which can facilitate future development of robust, sensitive and precise UHPLC-MS/MS methods. All contaminants were evaluated and optimized without prejudices regarding historical residence in terms of chromatographic conditions and ESI mode; increasing multi-method's flexibility that can be implemented in routine analysis in response to new requests as well as to emerging contaminants yet to be discovered. Our data strongly supports the questioning of the assumption that equilibrium concentrations of ions in solution reflect those produced during the electrospray process. ESI responses of [M+H](+) and limits of detection were comparable, or often better at high pH compared to acidic eluents. Presence of nitrogen basic groups such as tertiary and secondary amines in a compound increased the intensity of the ESI+ signal, and was even further elevated in basic eluent. The proton affinity probably changes for many nitrogen-containing compounds during the ionization process, making the gas-phase processes very important in generation of these ions by ESI+. There were also an unexpected large number of compounds showing their highest response at pH 7 and weak ionic strength. A flow optimized, buffert free, neutral UHPLC-MS/MS method enhanced the sensitivity for the environmental important synthetic hormone ethinyl estradiol significantly.

HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-16089 (URN)10.1016/j.jchromb.2016.07.015 (DOI)000385322600016 ()27543742 (PubMedID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Region Skåne, Regional handlingsplan för läkemedel och miljö Dnr: 1400978Knowledge Foundation, 20120238Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management, Anslag 1:12 Åtgärder för havs- och vattenmiljön
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-09-28 Laget: 2016-09-28 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-28bibliografisk kontrollert
Björklund, E., Svahn, O., Bak, S., Bekoe, S. O. & Hansen, M. (2016). Pharmaceutical residues affecting the UNESCO biosphere reserve Kristianstads Vattenrike wetlands: sources and sinks. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 71(3), 423-436
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Pharmaceutical residues affecting the UNESCO biosphere reserve Kristianstads Vattenrike wetlands: sources and sinks
Vise andre…
2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, ISSN 0090-4341, E-ISSN 1432-0703, Vol. 71, nr 3, s. 423-436Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

This study is the first to investigate the pharmaceutical burden from point sources affecting the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Kristianstads Vattenrike, Sweden. The investigated Biosphere Reserve is a >1000 km(2) wetland system with inflows from lakes, rivers, leachate from landfill, and wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs). We analysed influent and treated wastewater, leachate water, lake, river, and wetland water alongside sediment for six model pharmaceuticals. The two WWTPs investigated released pharmaceutical residues at levels close to those previously observed in Swedish monitoring exercises. Compound-dependent WWTP removal efficiencies ranging from 12 to 100 % for bendroflumethiazide, oxazepam, atenolol, carbamazepine, and diclofenac were observed. Surface-water concentrations in the most affected lake were ≥100 ng/L for the various pharmaceuticals with atenolol showing the highest levels (>300 ng/L). A small risk assessment showed that adverse single-substance toxicity on aquatic organisms within the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve is unlikely. However, the effects of combinations of a large number of known and unknown pharmaceuticals, metals, and nutrients are still unknown.

HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-15684 (URN)10.1007/s00244-016-0303-7 (DOI)000382937100013 ()27480162 (PubMedID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Region Skåne, Regional handlingsplan för läkemedel och miljö, Dnr 1400978Knowledge Foundation, 20120238EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, PIOF-GA-2012-329996
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-08-11 Laget: 2016-08-11 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-28bibliografisk kontrollert
Organisasjoner
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2283-2927